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Growing Value of Stem Cells in Medicine to Create a US$2,4 Billion Opportunity for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell ((iPSC) – GlobeNewswire

By daniellenierenberg

New York, Nov. 25, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) Industry" - https://www.reportlinker.com/p05798831/?utm_source=GNW 4 billion by the year 2027, trailing a post COVID-19 CAGR of 6.6%, over the analysis period 2020 through 2027. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that hold the capability to divide, and differentiate into specialized cells in the body. Stem cells act as repair system and replenish adult tissues, maintaining the turnover of regenerative organs such as the blood and skin. In organs, such as the bone marrow, stem cells frequently form replacement cells to repair the worn out tissue. These cells can respond to signals from the body and transverse a particular developmental pathway to differentiate into one specific cell type. Due to their regenerative properties, stem cells are being researched for therapeutic applications in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, cancer, autoimmune diseases, spinal cord defects, among others. Stem Cell research is an exciting field where continuous discoveries are being made on new sources of stem cells and new methods of their acquisition and harvesting. Of late, adult stem cells have garnered a lions share of the stem cell space, purely based on the fact that they require less expensive clinical trials, need to comply with fewer regulatory norms and ethical issues compared to other stem cell variants such as embryonic stem cells.

Researchers around the world have been focusing research activities to develop adult stem cell therapies in order to combat a variety of diseases ranging from diabetes to heart disease. Factually, adult stem cells are the only stem cells that have been approved for use in transplants for the treatment of diseases such as cancer. Interestingly, with drug development based on embryonic stem cells being challenged amid growing debate over ethics and regulation of this research, iPSCS offers an alternate step forward in the commercialization of stem cell therapies and regenerative medicine. Embryonic stem cell research continues to remain embroiled in ethical, religious, and political controversies across various countries around the world. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSs), which are reprogrammed to mimic embryonic stem cell-like state allowing expression of genes and human cells needed for therapeutic purposes, offers an attractive alternate way forwarding in furthering the goals of stem cell research. Pioneered in 2006 and developed in the following year, these cells are created by conversion of somatic cells into PSCs by introducing certain genes including Myc, Klf4, Oct3/4 and Sox2.

Pluripotent stem cells hold tremendous potential in the regenerative medicine arena. Based on their ability to proliferate indefinitely and develop into desirable cell type such as heart, liver, neuronal and pancreatic cells, iPSCs offer a source of new cells that can replace lost or damaged cells. For instance, iPSCs can be developed into beta islet cells, blood cells or neuronal cells for the treatment of diabetes, leukemia and neurological disorders, respectively. Parkinsons, Alzheimers & spinal cord injuries are key neurologic diseases expected to benefit from iPS research. Dramatic rise in cancer cases worldwide and the need for novel anti-cancer therapies will emerge as a key driver for the growth of iPSCs. Interest in cancer research soars high on new hopes of direct reprogramming of cancer cells with enforced expression of pluripotency factors and the resulting dedifferentiation of transformed cancer cells. The ongoing pandemic is also opening up new opportunities for Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) by offering a reliable model for researchers involved in studying how coronavirus indirectly or directly affects different cells in the human body. Made from a small sample of blood or skin cells, hiPSCs are robust stem cells that can be developed into any cell type and then infected with the coronavirus in order to analyse the disease prognosis and the resulting effects. By deploying hiPSCs, researchers have identified that stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells) and blood vessels remain directly exposed to COVID-19 infection. Scientists identified that a significant portion of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes ceased beating and expired within 3 days after being infected by coronavirus. Researchers can leverage the infected cardiomyocytes to screen for potential drug candidates that can restore their function and improve their survival; and also for identifying new antiviral drugs that potentially curtail coronavirus replication in the heart, reduce cardiac injury and curb the disease prognosis. Researchers can also utilize the infected cardiomyocytes to analyze COVID-induced myocarditis through addition of immune cells to their lab experiments.

Competitors identified in this market include, among others,

Read the full report: https://www.reportlinker.com/p05798831/?utm_source=GNW

I. INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY & REPORT SCOPE I-1

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY II-1

1. MARKET OVERVIEW II-1 Impact of Covid-19 and a Looming Global Recession II-1 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market Gains from Increasing Use in Research for COVID-19 II-1 Studies Employing iPSCs in COVID-19 Research II-2 Stem Cells, Application Areas, and the Different Types: A Prelude II-3 Applications of Stem Cells II-4 Types of Stem Cells II-4 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC): An Introduction II-5 Production of iPSCs II-6 First & Second Generation Mouse iPSCs II-6 Human iPSCs II-7 Key Properties of iPSCs II-7 Transcription Factors Involved in Generation of iPSCs II-7 Noteworthy Research & Application Areas for iPSCs II-8 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell ((iPSC) Market: Growth Prospects and Outlook II-9 Drug Development Application to Witness Considerable Growth II-11 Technical Breakthroughs, Advances & Clinical Trials to Spur Growth of iPSC Market II-11 North America Dominates Global iPSC Market II-12 Competition II-12 Recent Market Activity II-13 Select Innovation/Advancement II-16

2. FOCUS ON SELECT PLAYERS II-17 Axol Bioscience Ltd. (UK) II-17 Cynata Therapeutics Limited (Australia) II-17 Evotec SE (Germany) II-17 Fate Therapeutics, Inc. (USA) II-17 FUJIFILM Cellular Dynamics, Inc. (USA) II-18 Ncardia (Belgium) II-18 Pluricell Biotech (Brazil) II-18 REPROCELL USA, Inc. (USA) II-18 Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd. (Japan) II-19 Takara Bio, Inc. (Japan) II-19 Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (USA) II-20 ViaCyte, Inc. (USA) II-20

3. MARKET TRENDS & DRIVERS II-21 Effective Research Programs Hold Key in Roll Out of Advanced iPSC Treatments II-21 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Giant Leap in the Therapeutic Applications II-21 Research Trends in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Space II-22 Exhibit 1: Worldwide Publication of hESC and hiPSC Research Papers for the Period 2008-2010, 2011-2013 and 2014-2016 II-22 Exhibit 2: Number of Original Research Papers on hESC and iPSC Published Worldwide (2014-2016) II-23 Concerns Related to Embryonic Stem Cells Shift the Focus onto iPSCs II-23 Regenerative Medicine: A Promising Application of iPSCs II-24 Induced Pluripotent: A Potential Competitor to hESCs? II-25 Exhibit 3: Global Regenerative Medicine Market Size in US$ Billion for 2019, 2021, 2023 and 2025 II-27 Exhibit 4: Global Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Market by Product (in %) for the Year 2019 II-27 Exhibit 5: Global Regenerative Medicines Market by Category: Breakdown (in %) for Biomaterials, Stem Cell Therapies and Tissue Engineering for 2019 II-28 Pluripotent Stem Cells Hold Significance for Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine II-28 Exhibit 6: Leading Causes of Mortality Worldwide: Number of Deaths in Millions & % Share of Deaths by Cause for 2017 II-30 Leading Causes of Mortality for Low-Income and High-Income Countries II-30 Growing Importance of iPSCs in Personalized Drug Discovery II-31 Persistent Advancements in Genetics Space and Subsequent Growth in Precision Medicine Augur Well for iPSCs Market II-33 Exhibit 7: Global Precision Medicine Market (In US$ Billion) for the Years 2018, 2021 & 2024 II-34 Increasing Prevalence of Chronic Disorders Supports Growth of iPSCs Market II-34 Exhibit 8: Worldwide Cancer Incidence: Number of New Cancer Cases Diagnosed for 2012, 2018 & 2040 II-35 Exhibit 9: Number of New Cancer Cases Reported (in Thousands) by Cancer Type: 2018 II-36 Exhibit 10: Fatalities by Heart Conditions: Estimated Percentage Breakdown for Cardiovascular Disease, Ischemic Heart Disease, Stroke, and Others II-37 Exhibit 11: Rising Diabetes Prevalence Presents Opportunity for iPSCs Market: Number of Adults (20-79) with Diabetes (in Millions) by Region for 2017 and 2045 II-38 Aging Demographics Add to the Global Burden of Chronic Diseases, Presenting Opportunities for iPSCs Market II-38 Exhibit 12: Expanding Elderly Population Worldwide: Breakdown of Number of People Aged 65+ Years in Million by Geographic Region for the Years 2019 and 2030 II-39 Growth in Number of Genomics Projects Propels Market Growth II-39 Genomic Initiatives in Select Countries II-40 Exhibit 13: New Gene-Editing Tools Spur Interest and Investments in Genetics, Driving Lucrative Growth Opportunities for iPSCs: Total VC Funding (In US$ Million) in Genetics for the Years 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 II-41 Launch of Numerous iPSCs-Related Clinical Trials Set to Benefit Market Growth II-41 Exhibit 14: Number of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells based Studies by Select Condition: As on Oct 31, 2020 II-43 iPSCs-based Clinical Trial for Heart Diseases II-43 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Stroke Treatment II-44 ?Off-the-shelf? Stem Cell Treatment for Cancer Enters Clinical Trial II-44 iPSCs for Hematological Disorders II-44 Market Benefits from Growing Funding for iPSCs-Related R&D Initiatives II-44 Exhibit 15: Stem Cell Research Funding in the US (in US$ Million) for the Years 2016 through 2021 II-46 Human iPSC Banks: A Review of Emerging Opportunities and Drawbacks II-46 Human iPSC Banks Worldwide: An Overview II-48 Cell Sources and Reprogramming Methods Used by Select iPSC Banks II-49 Innovations, Research Studies & Advancements in iPSCs II-50 Key iPSC Research Breakthroughs for Regenerative Medicine II-50 Researchers Develop Novel Oncogene-Free and Virus-Free iPSC Production Method II-51 Scientists Study Concerns of Genetic Mutations in iPSCs II-52 iPSCs Hold Tremendous Potential in Transforming Research Efforts II-52 Researchers Highlight Potential Use of iPSCs for Developing Novel Cancer Vaccines II-54 Scientists Use Machine Learning to Improve Reliability of iPSC Self-Organization II-54 STEMCELL Technologies Unveils mTeSR? Plus II-55 Challenges and Risks Related to Pluripotent Stem Cells II-56 A Glance at Issues Related to Reprogramming of Adult Cells to iPSCs II-57 A Note on Legal, Social and Ethical Considerations with iPSCs II-58

4. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE II-59 Table 1: World Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-59

Table 2: World 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets for Years 2020 & 2027 II-60

Table 3: World Current & Future Analysis for Vascular Cells by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-61

Table 4: World 7-Year Perspective for Vascular Cells by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-62

Table 5: World Current & Future Analysis for Cardiac Cells by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-63

Table 6: World 7-Year Perspective for Cardiac Cells by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-64

Table 7: World Current & Future Analysis for Neuronal Cells by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-65

Table 8: World 7-Year Perspective for Neuronal Cells by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-66

Table 9: World Current & Future Analysis for Liver Cells by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-67

Table 10: World 7-Year Perspective for Liver Cells by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-68

Table 11: World Current & Future Analysis for Immune Cells by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-69

Table 12: World 7-Year Perspective for Immune Cells by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-70

Table 13: World Current & Future Analysis for Other Cell Types by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-71

Table 14: World 7-Year Perspective for Other Cell Types by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-72

Table 15: World Current & Future Analysis for Cellular Reprogramming by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-73

Table 16: World 7-Year Perspective for Cellular Reprogramming by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-74

Table 17: World Current & Future Analysis for Cell Culture by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-75

Table 18: World 7-Year Perspective for Cell Culture by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-76

Table 19: World Current & Future Analysis for Cell Differentiation by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-77

Table 20: World 7-Year Perspective for Cell Differentiation by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-78

Table 21: World Current & Future Analysis for Cell Analysis by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-79

Table 22: World 7-Year Perspective for Cell Analysis by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-80

Table 23: World Current & Future Analysis for Cellular Engineering by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-81

Table 24: World 7-Year Perspective for Cellular Engineering by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-82

Table 25: World Current & Future Analysis for Other Research Methods by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-83

Table 26: World 7-Year Perspective for Other Research Methods by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-84

Table 27: World Current & Future Analysis for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-85

Table 28: World 7-Year Perspective for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-86

Table 29: World Current & Future Analysis for Academic Research by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-87

Table 30: World 7-Year Perspective for Academic Research by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-88

Table 31: World Current & Future Analysis for Regenerative Medicine by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-89

Table 32: World 7-Year Perspective for Regenerative Medicine by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-90

Table 33: World Current & Future Analysis for Other Applications by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 II-91

Table 34: World 7-Year Perspective for Other Applications by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027 II-92

III. MARKET ANALYSIS III-1

GEOGRAPHIC MARKET ANALYSIS III-1

UNITED STATES III-1 Table 35: USA Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-1

Table 36: USA 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-2

Table 37: USA Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-3

Table 38: USA 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-4

Table 39: USA Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-5

Table 40: USA 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-6

CANADA III-7 Table 41: Canada Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-7

Table 42: Canada 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-8

Table 43: Canada Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-9

Table 44: Canada 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-10

Table 45: Canada Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-11

Table 46: Canada 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-12

JAPAN III-13 Table 47: Japan Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-13

Table 48: Japan 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-14

Table 49: Japan Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-15

Table 50: Japan 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-16

Table 51: Japan Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-17

Table 52: Japan 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-18

CHINA III-19 Table 53: China Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-19

Table 54: China 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-20

Table 55: China Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-21

Table 56: China 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-22

Table 57: China Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-23

Table 58: China 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-24

EUROPE III-25 Table 59: Europe Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK and Rest of Europe Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 III-25

Table 60: Europe 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for France, Germany, Italy, UK and Rest of Europe Markets for Years 2020 & 2027 III-26

Table 61: Europe Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-27

Table 62: Europe 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-28

Table 63: Europe Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-29

Table 64: Europe 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-30

Table 65: Europe Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-31

Table 66: Europe 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-32

FRANCE III-33 Table 67: France Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-33

Table 68: France 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-34

Table 69: France Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-35

Table 70: France 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-36

Table 71: France Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-37

Table 72: France 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-38

GERMANY III-39 Table 73: Germany Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-39

Table 74: Germany 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027 III-40

Table 75: Germany Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 III-41

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Growing Value of Stem Cells in Medicine to Create a US$2,4 Billion Opportunity for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell ((iPSC) - GlobeNewswire

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Functionally distinct resident macrophage subsets differentially shape responses to infection in the bladder – Science Advances

By daniellenierenberg

INTRODUCTION

Tissue-resident macrophages regulate immunity and are pivotal for development, homeostasis, and repair (1). Major research efforts have uncovered roles for tissue-resident macrophages during infection, insult, and repair. However, in many cases, these studies disproportionally focus on certain organs in animals while disregarding tissue macrophages in other locations (2). Because function in macrophages is shaped by their tissue of residence and the local environment, specific phenotypes may not be universally applicable to all tissues (3). Notably, the bladder has generally been overlooked in macrophage studies; consequently, the function, origin, and renewal of bladder-resident macrophages in health and disease are poorly characterized or even completely unknown (4, 5).

Tissue-resident macrophages in adult organisms originate from embryonic progenitors, adult bone marrow (BM), or a mixture of both (612). During development, hematopoiesis begins in the yolk sac, giving rise to erythrocytes and macrophages directly and to erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) (6, 13, 14). As hematopoiesis declines in the yolk sac, an intraembryonic wave of definitive hematopoiesis begins in the aorta-gonad-mesonephro, generating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). EMPs and then HSCs colonize the fetal liver to give rise to fetal liver monocytes, macrophages, and other immune cells, whereas only HSCs migrate to the BM to establish hematopoiesis in postnatal animals (15). Embryo-derived macrophages can either self-maintain and persist into adulthood or undergo replacement by circulating monocytes at tissue-specific rates. For example, a majority of macrophages in the gut are continuously replenished by BM-derived cells, whereas brain macrophages, or microglia, are long-lived yolk sacderived cells that are not replaced in steady-state conditions (8, 14, 16, 17). In certain conditions, origin influences macrophage behavior; for example, following myocardial infarction, embryonic-derived cardiac macrophages promote tissue repair, whereas BM-derived macrophages induce inflammation (18). However, macrophage functions are also imprinted by their microenvironment (19, 20). In the small intestine, macrophages in the muscle express higher levels of tissue-protective genes, such as Retnla, Mrc1, and Cd163 compared to lamina propria macrophages, although both originate from adult BM (21).

While the origin and maintenance of bladder-resident macrophages are currently unknown, these macrophages do play a role in response to urinary tract infection (UTI), which affects up to 50% of all women at some point in their lifetimes (5, 22). The immune response to uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection in the bladder is characterized by robust cytokine expression leading to rapid infiltration of large numbers of neutrophils and classical Ly6C+ monocytes (2328). Although essential to bacterial clearance, neutrophil and monocyte infiltration likely also induce collateral tissue damage. Targeted depletion of one of these two cell types is associated with reduced bacterial burden after primary infection in mice, whereas elimination of both cell types together leads to unchecked bacteria growth (23, 25, 26). Tissue-resident macrophages also take up a large number of bacteria during UTI; however, depletion of resident macrophages just before infection does not change bacterial clearance in a first or primary UTI (23). The absence of macrophages in the early stages of a primary UTI significantly improves bacterial clearance during a second, or challenge, infection (23). Exactly how the elimination of resident macrophages improves the response to a challenge infection is unclear, particularly as tissue-associated macrophages return to homeostatic numbers in the time interval between the two infections. Of note, improved bacterial clearance is lost in macrophage-depleted mice that are also depleted of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, suggesting that macrophages modulate T cell activation or limit differentiation of memory T cells, as observed in other tissues (2933). For example, ablation of embryonic-derived alveolar macrophages results in increased numbers of CD8+ resident memory T cells following influenza infection in mice (31). In the gut, monocyte-derived macrophages support the differentiation of CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells by production of interferon- (IFN-) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) during Yersinia infection (32). The opposing roles of macrophages in modulating T cell responses in the lung and gut support the idea that tissue type and/or ontogeny determines how macrophages may influence adaptive immunity (13).

To understand the role of bladder-resident macrophages, we investigated the origin, localization, and function of these cells during infection. We identified two subpopulations of resident macrophages in nave mouse bladders with distinctive cell surface proteins, spatial distribution, and gene expression profiles. We found that bladder macrophage subsets were long-lived cells, slowly replaced by BM-derived monocytes over the lifetime of the mouse. During UTI, the macrophage subsets differed in their capacity to take up bacteria and survive infection; however, both subsets were replaced by BM-derived cells following resolution of infection. Thus, after a first infection, macrophage subsets had divergent transcriptional profiles compared to their nave counterparts, shaping the response to subsequent UTI.

We reported that macrophage depletion before a first UTI improves bacterial clearance during challenge infection (23). Thus, we initiated a follow-up study to investigate the role of bladder-resident macrophages during UTI. Using the macrophage-associated cell surface proteins CD64 and F4/80 (34, 35), we identified a clear CD64 and F4/80 double-positive resident macrophage population in nave bladders from 7- to 8-week-old female CX3CR1GFP/+ mice. This transgenic mouse is widely used to distinguish macrophage populations in other tissues as the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 is expressed by monocytes and macrophages at some point in their development (36). In most tissues, resident macrophages are either GFP+ as they express CX3CR1 or GFP because they no longer express CX3CR1 (10). Therefore, we were surprised to observe heterogeneity in green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression levels, revealing potentially two subpopulations (Maclo and Machi) of CD64+ F4/80+ macrophages in the bladder (Fig. 1A). Although the differences were small in magnitude, the Machi-expressing population was present in statistically significantly greater numbers and proportions compared to the Maclo population (Fig. 1A). As CX3CR1 deficiency results in decreased macrophage numbers and frequency in the intestine and brain, and the transgenic CX3CR1GFP/+ mouse we used is hemizygous for this receptor (3638), we investigated whether our putative bladder-resident macrophage subsets were similarly present in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Using the same gating strategy and an anti-CX3CR1 antibody, we clearly identified that CX3CR1 expression levels distinguished two distinct macrophage populations in 7- to 8-week-old nave female wild-type mice (Fig. 1B). Notably, wild-type mice had similar numbers and proportions of each macrophage subset (Fig. 1B).

(A to C) Bladders from 7-week-old female CX3CR1GFP/+ and C57BL6/J mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. (A and B) Dot plots depict the gating strategy for macrophages subsets and graphs show the total cell number (log scale, left) and proportion (right) of bladder macrophage subset, derived from cytometric analysis in (A) CX3CR1GFP/+ and (B) C57BL6/J mice. (C) Histograms show the relative expression of CX3CR1, TIM4, and LYVE1 on macrophage subsets in C57BL6/J mice, Maclo is green and Machi is orange. (See fig. S1 for data on expression of additional proteins). (D) Representative confocal images of bladders from C57BL6/J mice at 20 and 40. Merged images and single channels with the target of interest are shown. DAPI, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. (E) Graphs show the proportion of each macrophage subset in the lamina propria and muscle of nave C57BL6/J mice. Data are pooled from three experiments, n = 3 to 6 mice per experiment. Each dot represents one mouse; lines are medians. Significance was determined using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test to compare macrophage subset numbers (A and B) and the nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test to compare the macrophage subset percentages (A, B, and E). All P values are shown; statistically significant P values (<0.05) are in red.

Next, we assessed the surface expression level of proteins known to define macrophage subsets in other tissues (39). We observed that the efferocytic receptor TIM4 and hyaluronan receptor LYVE1 were expressed by the Maclo population, whereas the Machi population was TIM4 and LYVE1 (Fig. 1C). Macrophage-associated proteins, such as CD64, F4/80, CD11b, CD11c, and MHC II, were differentially expressed between the subsets (fig. S1A), supporting the notion that these are distinct populations. A recent publication described several organs as having two distinct macrophage subsets, differentiated by their expression of LYVE1, CX3CR1, and, in particular, MHC II (39). To determine whether bladder macrophage subsets represented these two cell types, we used a similar gating strategy (fig. S1B); however, we observed that MHC II CD64+F4/80+ cells made up a very minor proportion (<2%) of bladder-resident macrophages (fig. SC). Last, to determine whether additional heterogeneity existed within the CD64+ F4/80+ bladder-resident macrophage population, we used the dimension reduction analyses tSNE and UMAP to visualize our data. In our analyses of the nave CD45+ cell population, a large CD64+ cluster contained two putative subsets that corresponded to traditionally gated Maclo and Machi populations and included the tiny proportion of MHC II macrophages (fig. S1D). tSNE (t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding) and, more particularly, UMAP (uniform manifold approximation and projection) analysis of CD64+ F4/80+ macrophages revealed two groups, with differential expression of CX3CR1, F4/80, CD64, LYVE1, and TIM4, reflecting the data shown in the traditionally gated histograms (fig. S1, D and E). Thus, we concluded that two subsets of macrophages reside in nave mouse bladders with differential surface protein expression.

To determine the spatial orientation of the subsets, we stained nave female C57BL/6 bladders with antibodies to F4/80 and LYVE1 and phalloidin to demarcate the muscle layer from the lamina propria (Fig. 1D). We quantified the number of each subset in these two anatomical locations, observing a higher percentage of the LYVE1+ Maclo macrophage subset in the muscle compared to the LYVE1 Machi macrophage subset (Fig. 1E). Macrophages in the lamina propria were predominantly of the Machi phenotype (Fig. 1E). Thus, the phenotypic differences we observed in bladder-resident macrophage subsets extended to differential tissue localization. Given their spatial organization, we renamed the Maclo subset MacM for muscle and the Machi subset MacL for lamina propria. Together, these results reveal that two phenotypically distinct macrophage subsets reside in different regions of the nave bladder.

We next investigated whether macrophage heterogeneity in adult mouse bladders arose due to distinct developmental origins of the subsets. We analyzed bladders from newborn C57BL/6 pups by confocal imaging and by flow cytometry from CX3CR1-GFPexpressing E16.5 (embryonic day 16.5) embryos and newborn mice. We observed that, in E16.5 and newborn animals, a single CX3CR1hi macrophage population was present in the muscle and lamina propria of the bladder. By flow cytometry, these cells were uniformly positive for CD64 and negative for MHC II as expected for fetal macrophages (40) and stained positively for LYVE1 in confocal images of newborn mouse bladder, supporting that diversification of bladder macrophage subsets occurs after birth (Fig. 2A).

(A) Merged confocal and single channel images from a C57BL/6 newborn mouse bladder. Left image is enlarged at the right. Gating strategy in Cdh5-CreERT2Rosa26tdTomato CX3CR1GFP newborn mice and E16.5 embryos; histograms show CX3CR1 and MHC II expression. (B to E) Reporter recombination in microglia, monocytes, bladder macrophages, and MacM and MacL subsets in Cdh5-CreERT2Rosa26tdTomato mice: (B) E16.5 embryos, newborns 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT)-treated at E7.5, (C) adults 4OHT-treated at E7.5, (D) E16.5 embryos, newborns 4OHT-treated at E10.5, (E) adults 4OHT-treated at E10.5. (F) Percentage of YFP+ cells in microglia, monocytes, MacM, and MacL macrophages in adult Flt3CreRosa26YFP mice. (G to I) Adult shield-irradiated C57BL/6 CD45.2 mice reconstituted with CCR2+/+ CD45.1 BM and C57BL/6 CD45.1 mice reconstituted with CCR2/ CD45.2 BM. Percentage of donor cells (G) in monocytes or (H) bladder-resident macrophages in mice transplanted with CCR2+/+ or CCR2/ BM at 3 and 6 months after transplantation. (See fig. S2 for data on blood leukocyte chimerism). (I) Bladder-resident macrophage replacement rate. Data pooled from two to three experiments, n = 2 to 6 mice per experiment. Each point represents one mouse; lines are medians. Significance determined using the Mann-Whitney test comparing (B to F) macrophages or subsets to monocytes or (G and H) CCR2+/+ to CCR2/ recipients, P values were corrected for multiple testing using the false discovery rate (FDR) method. All P values are shown; statistically significant P values (<0.05) are in red.

We hypothesized that, in adult mice, macrophage subsets arise following differentiation of cells seeded from embryonic progenitors or that one subset is derived from embryonic macrophages, whereas the second subset arises from BM-derived monocytes (41). To test these hypotheses, we used the Cdh5-CreERT2 Rosa26tdTomato transgenic mouse, in which the contribution of distinct hematopoietic progenitor waves to immune cell populations can be followed temporally, such that treatment of pregnant mice with 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT) at E7.5 labels yolk sac progenitors and their progeny and treatment at E10.5 labels HSC that will settle in the BM (adult-type HSCs) and their cellular output (42). After treatment with 4OHT at E7.5, in which microglia were labeled as expected (8, 14), we found a significantly higher proportion of labeled bladder macrophages compared to monocytes in E16.5 embryos and newborn mice (Fig. 2B). Labeled bladder macrophage subsets were nearly absent, similar to monocytes, in adult (8- to 11-week-old) mice (Fig. 2C). These data support the fact that yolk sacderived bladder macrophages are diluted after birth in the adult and suggest that the subsets are composed of HSC-derived macrophages. Low levels of E10.5-labeled macrophages were detected in embryonic bladders (Fig. 2D), and their frequency increased in newborn and adult mice, although to a lesser degree than monocytes, supporting the idea that bladder macrophage subsets arise, at least in part, from adult-type HSCs (Fig. 2, D and E). Of note, both subsets found in the adult bladder showed similar frequencies of E10.5 labeling (Fig. 2E). Together, these results demonstrate that adult bladder macrophages are partially HSC-derived and the macrophage subsets cannot be distinguished from each other by their ontogeny.

To confirm that HSC-derived progenitors contribute to the bladder-resident macrophage pool, we analyzed bladders from adult Flt3Cre Rosa26YFP mice. In this transgenic mouse, expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor Flt3 in multipotent progenitors leads to expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the progeny of these cells, such as monocytes, whereas microglia, arising from yolk sac progenitors, are essentially YFP (43). Recombination rates driven by Flt3 are very low during embryonic development, but blood monocyte labeling reaches 80 to 90% in adult mice (7). Therefore, if tissue-resident macrophages arise from postnatal BM-derived monocytes, labeling in adult mice should be similar to blood monocytes, whereas the presence of Flt3 tissue macrophages would indicate that they originated from either embryonic HSCs or adult Flt3-independent progenitors. We observed that, in 2- to 4-month-old and 22- to 24-month-old mice, ~50% of each macrophage subset was YFP+, which was significantly lower compared to circulating monocytes (Fig. 2F). This observation and those from the Cdh5-CreERT2 mice together support the fact that, in addition to adult HSCs, adult bladder macrophage subsets are derived from embryonic progenitors that may include fetal HSCs, and/or later yolk sac progenitors, but with no contribution from early yolk sac progenitors. In addition, the lack of equilibration of YFP labeling in the bladder with blood monocytes at 22 to 24 months suggests that tissue macrophages are not rapidly replaced over the lifetime of the mouse by BM-derived cells in the context of homeostasis.

To determine the replacement rate of bladder-resident macrophages by BM-derived cells in the adult mouse, we evaluated shielded irradiated mice, in which adult animals are irradiated with a lead cover over the bladder to protect this organ from radiation-induced immune cell death and nonhomeostatic immune cell infiltration. Animals were transplanted with congenic BM from wild-type or CCR2/ mice. Monocytes depend on CCR2 receptor signaling to exit the BM into circulation (44). At 3 and 6 months, we observed that a median of 27.7% (3 months) and 27.6% (6 months) of circulating Ly6C+ monocytes were of donor origin in mice reconstituted with wild-type BM, which is well in-line with published studies using this approach (45, 46), whereas only 6.1% (3 months) and 6.5% (6 months) of Ly6C+ monocytes were of donor origin in wild-type mice receiving CCR2/ BM (Fig. 2G). B and natural killer (NK) cells were replenished to a greater extent in mice reconstituted with CCR2/ BM compared to mice reconstituted with CCR2+/+ BM, which could be due to different engraftment efficiencies between CD45.1 and CD45.2 BM (fig. S2) (47, 48). In mice reconstituted with wild-type BM, 4.7% of MacM and 4.5% MacL were of donor origin at 3 months after engraftment. At 6 months after irradiation, 7% of MacM and 8.5% of MacL macrophages were of donor origin (Fig. 2H). Chimerism in bladder macrophage subsets was markedly reduced in CCR2/ BM recipients, suggesting that monocytes slowly replace bladder macrophage subsets in a CCR2-dependent manner (Fig. 2H). By dividing the median macrophage subset chimerism (7 or 8.5%) by the median circulating Ly6C+ monocyte chimerism at 6 months in mice receiving wild-type BM (27.6%), we determined that 25.3% of MacM and 30.8% MacL were replaced by BM-derived monocytes within 6 months (Fig. 2I).

Together, these results reveal that the establishment of distinct bladder-resident macrophage subsets occurs postnatally. Yolk sac macrophages initially seed the fetal bladder but are replaced by fetal HSC-derived macrophages. In adult mice, bladder macrophage subsets are partially maintained through a slow replacement by BM-derived monocytes, although a substantial number of fetally derived cells remain. The incomplete macrophage labeling we observed in our experiments supports the idea that a progenitor source, which cannot be labeled in either model, contributes to resident bladder macrophages. Currently, there is no fate-mapping model to discriminate or follow progeny specifically from late yolk sac EMPs or early fetally restricted HSC, as hematopoietic waves overlap in development. We can conclude that MacM and MacL macrophages do not differ in their developmental origin or rate of replacement by monocytes, supporting the view that one or more unique niches in adult tissue may be responsible for macrophage specialization into phenotypical and functionally distinct macrophage subsets.

Although bladder-resident macrophage subsets had similar ontogeny, their distinct spatial localization and surface protein expression suggested that they have different functions. To test this hypothesis, we first analyzed gene expression profiles of nave adult female MacM and MacL macrophages using bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) (fig. S3A, gating strategy). To formally demonstrate that our cells of interest are macrophages, we aligned the transcriptomes of the bladder macrophage subsets with the macrophage core signature list published by the Immunological Genome Consortium and the bladder macrophage core list from the mouse cell atlas single-cell database (35, 49). The MacM and MacL subsets expressed 80% of the genes from the Immunological Genome Consortium macrophage core signature list and more than 95% of the genes in the bladder macrophage core list (fig. S3B), supporting the idea that our cells of interest are fully differentiated tissue-resident macrophages.

We observed that 1475 genes were differentially expressed between nave MacM and MacL macrophages, in which 899 genes were positively regulated and 576 genes were negatively regulated in the MacL subset relative to MacM macrophages (Fig. 3A). In the top 20 differentially expressed genes (DEG), MacM macrophages expressed higher levels of Tfrc, Ms4a8a, Serpinb6a, CCL24, Scl40a1, Clec10a, and Retnla, all of which are associated with an alternatively activated macrophage phenotype (5053); genes involved in iron metabolism, such as Tfrc, Steap4, and Slc40a1 (54); and genes from the complement cascade, including C4b and Cfp (Fig. 3B). In the same 20 most DEG, MacL macrophages expressed greater levels of Cx3cr1, Cd72, Itgb5, Axl, and Itgav, which are associated with phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and immune response activation (Fig. 3B) (5557). MacL macrophages also expressed inflammatory genes, such as Cxcl16, a chemoattractant for T and NKT cells (58, 59), and Lpcat2 and Pdgfb, which are involved in the metabolism of inflammatory lipid mediators (Fig. 3B) (60, 61). Using gene set enrichment analysis of the DEG to detect pathways up-regulated in the macrophage subsets, we observed that the MacM subset expressed genes linked to pathways such as endocytosis, mineral absorption, lysosome, and phagosome (Fig. 3C). Within the phagosome and endocytosis pathways, genes critical for bacterial sensing and alternative activation such as Tlr4, Mrc1 (encoding for CD206), Cd209, and Egfr (6264) were increased in the MacM subset. In the mineral absorption pathway, genes controlling iron metabolism that also enhance bacterial killing such as Hmox1 and Hmox2 were up-regulated in MacM macrophages (Fig. 3D) (65). In the MacL subset, genes linked to diverse inflammatory pathways, including Toll-like receptor signaling, apoptosis, antigen processing and presentation, and chemokine signaling, were present, as were many infectious and inflammatory diseaserelated pathways (Fig. 3E). Within these pathways, the MacL subset expressed genes related to bacterial sensing, such as Tlr1, Tlr2, and Cd14; initiation of inflammation, such as Il1b, Tnf, Ccl3, Ccl4, Cxcl10, Cxcl16, and Nfkb1; and apoptotic cell death, such as Mapk8, Pmaip1, Bcla1d, Cflar, Bcl2l11, and Birc2 (Fig. 3F).

MacM and MacL macrophages were sorted from 7- to 8-week-old female nave adult C57BL/6 mouse bladders and analyzed by RNA-seq (fig. S3, gating strategy). (A) Heatmaps show the gene expression profile of the 1475 differentially expressed genes and (B) the 20 most differentially expressed genes between the MacM and MacL subsets. (C to F) Using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of significantly up-regulated genes, the following are depicted: (C) pathways enriched in MacM macrophages, (D) up-regulated genes associated with selected pathways in MacM macrophages, (E) pathways enriched in MacL macrophages, and (F) up-regulated genes associated with selected pathways in MacL macrophages. In (C) and (E), the size of the nodes reflects the statistical significance of the term. (Q < 0.05; terms > 3 genes; % genes/term > 3; 0.4).

These findings suggest that MacM macrophages are more anti-inflammatory with increased endocytic activity, which is a common feature of highly phagocytic resident macrophages (66), and as such may play a prominent role in bacterial uptake or killing during infection. MacL, on the other hand, may play a greater role in antigen presentation and initiation or maintenance of inflammation.

As we observed enrichment of genes belonging to endocytosis, lysosome, and phagosome pathways in the MacM subset, we reasoned that the macrophage subsets differentially take up bacteria during infection. To test our hypothesis, we used a well-described mouse model of UTI, in which we transurethrally infect adult female mice via catheterization with 107 colony-forming units (CFU) of UPEC strain UTI89-RFP, which expresses a red fluorescent protein (RFP) (23). At 24 hours post-infection (PI), we investigated bacterial uptake by macrophage subsets (Fig. 4, A and B). Despite that MacM macrophages are farther from the infected urothelium than MacL macrophages, we observed that 20% of MacM and only 10% of MacL subsets contained bacteria at 24 hours PI, providing functional evidence to support the transcriptional data that MacM macrophages have a superior phagocytic capacity compared to MacL macrophages (Fig. 4B). Supporting this conclusion, we found that when we exposed sorted MacM and MacL macrophages to live UPEC in vitro, a greater proportion of MacM macrophages internalized bacteria after 2 hours compared to MacL macrophages (fig. S4A). In addition, despite very low levels of infection overall (~1% of macrophages), more UPEC could be found in MacM macrophages compared to MacL macrophages at 4 hours PI in vivo (fig. S4B). Taking the total population of UPEC-containing macrophages at 24 hours PI, we observed that ~80% of these cells were MacM macrophages, whereas the MacL subset comprised only 20% of this population, which was unusual given that MacM and MacL exist in the bladder in a 1:1 ratio (Fig. 4B and fig. S4C, gating strategy).

(A to H) Female C57BL6/J mice were infected with UTI89-RFP and bladders were analyzed by flow cytometry at (A to D) 24 hours or (E to H) 4 hours PI. (A) Gating strategy, resident macrophage subsets, and cells containing bacteria. (B) Percentage of infected macrophage subsets and UPEC distribution (fig. S4B, gating strategy). (C) IL-4R gMFI (geometric mean fluorescence intensity) in nave mice and 24 hours PI. (D) Total number and frequency of bladder macrophage subsets. (E) Gating strategy. (F) Total number and frequency of bladder macrophage subsets. Percentage of (G) macrophage subsets labeled with a live/dead marker (fig. S4D, gating strategy) and (H) dying macrophages containing UPEC. (I) MacM and MacL macrophage quantification in nave mice and 4 hours PI. (B to D and F to H) Data pooled from three experiments, n = 3 to 6 mice per experiment. (I) Data are pooled from two experiments, n = 2 to 3 mice per experiment. Each dot represents one mouse; lines are medians. In (D) and (F), Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the numbers and the nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test was used to compare the percentages of each macrophage subset. (B and C and G to I) Mann-Whitney test. P values were corrected for multiple testing using the FDR method. All P values are shown; statistically significant P values (<0.05) are in red.

Given the predominance of genes associated with alternatively activated macrophages in the top 20 DEGs of MacM macrophages (Fig. 3B), we measured polarization of the macrophage subsets in nave and infected bladders by analyzing the expression of IL-4R by flow cytometry (Fig. 4C). IL-4R is the receptor of IL-4 and IL-13, two cytokines that drive alternative activation in macrophages (67). Both subsets had increased expression of IL-4R at 24 hours PI compared to their nave counterparts; however, MacM macrophages had consistently higher expression levels of IL-4R compared to MacL macrophages in nave and infected tissue (Fig. 4C).

In the course of our studies, we observed that the total number and proportion of MacL macrophages were significantly lower than those of MacM macrophages at 24 hours PI, whereas, in nave mice, both the number and proportion of the macrophage subsets were equivalent (Figs. 4D and 1B). To rule out the contribution of differentiated monocyte-derived cells to the macrophage pool, we assessed total macrophage cell numbers in the bladder at 4 hours PI, when there is minimal monocyte infiltration (Fig. 4E) (23). Macrophage subset numbers and proportions were significantly different at 4 hours PI (Fig. 4F). As the total numbers of each subset were not increased over nave levels (Fig. 1B), we hypothesized that macrophages die during infection, particularly as apoptosis pathways were more highly expressed in MacL macrophages (Fig. 3, C and D). Using a cell viability dye, which labels dying/dead cells, we found that a significantly higher proportion of MacL macrophages were dying compared to MacM macrophages at 4 hours PI (Fig. 4G and fig. S4D, gating strategy). As UPEC strains can induce macrophage death in vitro (68, 69), we asked whether macrophage cell death was induced by UPEC in vivo. We observed that only 20% of dying or dead cells in each subset were infected (Fig. 4H), suggesting that macrophage death was not primarily driven by UPEC uptake. To determine whether macrophage cell death was confined to a distinct location, we quantified macrophage subset numbers in the muscle and lamina propria. We observed that, at 4 hours PI, only MacL macrophages located in the lamina propria were reduced in numbers compared to nave mice (Fig. 4I). Given that, in the first hours after infection, the urothelium exfoliates massively (70), these results suggest that macrophage death, specifically in the lamina propria, may be due to the loss of a survival factor in this niche. To test whether alteration of the niche induced macrophage death, we chemically induced global urothelial exfoliation by intravesical instillation of protamine sulfate (71, 72). We observed that at 5 hours after treatment, the total numbers of both MacM and MacL subsets were reduced compared to macrophage subsets in nave mice (fig. S4E), suggesting that alterations in bladder urothelium are sufficient to reduce resident macrophage numbers in the bladder, although protamine sulfate may also directly induce macrophage death. Thus, we functionally validated the divergent gene expression observed between macrophage subsets, in which MacM macrophages are more phagocytic and MacL macrophages are more prone to die, supporting the idea that gene expression differences translate to divergent roles for the subsets in response to UTI.

As we observed macrophages dying during infection, we investigated the change in macrophage numbers over time as animals resolved their infection. Both populations significantly decreased at 24 hours PI, then subsequently increased nearly 10-fold at 7 days PI, and returned to numbers just above homeostatic levels at 4 weeks PI (Fig. 5A). With the dynamic increase of macrophage numbers over the course of UTI, we hypothesized that infiltrating monocytes replace resident macrophage subsets during infection, as we previously reported that infiltrating monocytes differentiate to cells resembling macrophages at 48 hours PI (23). To test this hypothesis, we used the CCR2CreERT2 Rosa26tdTomato mouse, in which administration of 4OHT induces recombination in CCR2-expressing cells, such as circulating Ly6C+ monocytes, leading to irreversible labeling of these cells in vivo (73). Blood monocytes and bladder-resident macrophages are not Tomato+ in untreated mice (fig. S5). We administered 4OHT to nave mice and, then, 24 hours later, infected half of the treated mice with 107 CFU of UTI89. At this time point, 24 hours after 4OHT treatment, we analyzed the labeling efficiency in circulating classical Ly6C+ monocytes, finding that approximately 80% of Ly6C+ monocytes were labeled in both nave and infected mice (Fig. 5B). After 6 weeks, when animals had resolved their infection, there were no labeled circulating Ly6C+ monocytes in nave or post-infected mice (Fig. 5B). When we analyzed the bladders of nave mice 6 weeks after the 4OHT pulse, only 2.9% of MacM and 2.1% of MacL macrophage subsets were labeled, supporting our earlier conclusion that monocytes contribute to bladder macrophage subsets at a very slow rate in the steady state (Fig. 5C). At 6 weeks PI, the total numbers of macrophage subsets finally returned to homeostatic levels (Fig. 5D), but PI MacM and MacL macrophages had two to three times more Tomato+ cells (median, MacM 8.4%, MacL 4.4%) than their nave counterparts. These data support the fact that, after monocytes infiltrate the bladder during infection, they remain in the tissue following resolution, integrating themselves into the resident macrophage pool, and thus contribute to the return of macrophage subsets to homeostatic levels.

(A) Total number of MacM (green) and MacL (orange) in nave and 1-, 7-, or 28-day PI mice. (B and C) CCR2CreERT2Rosa26tdTomato mice were pulsed with 4OHT. Twenty-four hours later, half were infected with UTI89-RFP. Percentage of Tomato+ (B) Ly6C+ monocytes 24 hours and 6 weeks after 4OHT-pulse or (C) bladder macrophage subsets 6 weeks after 4OHT-pulse. (D) Total number of macrophage subsets in nave and 6-week PI bladders. (E) Replicate-adjusted principal component analysis of all genes from nave and post-infected bladder macrophage subsets. Differentially expressed genes between nave and 6-week PI (F) MacM (513 genes) and (G) MacL (617 genes) macrophages. KEGG pathway analysis of significantly up-regulated genes, enriched in 6-week PI (H) MacM and (I) MacL macrophages. Up-regulated genes from selected pathways in 6-week PI (J) MacM and (K) MacL macrophages. (A, C, and D) Mann-Whitney test comparing infection to nave. P values were corrected for multiple testing using the FDR method. Higher left-shifted P values refer to MacM and lower right-shifted P values refer to MacL. (H and I) Node size reflects statistical significance of the term (Q < 0.05; terms > 3 genes; %genes/term > 3; 0.4). All P values are shown; statistically significant P values (<0.05) are in red.

As monocytes generally have different origins and developmental programs compared to tissue-resident macrophages, we used RNA-seq to determine whether the macrophage pool in post-infected bladders was different from nave tissue-resident cells. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we compared bladder macrophage subsets from 6-week post-infected mice to their nave counterparts. We found that macrophages clustered more closely together by subset, rather than by infection status, or, in other words, nave and post-infected MacL macrophages clustered more closely to each other than either sample clustered to nave or post-infected MacM macrophages (Fig. 5E). Five hundred thirteen genes (247 genes down-regulated and 266 genes up-regulated) were different between nave and post-infected MacM macrophages (Fig. 5F). Six hundred seventeen genes (401 genes down-regulated and 216 genes up-regulated) were differentially expressed between the nave and post-infected MacL subset (Fig. 5G). Applying gene set enrichment analysis to up-regulated genes in the post-infected macrophage subsets, we detected common pathways between the subsets including enrichment of genes linked to pathways such as antigen presentation; cell adhesion molecules; TH1, TH2, and TH17 cell differentiation; and chemokine signaling pathway (Fig. 5, H and I). Although the enriched genes were not identical within each subset for these pathways, some common up-regulated genes included those encoding for histocompatibility class 2 molecules, such as H2-Ab1, H2-Eb1, H2-DMb1, Ciita, and the Stat1 transcription factor (Fig. 5, I and J). As differentiation of monocytes into macrophages includes up-regulation of cell adhesion and antigen presentation molecules (74), including in the bladder (23), these data further support the idea that monocytes specifically contribute to the PI bladder-resident macrophage pool.

These results show that, in the context of UTI, dying macrophages are replaced by monocyte-derived cells. Tissue-resident macrophage subsets maintain their separate identities distinct from each other after infection, although each subset also takes on a different transcriptional profile compared to their nave counterparts, with up-regulated expression of genes related to adaptive immune responses.

We previously reported that macrophage depletion 24 hours before a primary UTI does not affect bacterial clearance (23). Given that post-infected macrophage subsets up-regulated pathways different from those associated with the transcriptomes of nave bladder macrophage subsets, and that these pathways were linked to inflammatory diseases and the adaptive immune response, we hypothesized that one or both macrophage subsets would mediate improved bacterial clearance to a challenge infection. To test this hypothesis, we infected mice with 107 CFU of kanamycin-resistant UTI89-RFP. Four weeks later, when the infection was resolved, mice were challenged with 107 CFU of the isogenic ampicillin-resistant UPEC strain, UTI89-GFP, and bacterial burden was measured at 24 hours PI. To test the contribution of the macrophage subsets to the response to challenge infection, we used different concentrations of anti-CSF1R depleting antibody to differently target the two macrophage subsets directly before challenge infection (Fig. 6A, experimental scheme). Using 500 g of anti-CSF1R antibody, we depleted 50% of MacM and 80% of MacL macrophages, whereas depletion following treatment with 800 g of anti-CSF1R antibody reduced MacM macrophages by 80% and the MacL subset by more than 90% (Fig. 6B and fig. S6A). Twenty-four hours after anti-CSF1R antibody treatment, the number of circulating neutrophils, eosinophils, NK, B, or T cells was not different from mock-treated mice at either concentration (fig. S6B). Classical Ly6C+ monocytes were modestly reduced in mice treated with 800 g of anti-CSF1R antibody but were unchanged in mice receiving 500 g of depleting antibody. Antibody treatment did not change circulating nonclassical monocyte numbers (fig. S6B). After challenge infection, the bacterial burden was not different in mice treated with 500 g of anti-CSF1R compared to mock-treated mice (Fig. 6C). By contrast, mice depleted with 800 g of anti-CSF1R had reduced bacterial burdens, indicative of a stronger response after challenge compared to nondepleted mice (Fig. 6D).

(A) Experimental scheme. (B) Efficacy of macrophage subset depletion in nave C57BL/6 mice treated with 500 or 800 g of anti-CSF1R antibody. (C and D) Bacterial burden per bladder 24 hours after challenge in female C57BL/6 mice infected with UTI89-RFP according to (A) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (mock) or (C) 500 g or (D) 800 g of anti-CSF1R antibody 72 hours before being challenged with the isogenic UTI89-GFP strain. (E to G) Mice were infected according to (A) and treated with 800 g of anti-CSF1R antibody 72 hours before challenge infection with 107 CFU of the isogenic UTI89-GFP strain. Graphs depict the (E) total number of the indicated cell type, (F) the percentage of the indicated cell type that was infected, and (G) the total number of the indicated cell type that contained UPEC at 24 hours after challenge in mice treated with PBS or 800 g of anti-CSF1R antibody. Data are pooled from three experiments, n = 3 to 6 mice per experiment. Each dot represents one mouse; lines are medians. (C to G) Mann-Whitney test, P values were corrected for multiple testing using the FDR method. All P values are shown; statistically significant P values (<0.05) are in red.

Neutrophils take up a majority of UPEC at early time points during UTI (23). Therefore, we hypothesized that the improved bacterial clearance in macrophage-depleted mice may be due to increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils. At 24 hours after challenge infection, we observed that, while the numbers of resident macrophage subsets, MHCII+ monocytes, and MHCII monocytes in macrophage-depleted mice were reduced compared to mock-treated mice, as expected, the numbers of infiltrating neutrophils were unchanged by antibody treatment (Fig. 6E and fig. S6C, gating strategy). Fewer eosinophils infiltrated the tissue in macrophage-depleted mice, although the impact of this is unclear as their role in infection is unknown (Fig. 6E). Given that neutrophil infiltration was unchanged and that monocytes, which also take up a large number of bacteria during infection, were reduced in number, we considered that improved bacterial clearance in macrophage-depleted mice may be due to increased bacterial uptake on a per-cell basis during challenge infection. However, bacterial uptake was not different between depleted and mock-treated mice in neutrophils, MHCII+ and MHCII monocytes, or either macrophage subset (Fig. 6F). The lower numbers of the MacM subset in macrophage-depleted mice translated to lower numbers of infected MacM macrophages (Fig. 6, E and G, respectively). However, we observed no differences in the numbers of infected MacL macrophages, neutrophils, and MHCII+ or MHCII monocytes in macrophage-depleted mice compared to nondepleted animals (Fig. 6G). Together, these results support the notion that MacM macrophages negatively affect bacterial clearance in a challenge infection, but not at the level of direct bacterial uptake or myeloid cell infiltration.

As infiltration of inflammatory cells or the number of infected cells during challenge infection was not changed in macrophage-depleted mice, we questioned whether another host mechanism was involved in bacterial clearance. Exfoliation of infected urothelial cells is a host mechanism to eliminate bacteria (70, 75). We hypothesized that macrophage-depleted mice have increased urothelial exfoliation during challenge infection, leading to reduced bacterial numbers. We quantified the mean fluorescence intensity of uroplakins, proteins expressed by terminally differentiated urothelial cells (76), from bladders of post-challenged mice, depleted of macrophages or not (Fig. 7A). We did not detect a significant difference in urothelial exfoliation between mock-treated animals and mice depleted of macrophage before challenge infection, supporting that urothelial exfoliation is not the underlying mechanism behind improved bacterial clearance in macrophage-depleted mice (Fig. 7B). Infiltration of inflammatory cells is associated with bladder tissue damage and increased bacterial burden (26). As we observed fewer monocytes and eosinophils in macrophage-depleted mice during challenge infection, we investigated whether reduced cell infiltration was associated with less tissue damage. We assessed edema formation by quantifying the area of the lamina propria in post-challenged bladders, depleted of macrophages or not (Fig. 7A). We did not detect a difference in edema formation between nondepleted mice and mice depleted of macrophage before challenge infection (Fig. 7C).

Female C57BL/6 mice were infected according to the scheme shown in Fig. 6A and treated with 800 g of anti-CSF1R antibody 72 hours before challenge infection with 107 CFU of UTI89. (A) Representative confocal images of bladders from mice treated with PBS or 800 g of anti-CSF1R antibody 24 hours after challenge. Uroplakin, green; phalloidin, turquoise; DAPI, blue. (B) The graph shows the mean fluorescence intensity of uroplakin expression, quantified from imaging, at 24 hours after challenge. (C) The graph shows the area of the lamina propria, quantified from imaging, at 24 hours after challenge. (D to F) Graphs depict the (D and E) total number of the indicated cell type or (F) the total number of the indicated cell type expressing IFN- at 24 hours after challenge infection. Data are pooled from two experiments, n = 4 to 6 mice per experiment. Each dot represents one mouse; lines are medians. In (B) to (F), significance was determined using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and P values were corrected for multiple testing using the FDR method. All calculated/corrected P values are shown and P values meeting the criteria for statistical significance (P < 0.05) are depicted in red.

As we observed fewer eosinophils in macrophage-depleted mice during challenge infection, and our previous work demonstrated that type 2 immune responserelated cytokines are expressed early in UTI (24), we assessed the polarity of the T cell response to challenge infection (fig. S7, gating strategy). Macrophage depletion did not alter the infiltration of T regulatory cells or TH2 or TH17 T helper subsets (Fig. 7D). However, macrophage depletion did correlate with an increase in the numbers of TH1 T cells, NKT cells, NK cells, and type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s) (Fig. 7E). In macrophage-depleted mice, TH1 T cells, NKT cells, and NK cells had higher IFN- production compared to mock-treated mice (Fig. 7F), suggesting that, in the absence of post-infected macrophages, a more pro-inflammatory, bactericidal response to challenge infection arises in the bladder.

Despite numerous studies of macrophage ontogeny and function in many organs, the developmental origin and role of bladder macrophages are largely unknown. Here, we investigated this poorly understood compartment in homeostasis and a highly inflammatory infectious disease, UTI. A single macrophage population of yolk sac and HSC origin seeds the developing bladder; however, the yolk sac macrophage pool is ultimately replaced at some point after birth. After birth, two subsets, MacM and MacL, arise in the tissue, localizing to the muscle and the lamina propria, respectively. These subsets share similar developmental origin, in that they are primarily HSC-derived and, in adulthood, display a very slow turnover by Ly6C+ monocytes in the steady state. Their distinct transcriptomics support the idea that they play different roles in the bladder, at least in the context of infection. The MacM subset is poised to take up bacteria or potentially infected dying host cells, while polarizing toward a more alternatively activated profile during UTI. MacL macrophages express a profile with greater potential for the induction of inflammation and, whether due to direct consequences of this inflammation or potentially due to loss of the urothelium, undergo pronounced cell death during UTI.

In adult animals, steady-state tissue-resident macrophages are a mix of embryonic and adult monocyte-derived macrophages, with the exception of brain microglia (8, 14). The contributions from embryonic macrophages and circulating adult monocytes to the adult bladder macrophage compartment are similar to that of the lung and kidney (7, 11, 77). Although two macrophage subsets reside in the adult bladder, only a single LYVE1+CX3CR1+ macrophage population was identified in embryonic and newborn bladders. As the bladder is fully formed in newborn mice (78), it is unlikely that macrophage subsets arise to meet the needs of a new structure, as is the case for peritubular macrophages in the testis (41). Rather, although all structures are present, embryonic or prenatal bladder tissue demands are likely distinct from postnatal tissue remodeling in very young mice. For example, in the first weeks after birth, bladder macrophages may support urothelial cells undergoing increased proliferation to establish the three layers of urothelium in adult bladders (79). As these adult tissue niches become fully mature, they may provide different growth or survival factors, driving functional macrophage specialization in discrete locations in the tissue.

In the lung, spleen, BM, and liver, a subpopulation of pro-resolving macrophages are present that phagocytize blood-borne cellular material to maintain tissue homeostasis (66). These macrophages express Mrc1 (encoding for CD206), CD163, and Timd4 (encoding TIM4) (66). MacM macrophages likely represent this subpopulation in the bladder, as they expressed higher levels of genes associated with a pro-resolving phenotype, including the efferocytic receptor TIM4, CD206, and CD163. It is also possible that, similar to muscularis macrophages in the gut, MacM macrophages interact with neurons to control muscle contraction in the bladder and limit neuronal damage during infection (80, 81). By contrast, up-regulated pathways in the MacL subset, in combination with their localization under the urothelium, suggest that, similar to intestinal macrophages, they may regulate T cell responses to bladder microbiota or support urothelial cell integrity (82, 83).

Although it was somewhat unexpected, given that the MacM macrophage subset is located farther from the lumen and urothelium, where infection takes place, we favor the conclusion that MacM macrophages contain more bacteria because they are programmed to do so. This conclusion is supported by the higher expression of genes associated with complement, endocytosis, and phagosome pathways in the MacM subset. It is possible, although challenging to empirically demonstrate, that the MacM subset recognizes dying neutrophils, or even dying MacL macrophages, that have phagocytosed bacteria. We may also consider that, between the subsets, the rate at which bacteria are killed is different, UPEC may survive better in MacM macrophages, MacL macrophages may die after bacterial uptake, the near-luminal location of MacL macrophages may result in their disproportionate sloughing, or even that MacL macrophages break down phagocytosed content better. Additional genetic and knockout models would be needed to address these possibilities.

Significant numbers of MacL macrophages died in the first hours following infection, reflecting their enriched apoptosis pathway. The reduced numbers of both macrophage subsets in protamine sulfate-treated mice suggest that alterations in the urothelium may affect macrophage survival, although we cannot rule out the fact that protamine sulfate directly kills macrophages. Exfoliation induced by protamine sulfate is not comparable to infection, as protamine sulfate induces a rapid, large increase in trans-urothelial conductance (71), suggesting that it induces major disruptions in the urothelium. Protamine sulfate can also suppress cytokine activity and the inflammatory response in the bladder compared to UPEC infection (84). This severe disruption of the urothelium may lead to inadequate supplies of oxygen, nutrients, or survival factors, all of which would be detrimental to macrophage survival. It is less likely that bacteria induce macrophage death as only a small, and importantly equivalent, proportion of both subsets were infected. Instead, MacL macrophage death may be an important step to initiate immune responses to UTI. In the liver, Kupffer cell death by necroptosis during Listeria monocytogenes infection induces recruitment of monocytes, which, in turn, phagocytose bacteria (85). Here, macrophage depletion before challenge infection resulted in decreased infiltration of monocytes, likely due to diminished numbers of these cells in circulation, and fewer eosinophils; however, bacterial burden was also decreased. This suggests that macrophage-mediated immune cell recruitment is not their primary function in the bladder. Infiltration of inflammatory cells is not the only way macrophage cell death regulates infection, however. For instance, pyroptotic macrophages can entrap live bacteria and facilitate their elimination by neutrophils in vivo (86). As MacM macrophages express genes regulating iron metabolism, limiting iron to UPEC would also be a plausible mechanism to control bacterial growth (87).

In the steady state, tissue-resident macrophages can self-maintain locally by proliferation, with minimal input of circulating monocytes (9, 88). By contrast, under inflammatory conditions, resident macrophages are often replaced by monocyte-derived macrophages (85, 8890). Monocytes will differentiate into self-renewing functional macrophages if the endogenous tissue-resident macrophages are depleted or are absent (91, 92). Our results show that UPEC infection induces sufficient inflammation to foster infiltration and differentiation of newly recruited monocytes. It is likely, even, that greater macrophage replacement occurs than we actually measured, as we used a single 4OHT pulse in CCR2CreERT2 Rosa26tdTomato mice 24 hours before infection; however, these cells infiltrate infected bladders over several days. These experiments do not rule out a role for local proliferation in the bladder during UTI, but experiments to test this must be able to distinguish infiltrated monocytes that have already differentiated into tissue macrophages from bona fide tissue-resident macrophages when assessing proliferating cells. These data do support, however, the fact that infiltrating monocytes remain in the tissue, integrated into the resident macrophage pool, after tissue resolution.

Recruited monocyte-derived macrophages can behave differently than resident macrophages when activated, such as in the lung. Gamma herpes virus induces alveolar macrophage replacement by regulatory monocytes expressing higher levels of Sca-1 and MHC II (93). These post-infected mice have reduced perivascular and peribronchial inflammation and inflammatory cytokines, and fewer eosinophils compared to mock-infected mice when exposed to house dust mite to induce allergic asthma (93). Alveolar macrophages of mice infected with influenza virus are replaced by pro-inflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages. At 30 days PI, influenza-infected mice have more alveolar macrophages and increased production of IL-6 when challenged with S. pneumoniae compared to mock-infected mice, leading to fewer deaths (90). Although mechanisms regulating the phenotype of monocyte-derived macrophages are not known, the time of residency in the tissue and the nature of subsequent insults likely influence these cells. The longer that recruited macrophages reside in tissue, the more similar they become to tissue-resident macrophages and no longer provide enhanced protection to subsequent tissue injury (89, 90). In contrast to these studies in the lung, we found that elimination of macrophages, including those recruited during primary infection, led to improved bacterial clearance during secondary challenge, although it is not clear what the long-term consequences on bladder homeostasis might be when a more inflammatory type 1 immune response arises during infection.

Overall, our results demonstrate that two unique subsets of macrophages reside in the bladder. During UTI, these cells respond differently, and a proportion of the population dies. Thus, a first UPEC infection induces replacement of resident macrophage subsets by monocyte-derived cells. When sufficient numbers of MacM macrophages, composed of resident and replaced cells, are depleted, improved bacterial clearance follows, suggesting a major role of this subset in directing the immune response to challenge infection. While these findings greatly improve our understanding of this important immune cell type, much remains to be uncovered, such as the signals and niches that contribute to the establishment of two subsets of bladder-resident macrophages, their roles in the establishment and maintenance of homeostasis, and whether parallel populations and functions exist in human bladder tissue.

This study was conducted using a preclinical mouse model and transgenic mouse strains in controlled laboratory experiments to investigate the origin, maintenance, and function of bladder-resident macrophages in homeostasis and bacterial infection. At the onset of this study, our objective was to understand how bladder-resident macrophages negatively affect the development of adaptive immunity to UTI. Having found two resident macrophage subsets in the course of this work, our objectives were to determine whether these subsets have similar origins and homeostatic maintenance and whether they play divergent roles in response to primary or challenge infection. Mice were assigned to groups upon random partition into cages. In all experiments, a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 10 mice (and more typically 3 to 6 mice per experiment) made up an experimental group and all experiments were repeated two to three times. Sample size was based on our previous work and was not changed in the course of the study. In some cases, n was limited by the number of developing embryos available from timed pregnancies. Data collection is detailed below. Data from all repetitions were pooled before any statistical analysis. As determined a priori, all animals with abnormal kidneys (atrophied, enlarged, and white in color) at the time of sacrifice were excluded from all analyses, as we have observed that abnormal kidneys negatively affect resolution of infection. End points were determined before the start of experiments and researchers were not blinded to experimental groups.

All animals used in this study had free access to standard laboratory chow and water at all times. We used female C57BL/6J mice 7 to 8 weeks old from Charles River, France. Female CX3CR1GFP/+ mice 7 to 8 weeks old were bred in-house. CX3CR1GFP/GFP mice, used to maintain our hemizygous colony, were a gift from F. Chretien (Institut Pasteur). Cdh5-CreERT2 Rosa26tdTomato mice were crossed to CX3CR1GFP mice, producing Cdh5-CreERT2.Rosa26tdTomato.CX3CR1GFP mice at Centre dImmunologie de Marseille-Luminy. In Cdh5-CreERT2.Rosa26tdTomato.CX3CR1GFP mice, cells expressing the CX3CR1 receptor are constitutively GFP+, and treatment with 4OHT conditionally labels hemogenically active endothelial cells (42). We used female and male Cdh5-CreERT2.Rosa26tdTomato.CX3CR1GFP mice 8 to 11 weeks old, at E16.5, and newborns. Flt3Cre.Rosa26YFP mice were a gift from E.G.P. (Institut Pasteur). CCR2/ mice were a gift from M. Lecuit (Institut Pasteur). CCR2creERT2BB mice were a gift from B. Becher (University of Zurich) via S. Amigorena (Institut Curie). CCR2creERT2BB male mice were crossed to Rosa26tdTomato females to obtain CCR2creERT2BB-tdTomato mice at Institut Pasteur. We used female CCR2creERT2BB-tdTomato mice 7 to 8 weeks old. Additional details of the mouse strains used, including JAX and MGI numbers, are listed in table S1. Mice were anesthetized by injection of ketamine (100 mg/kg) and xylazine (5 mg/kg) and euthanized by carbon dioxide inhalation. Experiments were conducted at Institut Pasteur in accordance with approval of protocol number 2016-0010 and dha190501 by the Comit dthique en exprimentation animale Paris Centre et Sud (the ethics committee for animal experimentation), in application of the European Directive 2010/63 EU. Experiments with Cdh5-CreERT2 mice were performed in the laboratory of M. Bajenoff, Centre dImmunologie de Marseille-Luminy, in accordance with national and regional guidelines under protocol number 5-01022012 following review and approval by the local animal ethics committee in Marseille, France.

Antibodies, reagents, and software used in this study are listed in tables S2, S3, and S4, respectively.

Samples were acquired on a BD LSRFortessa using DIVA software (v8.0.1), and data were analyzed by FlowJo (Treestar) software, including the plugins for downsampling, tSNE, and UMAP (version 10.0). The analysis of bladder and blood was performed as described previously (23). Briefly, bladders were dissected and digested in buffer containing Liberase (0.34 U/ml) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37C for 1 hour with manual agitation every 15 min. Digestion was stopped by adding PBS supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0.2 M EDTA [fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) buffer]. Fc receptors in single-cell suspensions were blocked with anti-mouse CD16/CD32 and stained with antibodies. Total cell counts were determined by addition of AccuCheck counting beads to a known volume of sample after staining, just before cytometer acquisition. To determine cell populations in the circulation, whole blood was incubated with BD PharmLyse and stained with antibodies (table S2). Total cell counts were determined by the addition of AccuCheck counting beads to 10 l of whole blood in 1-step Fix/Lyse Solution.

For intracellular staining, single-cell suspensions were resuspended in 1 ml of Golgi stop protein transport inhibitor, diluted (1:1500) in RPMI with 10% FBS, 1% sodium pyruvate, 1 Hepes, 1 nonessential amino acid, 1% penicillin-streptomycin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (50 ng/ml), and ionomycin (1 g/ml), and incubated for 4 hours at 37C. Samples were washed once with FACS buffer, and Fc receptors blocked with anti-mouse CD16/CD32. Samples were stained with antibodies listed in table S2 against surface markers and fixed and permeabilized with 1 fixation and permeabilization buffer and incubated at 4C for 40 to 50 min protected from light. After incubation, samples were washed two times with 1 permeabilization and wash buffer from the transcription factor buffer kit and stained with antibodies against IFN- and the transcriptional factors RORT, GATA3, T-bet, and FoxP3 (table S2), diluted in 1 permeabilization and wash buffer at 4C for 40 to 50 min protected from light. Last, samples were washed two times with 1 permeabilization and wash buffer and resuspended in FACS buffer. Total cell counts were determined by addition of counting beads to a known volume of sample after staining, just before cytometer acquisition.

Whole bladders were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) in PBS for 1 hour and subsequently washed with PBS. Samples were then dehydrated in 30% sucrose in PBS for 24 hours. Samples were cut transversally and embedded in optimal cutting temperature compound, frozen, and sectioned at 30 m. Sections were blocked for 1 hour with blocking buffer [3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) + 0.1% Triton X-100 + donkey serum (1:20) in PBS] and washed three times. Immunostaining was performed using F4/80, LYVE1 antibodies, or polyclonal asymmetrical unit membrane antibodies, recognizing uroplakins [gift from X.-R. Wu, NYU School of Medicine, (76)] (1:200) in staining buffer (0.5% BSA + 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS) overnight. Sections were washed and stained with phalloidin (1:350) and secondary antibodies (1:2000) in staining buffer for 4 hours. Last, sections were washed and stained with 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Confocal images were acquired on a Leica SP8 confocal microscope. Final image processing was done using Fiji (version 2.0.0-rc-69/1.52p) and Icy software (v1.8.6.0).

Fate mapping of Cdh5-CreERT2 mice was performed as described previously (42). Briefly, for reporter recombination in offspring, a single dose of 4OHT supplemented with progesterone (1.2 mg of 4OHT and 0.6 mg of progesterone) was delivered by intraperitoneal injection to pregnant females at E7.5 or E10.5. Progesterone was used to counteract adverse effects of 4OHT on pregnancies. To fate map cells in CCR2creERT2BB-tdTomato mice, a single dose (37.5 g/g) of 4OHT injection was delivered intraperitoneally.

For shielded irradiation, 7- to 8-week-old wild-type female CD45.1 or CD45.2 C57BL6/J mice were anesthetized and dressed in a lab-made lead diaper, which selectively exposed their tail, legs, torso, and head to irradiation, but protected the lower abdomen, including the bladder. Mice were irradiated with 9 gray from an Xstrahl x-ray generator (250 kV, 12 mA) and reconstituted with ~3 107 to 4 107 BM cells isolated from congenic (CD45.1) wild-type mice or CD45.2 CCR2/ mice.

Samples were obtained from the whole bladders of nave and 6-week post-infected female C57BL/6J mice. Using FACS, four separate sorts were performed to generate biological replicates, and each sort was a pool of 10 mouse bladders. Macrophage subsets were FACS-purified into 350 l of RLT Plus buffer from the RNeasy Micro Kit plus (1:100) -mercaptoethanol. Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy Micro Kit following the manufacturers instructions. Directional libraries were prepared using the Smarter Stranded Total RNA-Seq kit Pico Input Mammalian following the manufacturers instructions. The quality of libraries was assessed with the DNA-1000 kit on a 2100 Bioanalyzer, and quantification was performed with Quant-It assays on a Qubit 3.0 fluorometer. Clusters were generated for the resulting libraries with Illumina HiSeq SR Cluster Kit v4 reagents. Sequencing was performed with the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system and HiSeq SBS kit v4 reagents. Runs were carried out over 65 cycles, including seven indexing cycles, to obtain 65-bp single-end reads. Sequencing data were processed with Illumina Pipeline software (Casava version 1.9). Reads were cleaned of adapter sequences and low-quality sequences using cutadapt version 1.11. Only sequences of at least 25 nucleotides in length were considered for further analysis, and the five first bases were trimmed following the library manufacturers instructions. STAR version 2.5.0a (94), with default parameters, was used for alignment on the reference genome (Mus musculus GRCm38_87 from Ensembl version 87). Genes were counted using featureCounts version 1.4.6-p3 (95) from Subreads package (parameters: -t exon -g gene_id -s 1). Count data were analyzed using R version 3.4.3 and the Bioconductor package DESeq2 version 1.18.1 (96). The normalization and dispersion estimation were performed with DESeq2 using the default parameters, and statistical tests for differential expression were performed applying the independent filtering algorithm. A generalized linear model was set to test for the differential expression among the four biological conditions. For each pairwise comparison, raw P values were adjusted for multiple testing according to the Benjamini and Hochberg procedure and genes with an adjusted P value lower than 0.05 were considered differentially expressed. Count data were transformed using variance stabilizing transformation to perform samples clustering and PCA plot. The PCA was performed on the variance-stabilized transformed count matrix that was adjusted for the batch/replicate effect using the limma R package version 3.44.3.

To perform pathway analysis, gene lists of DEGs were imported in the Cytoscape software (version 3.7.2), and analyses were performed using the ClueGO application with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes as the database. Significant pathways were selected using the threshold criteria Q < 0.05; terms > 3 genes; % genes/term > 3; 0.4.

We used the human UPEC cystitis isolate UTI89 engineered to express the fluorescent proteins RFP or GFP and antibiotic-resistant cassettes to either kanamycin (UPEC-RFP) or ampicillin (UPEC-GFP) to infect animals for flow cytometric and bacterial burden analyses (23). We used the nonfluorescent parental strain UTI89 for confocal imaging experiments and flow cytometric experiments with CCR2CreERT2 Rosa26tdTomato mice (97). To allow expression of type 1 pili, necessary for infection (98), bacteria cultures were grown statically in Luria-Bertani broth medium for 18 hours at 37C in the presence of antibiotics [kanamycin (50 g/ml) or ampicillin (100 g/ml)]. Primary and challenge UTI were induced in mice as previously described (23, 99). For challenge infection, urine was collected twice a week, for 4 weeks, to follow the presence of bacteria in the urine. Once there were no UTI89-RFP bacteria in the urine, mice were challenged with UTI89-GFP bacteria and euthanized 24 hours after challenge infection. To calculate CFU, bladders were aseptically removed and homogenized in 1 ml of PBS. Serial dilutions were plated on LB agar plates with antibiotics, as required. For in vitro infections, macrophage subsets were sorted from a pool of 10 bladders of nave female C57BL/6J 7- to 8-week-old mice using FACS and 2 103 cells were incubated with 2 104 CFU of UPEC-RFP for 2 hours at 37C. Cells were acquired on a BD LSRFortessa using DIVA software (v8.0.1) and data were analyzed by FlowJo (Treestar) software (version 10.0).

Seven- to 8-week-old wild-type female C57BL6/J mice were anesthetized and instilled intravesically with 50 l of protamine sulfate (50 mg/ml) diluted in PBS and euthanized 5 hours after instillation for analysis.

To produce anti-CSF1R antibody, the hybridoma cell line AFS98 (gift from M. Merad at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai) (100) was cultured in disposable reactor cell culture flasks for 14 days, and antibodies were purified with disposable PD10 desalting columns. To deplete macrophages, wild-type C57BL/6 mice received intravenous injection of anti-CSF1R antibody (2 mg/ml) diluted in PBS. Animals received two or three intravenous injections, on consecutive days, of anti-CSF1R antibody or PBS. To deplete macrophages with a final concentration of 500 g of anti-CSF1R, we administered 250 g per mouse on day 1 and 250 g per mouse on day 2. To deplete macrophages with a final concentration of 800 g of anti-CSF1R, we administered 400 g per mouse on day 1, 200 g per mouse on day 2, and 200 g per mouse on day 3 to minimize the impact on circulating monocytes.

To quantify macrophage subsets in bladder tissue, six to seven images were randomly acquired of each of the areas of the muscle and lamina propria per mouse in wild-type C57BL/6 female mice with 40 magnification in an SP8 Leica microscope. Maximum intensity Z-projections were performed, and macrophage subsets were counted using Icy software (v1.8.6.0). To quantify urothelial exfoliation and tissue edema, images from whole bladder cross sections were acquired using 20 magnification in an SP8 Leica microscope. Maximum intensity Z-projections were performed, the urothelium was delimited, and mean fluorescence intensity of uroplakin staining was measured using Fiji (v1.51j) software. To quantify tissue edema, the lamina propria was delimited and the area was measured using Fiji software (v1.51j).

Statistical analysis was performed in GraphPad Prism 8 (GraphPad, USA) for Mac OS X applying the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired data or the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test for unpaired data in the case of two group comparisons. In the case that more than two groups were being compared or to correct for comparisons made within an entire analysis or experiment, calculated P values were corrected for multiple testing with the false discovery rate (FDR) method (https://jboussier.shinyapps.io/MultipleTesting/) to determine the FDR-adjusted P value. All calculated P values are shown in the figures, and those that met the criteria for statistical significance (P < 0.05) are denoted with red text.

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Breakthroughs in Stem Cell Based Treatment of Heart Disease – The Connecticut College Voice

By daniellenierenberg

Photo Courtesy of Unsplash.

In the United States alone, one person dies every 36 seconds from cardiovascular disease. Globally, it is also the leading cause of death, claiming over 17 million lives each year. In cases of severe illness, heart transplants have shown great promise in increasing the life expectancy of patients with heart disease. About 75% of heart transplant recipients survive for 5 more years and about 56% survive for 10 more years. However, the average wait times for heart transplants are long, often exceeding 6 months, and some patients simply cannot afford to wait that long.

Therefore, scientists tend to refer to other modes of treatment which rely on managing chronic symptoms, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes mellitus, obesity, and high cholesterol. This approach, however, does not address the root cause of the problem, which is impaired heart functioning. Since heart cells do not have a mechanism to replace damaged tissue, scientists have become increasingly excited about the possibility of repairing or replacing damaged heart tissue using stem cells (unique cells that have the ability to divide for an extended period of time and differentiate into specialized cells, such as cardiac cells or nerve cells).

Regenerative medicine has been a topic of excitement among researchers for decades. In 1999, Anthony Atala, director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, was the first to implant lab-grown organs into several patients between 4 and 19 years old. In his method, he obtained bladder cells from the children and coaxed those cells into dividing on a scaffold (a structure that mimics the normal organ). The engineered bladders functioned normally and no ill effects were reported. Pretty much I was able to live a normal life after, said Luke, one of Atalas patients.

More recently, Yoshiki Sawa, a professor of cardiovascular surgery at the University of Osakas medical school, and his team of Japanese researchers successfully transplanted lab-grown cardiac muscles into a human patient. The researchers first extracted adult stem cells from the patients blood or skin and genetically reprogrammed them into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. They were then coaxed into 0.1-millimeter-thick sheets of cardiac tissue and grafted onto the diseased human hearts. According to Sawa, the cells do not seem to integrate into the heart tissue but rather release growth factors (proteins) that help regenerate blood vessels in the damaged muscle tissue and improve cardiac function. The team has conducted an operation on a patient in January 2020, marking the worlds first transplant of cardiac muscle cells.

The United States is also home to major breakthroughs in regenerative medicine. For decades, scientists have utilized embryonic stem cells to engineer heart muscle cells that are able to maintain synchronous breathing in a dish for hours. Despite this major feat, the creation of a working heart called for a more sophisticated technique. Doris Taylor, director of regenerative medicine research at the Texas Heart Institute (THI), has grown in her lab over 100 ghost hearts using protein scaffolds. She creates these scaffolds by first obtaining an animal heart and then decellularizing it by pumping a detergent through its blood vessels to strip away lipids, DNA, soluble proteins, sugars and almost all the other cellular material from the heart, leaving only a pale mesh of collagen, laminins, and the extracellular matrix. This heart does not necessarily have to be a human heart. She often finds pig hearts to be promising tissue because of their considerable safety and unlimited supply. She then recellularizes the heart by injecting it with millions of stem cells and attaching it to artificial lungs and a blood pump. Although her technique has only been used so far for growing animal hearts, she believes that it will eventually be used to create human heart transplants, thus, revolutionizing cardiovascular surgery and putting an end to organ shortage and anti-rejection drugs.

These groundbreaking results in regenerative medicine altogether have taken years of painstaking research to achieve. Taylor believes that her research is exceptionally close to building a working, human-sized heart, and Sawa says that his technique of grafting healthy cardiac muscle sheets onto the patients diseased heart tissue has already helped one of his patients move out of intensive care in just a few days. As the researchers gain more knowledge and get closer to the solution, however, they encounter more challenging obstacles. Sawa, for instance, has found that grafted cells do not always beat in synchrony. Researchers are also split on how these grafts work. On the other hand, investigating the best way to deliver cells still remains a challenge in Taylors research.

Stem cell research in tissue engineering could save millions of lives around the world; therefore, Taylor believes that a coordinated approach among the researchers, clinicians, industry, regulatory bodies and, finally, society should be invigorated to catapult the field forward. For instance, the Twenty-first Century Cures Act can help advance her work by facilitating cooperation among experts and regulatory bodies, providing for accelerated approvals for therapeutic tools in regenerative medicine, and improving the regulation of biologics products. She also maintains that tissue engineering efforts remain poorly funded and believes that more resources must be allocated before her studies can come to life. There is a lot of dependence on societal benevolence, she said. In an interview with RedMedNet, she also said that intense collaboration on a national and an international level is crucial and should be a priority, even though it could be challenging due to scheduling issues and differences in time zones.

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Breakthroughs in Stem Cell Based Treatment of Heart Disease - The Connecticut College Voice

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Exosome Therapeutic Market to Record Escalated Growth in Revenue During the Forecast Period || Major Gaints Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer…

By daniellenierenberg

This persuasive Exosome Therapeutic Market report makes to focus on the more important aspects of the market like what the market recent trends are. The company profiles of all the key players and brands that are dominating the Exosome Therapeutic Market have been taken into consideration here. The market analysis and competitor analysis helps the firm in determining the range in terms of sizes, colors, designs, and prices, etc within which its products are to be offered to the consumers. Important industry trends, market size, market share estimates are analyzed and mentioned in the Exosome Therapeutic Market business report.

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Market Analysis and Insights:Global Exosome Therapeutic Market

Exosome therapeutic market is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2019 to 2026. Data Bridge Market Research analyses that the market is growing with a CAGR of 21.9% in the forecast period of 2019 to 2026 and expected to reach USD 31,691.52 million by 2026 from USD 6,500.00 million in 2018. Increasing prevalence of lyme disease, chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other chronic degenerative diseases are the factors for the market growth.

The major players covered in theExosome Therapeutic Marketreport areevox THERAPEUTICS, EXOCOBIO, Exopharm, AEGLE Therapeutics, United Therapeutics Corporation, Codiak BioSciences, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, ReNeuron Group plc, Capricor Therapeutics, Avalon Globocare Corp., CREATIVE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY HOLDINGS INC., Stem Cells Group among other players domestic and global.Exosome therapeutic market share data is available for Global, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America separately. DBMR analysts understand competitive strengths and provide competitive analysis for each competitor separately.

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Exosomes are used to transfer RNA, DNA, and proteins to other cells in the body by making alteration in the function of the target cells. Increasing research activities in exosome therapeutic is augmenting the market growth as demand for exosome therapeutic has increased among healthcare professionals.

Increased number of exosome therapeutics as compared to the past few years will accelerate the market growth. Companies are receiving funding for exosome therapeutic research and clinical trials. For instance, In September 2018, EXOCOBIO has raised USD 27 million in its series B funding. The company has raised USD 46 million as series a funding in April 2017. The series B funding will help the company to set up GMP-compliant exosome industrial facilities to enhance production of exosomes to commercialize in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry.

Increasing demand for anti-aging therapies will also drive the market. Unmet medical needs such as very few therapeutic are approved by the regulatory authority for the treatment in comparison to the demand in global exosome therapeutics market will hamper the market growth market. Availability of various exosome isolation and purification techniques is further creates new opportunities for exosome therapeutics as they will help company in isolation and purification of exosomes from dendritic cells, mesenchymal stem cells, blood, milk, body fluids, saliva, and urine and from others sources. Such policies support exosome therapeutic market growth in the forecast period to 2019-2026.

This exosome therapeutic market report provides details of market share, new developments, and product pipeline analysis, impact of domestic and localised market players, analyses opportunities in terms of emerging revenue pockets, changes in market regulations, product approvals, strategic decisions, product launches, geographic expansions, and technological innovations in the market. To understand the analysis and the market scenario contact us for anAnalyst Brief, our team will help you create a revenue impact solution to achieve your desired goal.

Global Exosome Therapeutic Market Scope and Market Size

Global exosome therapeutic market is segmented of the basis of type, source, therapy, transporting capacity, application, route of administration and end user. The growth among segments helps you analyse niche pockets of growth and strategies to approach the market and determine your core application areas and the difference in your target markets.

Based on type, the market is segmented into natural exosomes and hybrid exosomes. Natural exosomes are dominating in the market because natural exosomes are used in various biological and pathological processes as well as natural exosomes has many advantages such as good biocompatibility and reduced clearance rate compare than hybrid exosomes.

Exosome is an extracellular vesicle which is released from cells, particularly from stem cells. Exosome functions as vehicle for particular proteins and genetic information and other cells. Exosome plays a vital role in the rejuvenation and communication of all the cells in our body while not themselves being cells at all. Research has projected that communication between cells is significant in maintenance of healthy cellular terrain. Chronic disease, age, genetic disorders and environmental factors can affect stem cells communication with other cells and can lead to distribution in the healing process. The growth of the global exosome therapeutic market reflects global and country-wide increase in prevalence of autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases, along with increasing demand for anti-aging therapies. Additionally major factors expected to contribute in growth of the global exosome therapeutic market in future are emerging therapeutic value of exosome, availability of various exosome isolation and purification techniques, technological advancements in exosome and rising healthcare infrastructure.

Rising demand of exosome therapeutic across the globe as exosome therapeutic is expected to be one of the most prominent therapies for autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases treatment, according to clinical researches exosomes help to processes regulation within the body during treatment of autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases. This factor has increased the research activities in exosome therapeutic development around the world for exosome therapeutic. Hence, this factor is leading the clinician and researches to shift towards exosome therapeutic. In the current scenario the exosome therapeutic are highly used in treatment of autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases and as anti-aging therapy as it Exosomes has proliferation of fibroblast cells which is significant in maintenance of skin elasticity and strength.

Based on source, the market is segmented into dendritic cells, mesenchymal stem cells, blood, milk, body fluids, saliva, urine and others. Mesenchymal stem cells are dominating in the market because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewable, multipotent, easily manageable and customarily stretchy in vitro with exceptional genomic stability. Mesenchymal stem cells have a high capacity for genetic manipulation in vitro and also have good potential to produce. It is widely used in treatment of inflammatory and degenerative disease offspring cells encompassing the transgene after transplantation.

Based on therapy, the market is segmented into immunotherapy, gene therapy and chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is dominating in the market because chemotherapy is basically used in treatment of cancer which is major public health issues. The multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins and various tumors associated exosomes such as miRNA and IncRNA are include in in chemotherapy associated resistance.

Based on transporting capacity, the market is segmented into bio macromolecules and small molecules. Bio macromolecules are dominating in the market because bio macromolecules transmit particular biomolecular information and are basically investigated for their delicate properties such as biomarker source and delivery system.

Based on application, the market is segmented into oncology, neurology, metabolic disorders, cardiac disorders, blood disorders, inflammatory disorders, gynecology disorders, organ transplantation and others. Oncology segment is dominating in the market due to rising incidence of various cancers such as lung cancer, breast cancer, leukemia, skin cancer, lymphoma. As per the National Cancer Institute, in 2018 around 1,735,350 new cases of cancer was diagnosed in the U.S. As per the American Cancer Society Inc in 2019 approximately 268,600 new cases of breast cancer diagnosed in the U.S.

Based on route of administration, the market is segmented into oral and parenteral. Parenteral route is dominating in the market because it provides low drug concentration, free from first fast metabolism, low toxicity as compared to oral route as well as it is suitable in unconscious patients, complicated to swallow drug etc.

The exosome therapeutic market, by end user, is segmented into hospitals, diagnostic centers and research & academic institutes. Hospitals are dominating in the market because hospitals provide better treatment facilities and skilled staff as well as treatment available at affordable cost in government hospitals.

Exosome therapeutic Market Country Level Analysis

The global exosome therapeutic market is analysed and market size information is provided by country by type, source, therapy, transporting capacity, application, route of administration and end user as referenced above.

The countries covered in the exosome therapeutic market report are U.S. and Mexico in North America, Turkey in Europe, South Korea, Australia, Hong Kong in the Asia-Pacific, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Venezuela, Panama, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Paraguay, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, Uruguay as part of Latin America.

Country Level Analysis, By Type

North America dominates the exosome therapeutic market as the U.S. is leader in exosome therapeutic manufacturing as well as research activities required for exosome therapeutics. At present time Stem Cells Group holding shares around 60.00%. In addition global exosomes therapeutics manufacturers like EXOCOBIO, evox THERAPEUTICS and others are intensifying their efforts in China. The Europe region is expected to grow with the highest growth rate in the forecast period of 2019 to 2026 because of increasing research activities in exosome therapeutic by population.

The country section of the report also provides individual market impacting factors and changes in regulation in the market domestically that impacts the current and future trends of the market. Data points such as new sales, replacement sales, country demographics, regulatory acts and import-export tariffs are some of the major pointers used to forecast the market scenario for individual countries. Also, presence and availability of global brands and their challenges faced due to large or scarce competition from local and domestic brands, impact of sales channels are considered while providing forecast analysis of the country data.

Huge Investment by Automakers for Exosome Therapeutics and New Technology Penetration

Global exosome therapeutic market also provides you with detailed market analysis for every country growth in pharma industry with exosome therapeutic sales, impact of technological development in exosome therapeutic and changes in regulatory scenarios with their support for the exosome therapeutic market. The data is available for historic period 2010 to 2017.

Competitive Landscape and Exosome Therapeutic Market Share Analysis

Global exosome therapeutic market competitive landscape provides details by competitor. Details included are company overview, company financials, revenue generated, market potential, investment in research and development, new market initiatives, global presence, production sites and facilities, company strengths and weaknesses, product launch, product trials pipelines, concept cars, product approvals, patents, product width and breadth, application dominance, technology lifeline curve. The above data points provided are only related to the companys focus related to global exosome therapeutic market.

Many joint ventures and developments are also initiated by the companies worldwide which are also accelerating the global exosome therapeutic market.

For instance,

Partnership, joint ventures and other strategies enhances the company market share with increased coverage and presence. It also provides the benefit for organisation to improve their offering for exosome therapeutics through expanded model range.

Customization Available:Global Exosome Therapeutic Market

Data Bridge Market Researchis a leader in advanced formative research. We take pride in servicing our existing and new customers with data and analysis that match and suits their goal. The report can be customised to include price trend analysis of target brands understanding the market for additional countries (ask for the list of countries), clinical trial results data, literature review, refurbished market and product base analysis. Market analysis of target competitors can be analysed from technology-based analysis to market portfolio strategies. We can add as many competitors that you require data about in the format and data style you are looking for. Our team of analysts can also provide you data in crude raw excel files pivot tables (Factbook) or can assist you in creating presentations from the data sets available in the report.

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Exosome Therapeutic Market to Record Escalated Growth in Revenue During the Forecast Period || Major Gaints Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer...

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3D Cardiac Mapping Systems Market Competitive Landscape Analysis with Forecast by 2028 – The Haitian-Caribbean News Network

By daniellenierenberg

Global 3D Cardiac Mapping Systems Market: Overview

Cardiac mapping is a special type of technique which helps in gathering and displaying the information from cardiac electrograms. Such technique is mainly used in the diagnosis of heart rhythms. Therefore, cardiac mapping technique has gained immense popularity in case of arrhythmia. The cardiac mapping procedure involves the percutaneous insertion of catheter into the heart chamber and recording the cardiac electrograms sequentially. Such procedure helps in correlating the cardiac anatomy with the electrograms. The latest 3D cardiac mapping systems provide the three dimensional model of hearts chamber, which further helps in tracking the exact location of the catheter. Such advantages are majorly driving the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market.

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From the perspective of technology, the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market is segmented into basket catheter mapping, electroanatomical mapping, and real-time positional management (Cardiac pathways) EP system. Among these segments, electroanatomical mapping segment accounts for the maximum share in the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market. This mapping are extensively used in several healthcare industry due to its potential in increasing the safety, accuracy, and efficiency of catheter. A research report by TMR Research (TMR) thoroughly explains the new growth opportunities in the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market. Additionally, the report also provides a comprehensive analysis of the markets competitive landscape.

Global 3D Cardiac Mapping Systems Market: Notable Developments

Some of the recent developments are contouring the shape of the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market in a big way:

Key players operating in the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market include BioScience Webster, Boston Scientific Corporation, and Abbott.

Global 3D Cardiac Mapping Systems Market: Key Growth Drivers

Rising Number of Patients with Cardiac Disorders and Arrhythmia Fillips Market

The global 3D cardiac mapping systems market has grown steadily over the years, owing to the convenience it provides to the patients with heart problem. Growing number of people with cardiovascular diseases and rising cases of arrhythmia are the major factors fueling growth in the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market. Along with this, increasing pressure for reducing diagnosis errors and rapidly rising healthcare expenditure are also responsible for boosting the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market. However, above all such factors, the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market is majorly fueled by the accuracy and patient safety provided through real-time monitoring. Such 3D cardiac mapping systems are mainly designed to improve the resolution. This system also helps in gaining prompt of cardiac activation maps. All such advantages are also providing impetus to the growth of the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market.

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Furthermore, rising ageing population who are prone to heart-attack and several chronic heart disorders and increasing diagnosis rate of cardiac illness are the factors stoking demand in the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market. Moreover, this 3D cardiac mapping helps in reducing the diagnosis time. Such factor is also contributing to the growth of the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market.

Global 3D Cardiac Mapping Systems Market: Regional Outlook

On the regional front, North America is leading the global 3D cardiac mapping systems market as the region has seen rapid growth in healthcare industry. Along with this, increasing prevalence of heart attacks, rising healthcare expenditure, and burgeoning population is also responsible for fueling growth in the 3D cardiac mapping systems market in this region.

About TMR Research:

TMR Research is a premier provider of customized market research and consulting services to business entities keen on succeeding in todays supercharged economic climate. Armed with an experienced, dedicated, and dynamic team of analysts, we are redefining the way our clients conduct business by providing them with authoritative and trusted research studies in tune with the latest methodologies and market trends.

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3D Cardiac Mapping Systems Market Competitive Landscape Analysis with Forecast by 2028 - The Haitian-Caribbean News Network

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This Squishy 3D-Printed Human Heart Feels Like the Real Thing – WIRED

By daniellenierenberg

In the intro to the HBO sci-fi series Westworld, a 3D printer churns out humanoid robots, delicately assembling the incredible complexities of the human form so that those robots can go on tospoiler alertdo naughty things. It takes a lot of biomechanical coordination, after all, to murder a whole lot of flesh-and-blood people.

Speaking of: Researchers just made a scientific leap toward making 3D-printed flesh and blood a reality. Writing recently in the journal ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, a team described how they repurposed a low-cost 3D printer into one capable of turning an MRI scan of a human heart into a deformable full-size analog you can actually hold in your hand. Squeeze it, and itll give like the real thing. Slice it open, and youll find chambers. The idea isnt to one day realize the homicidal humanoids of Westworld, but to give surgeons a better way to practice on a patients heart before an operation. The advance might eventually lead to fully-functioning 3D-printed hearts, and give medical device developers an unprecedented platform for testing their wares.

The researchers call their technique the Freeform Reversible Embedding of Suspended Hydrogels, or FRESH. They begin with a scan of a real heart and translate the data into something a 3D printer can read. Because the device works by depositing layers of material one on top of another, they run the 3D image through a slicer program. For every layer, it basically defines the path that the material is going to be extruded, and then feeds that to the printer, says Adam Feinberg, a biomedical engineer at Carnegie Mellon University who coauthored the new paper.

That printer churns out alginatea squishy material derived from seaweedthat the researchers chose both for its low cost and likeness to the material properties of human heart tissue. But instead of it extruding it into air, as a normal 3D printer might do when building something out of plastic, this extrudes the ersatz heart into a container of support gel, specifically gelatin.

The analogy I have is: Imagine you were printing inside of hair gel, says Feinberg. Think of the little bubbles suspended in that bottle of gelthe material is providing enough support for them to float indefinitely, or at least until you squeeze the gel out of the bottle. In this case, the gelatin offers enough give for the needle of the 3D printer to slide through. Whatever you extrude stays embedded in place, kind of like those air bubbles in hair gel, Feinberg says.

Printing in the gelatin bath

And now for something completely different when it comes to the art of artificial hearts: jello shots. After the organ is done printing, the researchers need a way to dissolve the gel lattice thats surrounding it, and they use a familiar method. I think a lot of people have experienced this from using gelatin in baking or making jello shots, says Feinberg. It's actually a liquid when you warm it up, but it becomes a solid gel when you cool it down. And so we take advantage of that. When theyre ready to extract the heart, all Feinberg has to do is raise the bath to body temperature, melting away the support gel and leaving behind the 3D-printed structure.

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This Squishy 3D-Printed Human Heart Feels Like the Real Thing - WIRED

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Mount Sinai Cardiologist Awarded $2.9 Million NIH Grant to Advance Work with Stem Cells and Heart Repair after Heart Attack – Cath Lab Digest

By daniellenierenberg

Research may lead to identifying novel therapies for cardiac patients

(New York, NY November 19, 2020) Human placental stem cells may have the potential to regenerate heart tissue after a heart attack, according to Mount Sinai researchers who have received a $2.9 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to study them. Their findings could lead to new therapies for repairing the heart and other organs.

Hina W. Chaudhry, MD,Director of Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, is the Principal Investigator for this four-year award.

This is very exciting. These cells may represent the ideal cell type for heart repair, which has been very challenging because clinical trials of other cell types did not find much benefit, says Dr. Chaudhry. Weve never before seen a stem cell type that can be harvested from an adult organthe placentaand has the ability to travel through the circulation and not be attacked by the immune system.

Dr. Chaudhry and a team of investigators previously discovered thatmouse placental stem cells can help the hearts of mice recover from injury that could otherwise lead to heart failure. They identified a specific type of placental stem cells, called Cdx2 cells, as the most effective in making heart cells regenerate. They discovered this by inducing heart attacks in groups of male mice and then injecting the placental Cdx2 cells isolated from females into their bloodstream. Imaging showed that the mice with Cdx2 stem cell treatments had significant improvement in cardiac function and regeneration of healthy tissue in the heart. The mice without this stem cell therapy went into heart failure and their hearts had no evidence of regeneration.

This team also found that the mouse Cdx2 cells have all the proteins of embryonic stem cells, which are known to generate all organs of the body, but also additional proteins, giving them the ability to travel directly to the injury site, which is something embryonic stem cells cannot do, and the Cdx2 cells appear to avoid the host immune response.

The new grant allows the researchers to build upon this discovery by isolating human Cdx2 cells from human placentas and studying their ability to grow heart cells. They also plan to expand into other organs and tissues in the future.

This was a serendipitous discovery based on clinical observations of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy. We surmised that stem cells originating from the placenta may be assisting in repair of the mothers heart and designed studies to identify the cell types involved. We then showed that they work very well in male mice also when isolated from female placentas and now we hope to design a human cell therapy strategy for heart regeneration with this grant. Given that these cells maintain all the stem properties of embryonic stem cells, we are hopeful to utilize them for other types of organ repair as well, adds Dr. Chaudhry.

The grant is being used in collaboration with the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pathology at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.

About the Mount Sinai Health System

The Mount Sinai Health System is New York City's largest academic medical system, encompassing eight hospitals, a leading medical school, and a vast network of ambulatory practices throughout the greater New York region. Mount Sinai is a national and international source of unrivaled education, translational research and discovery, and collaborative clinical leadership ensuring that we deliver the highest quality carefrom prevention to treatment of the most serious and complex human diseases. The Health System includes more than 7,200 physicians and features a robust and continually expanding network of multispecialty services, including more than 400 ambulatory practice locations throughout the five boroughs of New York City, Westchester, and Long Island.Mount Sinai Heart at The Mount Sinai Hospital is within the nations No. 6-ranked heart center, and The Mount Sinai Hospital is ranked No. 14on U.S. News & World Report's "Honor Roll" of the Top 20 Best Hospitals in the country and the Icahn School of Medicine as one of the Top 20 Best Medical Schools in country. Mount Sinai Health System hospitals are consistently ranked regionally by specialty and our physicians in the top 1% of all physicians nationally by U.S. News & World Report.

For more information, visithttps://www.mountsinai.orgor find Mount Sinai on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.

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Mount Sinai Cardiologist Awarded $2.9 Million NIH Grant to Advance Work with Stem Cells and Heart Repair after Heart Attack - Cath Lab Digest

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Leveraging the lung’s biogenesis to repair the heart – Advanced Science News

By daniellenierenberg

Stem cells found in the lungs can be redirected to the heart using a new inhaled antibody therapy to help boost healing following a heart attack.

Image credit: Jesse Orrico on Unsplash

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death globally. Medical advancements have lowered a persons risk of dying from an episode, but cell death and scar tissue that form afterward drastically increase the risk of eventual heart failure.

Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy used to help minimize long-term damage by regenerating new, healthy heart cells at damaged sites. However, their clinical application is hampered by poor cell engraftment, which comes with trying to grow new cells on a constantly moving organ.

Solutions to this have been proposed in the past, such as using durable patches to help the cells adhere to the heart surface, but a team of researchers from North Carolina State University propose that redirecting easy-to-access stem cells already found in the body could help spur repair in an injured heart.

Stem cells have become [] important for cardiomyocyte regeneration over the last two decades, wrote the team in their paper published in Advanced Science. In fact, as [part of] the bodys own repair mechanism, endogenous stem cells from the bone marrow are recruited into the heart. The issue, they point out, is that these stem cells lack the ability to properly target the heart, which hinders their ability to accumulate where they are needed.

In previous studies, the team demonstrated that heart attack biomarkers can be used to guide infused or endogenous stem cells to the site of cardiac injury. They also took advantage of cells called platelets, which help form blood clots and have an exceptional ability to target and accumulate in injured tissue.

By taking advantage of the injuryhoming ability of platelets, we can target stem cells to the [damaged] area, said the authors. [However], this strategy has a caveat: most of the bodys endogenous stem cells are produced in the bone marrow, and these cells are difficult to access.

The lung has recently been recognized as a site where both stem cells and navigator cells, such as platelets, are found in high concentrations. The team therefore sought to develop a strategy to link those two types of cells to provide an in-house treatment for repairing damaged cardiac tissue following a heart attack.

In this way, platelets can piggyback on stem cells found in the lungs called hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and bring them to the damaged site for repair, they said. To do this, they designed what is called a bispecific antibody, which is an artificial protein that can simultaneously bind to two different types of molecules. They are commonly used in treating cancers and different autoimmune diseases, but in the current study, the researchers used them to bind HSCs as well as platelets, to help the stem cells accumulate where they are needed.

An interesting and advantageous aspect of this strategy is the fact that the bispecific antibodies can be delivered through inhalation since their desired location is the lungs. Unlike previous strategies, this provides a safe, non-invansive, and convenient way of administration.

In the study, the team tested whether the inhaled antibodies could effectively link HSCs with platelets and redirect them to the injured heart, and bench-marked this route of administration against an intravenous infusion. It was found that the antibody therapy effectively conjoined HSCs and platelets, and the redirected stem cells helped promote repair and minimized inflammation at the site of injury, which led to increased cardiac function compared to controls. In addition, inhalation of the platelet-antibody therapy was found to be more efficient and specific than the intravenous route.

While there are limitations that still need to be overcome before this can move into clinical trials, this work demonstrates an innovative and easy approach to help boost heart healing and limit the long-term damage of heart attacks. The team is hopeful that this work can be used as a jumping point to help bring this type of treatment closer to clinical application.

Reference: Mengrui Liu, et al. Bispecific Antibody Inhalation Therapy for Redirecting Stem Cells from the Lungs to Repair Heart Injury. Advanced Science (2020). DOI: 10.1002/advs.202002127

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Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market Share, Growth by Top Company, Region, Application, Driver, Trends & Forecasts by 2026 – PRnews Leader

By daniellenierenberg

The Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market was valued at US$ XX million in 2019 and is projected to reach US$ XX million by 2025, at a CAGR of XX percentage during the forecast period. In this study, 2019 has been considered as the base and 2020 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market

Deep analysis about market status (2016-2019), competition pattern, advantages and disadvantages of products, industry development trends (2019-2025), regional industrial layout characteristics and macroeconomic policies, industrial policy has also been included. From raw materials to downstream buyers of this industry have been analysed scientifically. This report will help you to establish comprehensive overview of the Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market

Get a Sample Copy of the Report at: https://i2iresearch.com/report/global-autologous-stem-cell-based-therapies-market-2020-market-size-share-growth-trends-forecast-2025/

The Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market is analysed based on product types, major applications and key players

Key product type:Embryonic Stem CellResident Cardiac Stem CellsUmbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells

Key applications:Neurodegenerative DisordersAutoimmune DiseasesCardiovascular Diseases

Key players or companies covered are:RegeneusMesoblastPluristem Therapeutics IncU.S. STEM CELL, INC.Brainstorm Cell TherapeuticsTigenixMed cell Europe

The report provides analysis & data at a regional level (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa , Rest of the world) & Country level (13 key countries The U.S, Canada, Germany, France, UK, Italy, China, Japan, India, Middle East, Africa, South America)

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Key questions answered in the report:1. What is the current size of the Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market, at a global, regional & country level?2. How is the market segmented, who are the key end user segments?3. What are the key drivers, challenges & trends that is likely to impact businesses in the Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market?4. What is the likely market forecast & how will be Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market impacted?5. What is the competitive landscape, who are the key players?6. What are some of the recent M&A, PE / VC deals that have happened in the Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market?

The report also analysis the impact of COVID 19 based on a scenario-based modelling. This provides a clear view of how has COVID impacted the growth cycle & when is the likely recovery of the industry is expected to pre-covid levels.

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Organoids mimic the early development of the heart in mouse embryos – BioNews

By daniellenierenberg

16 November 2020

Organoids can be used to study early stages of heart development in mouse embryos, a new study shows.

Researchers from the cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, Switzerland, have reported that they were able to produce a mouse heart organoid from embryonic stem cells, which displayed essential features of an early developing heart. They suggested that this reveals a novel application of organoids for studying early embryonic stages of development.

'One of the advantages of embryonic organoids is that, through the co-development of multiple tissues, they preserve crucial interactions that are necessary for embryonic organogenesis,' said Dr Giuliana Rossi, lead author of the study. 'The emerging cardiac cells are thus exposed to a context similar to the one that they encounter in the embryo.'

In their study, published in Cell Stem Cell, the team exposed mouse embryonic stem cells to a mix of three factors involved in promoting heart growth. One week later, the stem cells self-organised into so-called gastruloids:organoids with an embryo-like organisation, which displayed signs of early heart development. The cell aggregatesnot only expressed several genes known to regulate cardiovascular development, but also generated a structure resembling a vascular network. Furthermore, the researchers found an 'anterior cardiac crescent-like domain' in the gastruloids, which even produced a beating heart tissue. Similar to the muscle cells of the embryonic heart, this area was also sensitive to calcium ions.

Organoids have been mostly the focus of research into the generation of adult tissues and organs for pharmaceutical and medical research. In their new publication, Professor Matthias Ltolf and his team suggested that they can also provide a system to study early embryonic stages of the developing heart and other organs, as they preserve important tissue-tissue interactions.

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Exosome Therapeutic Market 2020-2026 Thriving Worldwide || Major Gaints Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, ReNeuron…

By daniellenierenberg

In Exosome Therapeutic Market report, a systematic investment analysis has been performed which forecasts impending opportunities for the market players. The statistical and numerical data that has been included in this market report is represented with the tables, graphs and charts which eases the understanding of facts and figures. A proficient data and excellent forecasting techniques used in this report are synonymous with accurateness and correctness. Exosome Therapeutic Market report is a painstaking analysis of existing scenario of the market which covers several market dynamics. The market study of this global Exosome Therapeutic Market business report takes into consideration market attractiveness analysis where each segment is benchmarked based on its market size, growth rate & general attractiveness.

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Market Analysis and Insights:Global Exosome Therapeutic Market

Exosome therapeutic market is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2019 to 2026. Data Bridge Market Research analyses that the market is growing with a CAGR of 21.9% in the forecast period of 2019 to 2026 and expected to reach USD 31,691.52 million by 2026 from USD 6,500.00 million in 2018. Increasing prevalence of lyme disease, chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other chronic degenerative diseases are the factors for the market growth.

The major players covered in theExosome Therapeutic Marketreport areevox THERAPEUTICS, EXOCOBIO, Exopharm, AEGLE Therapeutics, United Therapeutics Corporation, Codiak BioSciences, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, ReNeuron Group plc, Capricor Therapeutics, Avalon Globocare Corp., CREATIVE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY HOLDINGS INC., Stem Cells Group among other players domestic and global.Exosome therapeutic market share data is available for Global, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America separately. DBMR analysts understand competitive strengths and provide competitive analysis for each competitor separately.

Get Full TOC, Tables and Figures of Market Report @https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-exosome-therapeutic-market&rp

Exosomes are used to transfer RNA, DNA, and proteins to other cells in the body by making alteration in the function of the target cells. Increasing research activities in exosome therapeutic is augmenting the market growth as demand for exosome therapeutic has increased among healthcare professionals.

Increased number of exosome therapeutics as compared to the past few years will accelerate the market growth. Companies are receiving funding for exosome therapeutic research and clinical trials. For instance, In September 2018, EXOCOBIO has raised USD 27 million in its series B funding. The company has raised USD 46 million as series a funding in April 2017. The series B funding will help the company to set up GMP-compliant exosome industrial facilities to enhance production of exosomes to commercialize in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry.

Increasing demand for anti-aging therapies will also drive the market. Unmet medical needs such as very few therapeutic are approved by the regulatory authority for the treatment in comparison to the demand in global exosome therapeutics market will hamper the market growth market. Availability of various exosome isolation and purification techniques is further creates new opportunities for exosome therapeutics as they will help company in isolation and purification of exosomes from dendritic cells, mesenchymal stem cells, blood, milk, body fluids, saliva, and urine and from others sources. Such policies support exosome therapeutic market growth in the forecast period to 2019-2026.

This exosome therapeutic market report provides details of market share, new developments, and product pipeline analysis, impact of domestic and localised market players, analyses opportunities in terms of emerging revenue pockets, changes in market regulations, product approvals, strategic decisions, product launches, geographic expansions, and technological innovations in the market. To understand the analysis and the market scenario contact us for anAnalyst Brief, our team will help you create a revenue impact solution to achieve your desired goal.

Global Exosome Therapeutic Market Scope and Market Size

Global exosome therapeutic market is segmented of the basis of type, source, therapy, transporting capacity, application, route of administration and end user. The growth among segments helps you analyse niche pockets of growth and strategies to approach the market and determine your core application areas and the difference in your target markets.

Based on type, the market is segmented into natural exosomes and hybrid exosomes. Natural exosomes are dominating in the market because natural exosomes are used in various biological and pathological processes as well as natural exosomes has many advantages such as good biocompatibility and reduced clearance rate compare than hybrid exosomes.

Exosome is an extracellular vesicle which is released from cells, particularly from stem cells. Exosome functions as vehicle for particular proteins and genetic information and other cells. Exosome plays a vital role in the rejuvenation and communication of all the cells in our body while not themselves being cells at all. Research has projected that communication between cells is significant in maintenance of healthy cellular terrain. Chronic disease, age, genetic disorders and environmental factors can affect stem cells communication with other cells and can lead to distribution in the healing process. The growth of the global exosome therapeutic market reflects global and country-wide increase in prevalence of autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases, along with increasing demand for anti-aging therapies. Additionally major factors expected to contribute in growth of the global exosome therapeutic market in future are emerging therapeutic value of exosome, availability of various exosome isolation and purification techniques, technological advancements in exosome and rising healthcare infrastructure.

Rising demand of exosome therapeutic across the globe as exosome therapeutic is expected to be one of the most prominent therapies for autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases treatment, according to clinical researches exosomes help to processes regulation within the body during treatment of autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases. This factor has increased the research activities in exosome therapeutic development around the world for exosome therapeutic. Hence, this factor is leading the clinician and researches to shift towards exosome therapeutic. In the current scenario the exosome therapeutic are highly used in treatment of autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases and as anti-aging therapy as it Exosomes has proliferation of fibroblast cells which is significant in maintenance of skin elasticity and strength.

Based on source, the market is segmented into dendritic cells, mesenchymal stem cells, blood, milk, body fluids, saliva, urine and others. Mesenchymal stem cells are dominating in the market because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewable, multipotent, easily manageable and customarily stretchy in vitro with exceptional genomic stability. Mesenchymal stem cells have a high capacity for genetic manipulation in vitro and also have good potential to produce. It is widely used in treatment of inflammatory and degenerative disease offspring cells encompassing the transgene after transplantation.

Based on therapy, the market is segmented into immunotherapy, gene therapy and chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is dominating in the market because chemotherapy is basically used in treatment of cancer which is major public health issues. The multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins and various tumors associated exosomes such as miRNA and IncRNA are include in in chemotherapy associated resistance.

Based on transporting capacity, the market is segmented into bio macromolecules and small molecules. Bio macromolecules are dominating in the market because bio macromolecules transmit particular biomolecular information and are basically investigated for their delicate properties such as biomarker source and delivery system.

Based on application, the market is segmented into oncology, neurology, metabolic disorders, cardiac disorders, blood disorders, inflammatory disorders, gynecology disorders, organ transplantation and others. Oncology segment is dominating in the market due to rising incidence of various cancers such as lung cancer, breast cancer, leukemia, skin cancer, lymphoma. As per the National Cancer Institute, in 2018 around 1,735,350 new cases of cancer was diagnosed in the U.S. As per the American Cancer Society Inc in 2019 approximately 268,600 new cases of breast cancer diagnosed in the U.S.

Based on route of administration, the market is segmented into oral and parenteral. Parenteral route is dominating in the market because it provides low drug concentration, free from first fast metabolism, low toxicity as compared to oral route as well as it is suitable in unconscious patients, complicated to swallow drug etc.

The exosome therapeutic market, by end user, is segmented into hospitals, diagnostic centers and research & academic institutes. Hospitals are dominating in the market because hospitals provide better treatment facilities and skilled staff as well as treatment available at affordable cost in government hospitals.

Exosome therapeutic Market Country Level Analysis

The global exosome therapeutic market is analysed and market size information is provided by country by type, source, therapy, transporting capacity, application, route of administration and end user as referenced above.

The countries covered in the exosome therapeutic market report are U.S. and Mexico in North America, Turkey in Europe, South Korea, Australia, Hong Kong in the Asia-Pacific, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Venezuela, Panama, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Paraguay, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, Uruguay as part of Latin America.

Country Level Analysis, By Type

North America dominates the exosome therapeutic market as the U.S. is leader in exosome therapeutic manufacturing as well as research activities required for exosome therapeutics. At present time Stem Cells Group holding shares around 60.00%. In addition global exosomes therapeutics manufacturers like EXOCOBIO, evox THERAPEUTICS and others are intensifying their efforts in China. The Europe region is expected to grow with the highest growth rate in the forecast period of 2019 to 2026 because of increasing research activities in exosome therapeutic by population.

The country section of the report also provides individual market impacting factors and changes in regulation in the market domestically that impacts the current and future trends of the market. Data points such as new sales, replacement sales, country demographics, regulatory acts and import-export tariffs are some of the major pointers used to forecast the market scenario for individual countries. Also, presence and availability of global brands and their challenges faced due to large or scarce competition from local and domestic brands, impact of sales channels are considered while providing forecast analysis of the country data.

Huge Investment by Automakers for Exosome Therapeutics and New Technology Penetration

Global exosome therapeutic market also provides you with detailed market analysis for every country growth in pharma industry with exosome therapeutic sales, impact of technological development in exosome therapeutic and changes in regulatory scenarios with their support for the exosome therapeutic market. The data is available for historic period 2010 to 2017.

Competitive Landscape and Exosome Therapeutic Market Share Analysis

Global exosome therapeutic market competitive landscape provides details by competitor. Details included are company overview, company financials, revenue generated, market potential, investment in research and development, new market initiatives, global presence, production sites and facilities, company strengths and weaknesses, product launch, product trials pipelines, concept cars, product approvals, patents, product width and breadth, application dominance, technology lifeline curve. The above data points provided are only related to the companys focus related to global exosome therapeutic market.

Many joint ventures and developments are also initiated by the companies worldwide which are also accelerating the global exosome therapeutic market.

For instance,

Partnership, joint ventures and other strategies enhances the company market share with increased coverage and presence. It also provides the benefit for organisation to improve their offering for exosome therapeutics through expanded model range.

Customization Available:Global Exosome Therapeutic Market

Data Bridge Market Researchis a leader in advanced formative research. We take pride in servicing our existing and new customers with data and analysis that match and suits their goal. The report can be customised to include price trend analysis of target brands understanding the market for additional countries (ask for the list of countries), clinical trial results data, literature review, refurbished market and product base analysis. Market analysis of target competitors can be analysed from technology-based analysis to market portfolio strategies. We can add as many competitors that you require data about in the format and data style you are looking for. Our team of analysts can also provide you data in crude raw excel files pivot tables (Factbook) or can assist you in creating presentations from the data sets available in the report.

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Exosome Therapeutic Market 2020-2026 Thriving Worldwide || Major Gaints Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, ReNeuron...

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FDA gives Cellectis all clear after patient death halted off-the-shelf CAR-T trial – Endpoints News

By daniellenierenberg

Four months after a patient death forced Cellectis to halt one of their off-the-shelf CAR-T trials, the FDA has given them the OK to start dosing patients again.

The Paris-based biotech said they changed the studys protocol to accommodate the agencys concerns, although they will still have to work with investigators to obtain local approval to restart the trial and start recruiting patients again. Prior its halt, the Phase I had sites in New York, New Jersey and Texas.

Cellectis did not disclose what the changes were, but after the initial hold, analysts suggested the company might monitor patient cytokine levels more closely, swap out of one of the chemotherapy drugs used or prevent patients who have previously received an experimental multiple myeloma CAR-T from enrolling.

The companys stock {CLLS} rose 5.6% on the news, from $19.70 to $20.80.

Though partnered with the new upstarts such as Arie Belldegruns Allogene, Cellectis, a 21-year-old company, has been working on off-the-shelf versions to the first CAR-Ts since before those CAR-Ts were approved.

One of three different solo projects now in the clinic, the halted study, MELANI-01, is testing a cell therapy for multiple myeloma. If effective, it could serve as a potentially easier way to manufacture and administer an alternative to the multiple myeloma CAR-Ts now nearing approval from J&J and Legend Biotech and from bluebird bio and Bristol Myers Squibb.

When they announced the hold, Cellectis CMO Carrie Brownstein said that the company had already independently decided to move forward with dose level 1 in the study. The patient who died had been the first to receive dose level 2, an infusion of 3 million cells per kilogram. They developed cytokine release syndrome, the hallmark side effect of CAR-T therapy, and died of cardiac arrest 25 days later.

The dose 1 level involves 1 million cells per kilogram.

The FDA has been on high alert for safety issues in cell therapy trials, and this wasnt the first time theyve paused a Cellectis study. Back in 2017, another patient death paused development of UCART123.

After some protocol adjustments, the therapy was allowed to go back into patients. It is now in a Phase I for blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm, a rare and aggressive blood cancer.

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UPDATED: Merck’s Keytruda nets another approval, this time in triple negative breast cancer. Can it catch up to Tecentriq? – Endpoints News

By daniellenierenberg

Another day, another win for Mercks blockbuster Keytruda.

The FDA has granted accelerated approval for the cash cow combined with chemotherapy in triple negative breast cancer, giving the drug the green light in its 18th different cancer. Mondays new indication comes for patients with PD-L1-expressing tumors with a Combined Positive Score of at least 10.

Merck noted that due to the nature of the accelerated approval, the thumbs up is contingent upon confirmatory trials.

Data for the approval first came back in February, when the Keynote-355 trial demonstrated Keytruda plus chemo significantly improved progression-free survival compared to chemo by itself. The study showed that, in the target population with a CPS of at least 10, the combination reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 35% with a median PFS of 9.7 months, against 5.6 months in the placebo arm.

On safety, the February data showed 2.5% of all patients in the drug arm saw fatal adverse events, including cardiac arrest and septic shock, with serious side effects appearing in 30% of patients. Keytruda was discontinued due to adverse events in 11% of patients.

Frontline triple negative breast cancer is a particularly difficult indication to treat, as the growth of the cancer is not fueled by the hormones estrogen and progesterone, or by the HER2 protein. Its one of the rare fields in which Roches PD-L1 Tecentriq has enjoyed a head start over Keytruda and Opdivo, the leaders in the checkpoint race, as Tecentriq is approved in combination with Abraxane for this indication.

Back in May 2019, Merck conceded a failure in the arena after a Phase III study flopped on overall survival. But a few months later, the pharma turned things around after discovering a neoadjuvant regimen of Keytruda and chemo followed by Keytruda monotherapy after surgery induced a higher pathological complete response rate.

Though execs presented that as a positive, some analysts didnt paint as sunny a picture. This past February, when the Keynote-355 topline data was first published, SVB Leerinks Daina Graybosch pointed out that because only patients with a CPS of at least 10 appeared to benefit, instead of a score of at least 1, it wont be able to treat as broad a population as Tecentriq. Roche, she noted, also has about a two-year head start.

A Merck spokesperson also had this to say about the CPS and IC percentages:

In TNBC, we measure PD-L1 with a combined positive score (CPS). The CPS includes staining for tumor cells, as well as tumor-infiltrating immune cells and it is not a percentage. We believe CPS 10 is roughly equivalent to how Roche scores PD-L1+ patients (IC>=1% based on the SP142 assay) on tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC). The prevalence of the PD-L1 positive population in TNBC whether by CPS of greater than or equal to 10 or IC of 1% is both about 40%.

Keytruda is already one of the best-selling drugs in the world, having notched roughly $3.9 billion in the first half of 2020 alone. Some have predicted the drug may overtake AbbVies Humira as the top seller within the next few years, with the most optimistic estimate pegged for $22.2 billion in sales by 2025.

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Global Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market 2020 Segmentation, Statistics, Top Manufacturers, Regional Analysis and Forecast to 2025 – The…

By daniellenierenberg

.biz has announced a business intelligence study on Global Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market 2020 by Company, Type and Application, Forecast to 2025 that reveals diverse information allowing keen market participants to understand the measures of the market. The report sheds light on market developments, noteworthy trends as well as competitive vendor activities and performance analysis. The report is aimed at offering readers real-time data vital to drive future-ready investment decisions. The research focuses on the dominant trends, persistent challenges, and threats, as well as budding opportunities influencing growth scenarios in the global Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies market. The market report is a comprehensive research that demonstrates overall consumption structure, development trends, well-known providers, and market segments.

Executive Summary:

The report assesses the historical and future timelines, accurate growth predictions, and forecast estimations, and fast-changing market forces. The report draws references for an extensive analysis of the global Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies market, entailing important details about key market players, with a broad overview of expansion probability and expansion strategies. The report has been designed and presented in the form of tables and figures and other statistical to generate higher reader perception. Later in the report, details on manufacturer information, leading market participants as well as other key players have also been added.

NOTE: Our analysts monitoring the situation across the globe explains that the market will generate remunerative prospects for producers post COVID-19 crisis. The report aims to provide an additional illustration of the latest scenario, economic slowdown, and COVID-19 impact on the overall industry.

DOWNLOAD FREE SAMPLE REPORT: https://www.marketsandresearch.biz/sample-request/67562

Understanding Scope:

Leading companies covered in the report include: Regeneus, US STEM CELL, INC., Mesoblast, Med cell Europe, Pluristem Therapeutics Inc, Tigenix, Brainstorm Cell Therapeutics

By the product type, the market is primarily split into: Embryonic Stem Cell, Resident Cardiac Stem Cells, Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells

By the end-users/application, this report covers the following segments: Neurodegenerative Disorders, Autoimmune Diseases, Cardiovascular Diseases

The report contains detailed market size and forecast for the following countries and regions: North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Southeast Asia and Australia), South America (Brazil, Argentina), Middle East & Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt and South Africa)

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Moreover, upstream raw materials, downstream demand analysis, and end-user industry listings have been studied with vendors in this global Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies market. Product flows and distribution channels were also presented in this research report. The report includes broad market segmentation based on the different product types, a wide application spectrum, the key regions, and the existing competition among players. In addition, the report reviews pricing analysis, profit margins, cost and demand volatility, import/export dynamics, gross revenue, and various other aspects of the market.

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Cell Therapy and Gene Therapy Markets, 2019-2020 & Forecast to 2025 and 2030 – ResearchAndMarkets.com – Business Wire

By daniellenierenberg

DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "Cell Therapy and Gene Therapy Markets" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

This is an exciting and interesting time in the cell and gene therapy industry. The science is moving ahead as industry industrializes and standardizes the manufacturing and commercialization of products. Cell and gene therapy products are transforming the treatment of cancers and genetic diseases, as well as expanding into other areas of medicine including autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disease, dermatological diseases, and many others.

Cell Therapy and Gene Therapy Markets presents the market in segments that provide an overview of disease epidemiology, market estimates and forecasts, and competitive summary of leading providers:

The report examines developments in cell and gene therapy markets by condition/disorder, including principal products, trends in research and development, market breakdown of cell and gene therapies, regional market summary, and competitor summary.

The following conditions/disorders are covered:

Dermatology, including:

Oncology, including:

Ophthalmic Conditions, including:

Other Conditions, including:

The report comments on the current COVID-19 cell and gene therapy pipeline. There are a number of companies that are responding to the call to develop a therapeutic or vaccine for the coronavirus, including:

The leading influencers in the market are those which have become first-to-market participants in the cell and gene therapy segment, have new developments which may disrupt current market conditions, and/or have an extensive pipeline sure to impact the market in the long-term forecast:

Because gene therapies are currently not available in any wide capacity, there is little precedent upon which to base forecasts. Dollar figures represent the estimated global market for 2019 and the expected market for 2020 based on first-quarter company reports and are expressed in current dollars. Forecasts are provided through 2025 and an extended forecast for 2030. The size of each market segment refers to manufacturers' revenues.

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/ek1qqb

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The Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Therapy market to be in conjunction to growth from 2018 to 2026 – PRnews Leader

By daniellenierenberg

Stem cells are biological cells which have the ability to distinguish into specialized cells, which are capable of cell division through mitosis. Amniotic fluid stem cells are a collective mixture of stem cells obtained from amniotic tissues and fluid. Amniotic fluid is clear, slightly yellowish liquid which surrounds the fetus during pregnancy and is discarded as medical waste during caesarean section deliveries. Amniotic fluid is a source of valuable biological material which includes stem cells which can be potentially used in cell therapy and regenerative therapies. Amniotic fluid stem cells can be developed into a different type of tissues such as cartilage, skin, cardiac nerves, bone, and muscles. Amniotic fluid stem cells are able to find the damaged joint caused by rheumatoid arthritis and differentiate tissues which are damaged.

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Medical conditions where no drug is able to lessen the symptoms and begin the healing process are the major target for amniotic fluid stem cell therapy. Amniotic fluid stem cells therapy is a solution to those patients who do not want to undergo surgery. Amniotic fluid has a high concentration of stem cells, cytokines, proteins and other important components. Amniotic fluid stem cell therapy is safe and effective treatment which contain growth factor helps to stimulate tissue growth, naturally reduce inflammation. Amniotic fluid also contains hyaluronic acid which acts as a lubricant and promotes cartilage growth.

With increasing technological advancement in the healthcare, amniotic fluid stem cell therapy has more advantage over the other therapy. Amniotic fluid stem cell therapy eliminates the chances of surgery and organs are regenerated, without causing any damage. These are some of the factors driving the growth of amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market over the forecast period. Increasing prevalence of chronic diseases which can be treated with the amniotic fluid stem cell therapy propel the market growth for amniotic fluid stem cell therapy, globally. Increasing funding by the government in research and development of stem cell therapy may drive the amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market growth. But, high procedure cost, difficulties in collecting the amniotic fluid and lack of reimbursement policies hinder the growth of amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market.

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The global amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market is segmented on basis of treatment, application, end user and geography:

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Rapid technological advancement in healthcare, and favorable results of the amniotic fluid stem cells therapy will increase the market for amniotic fluid stem cell therapy over the forecast period. Increasing public-private investment for stem cells in managing disease and improving healthcare infrastructure are expected to propel the growth of the amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market.

However, on the basis of geography, global Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Therapy Market is segmented into six key regionsviz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific Excluding China, China and Middle East & Africa. North America captured the largest shares in global Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Therapy Market and is projected to continue over the forecast period owing to technological advancement in the healthcare and growing awareness among the population towards the new research and development in the stem cell therapy. Europe is expected to account for the second largest revenue share in the amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market. The Asia Pacific is anticipated to have rapid growth in near future owing to increasing healthcare set up and improving healthcare expenditure. Latin America and the Middle East and Africa account for slow growth in the market of amniotic fluid stem cell therapy due to lack of medical facilities and technical knowledge.

Some of the key players operating in global amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market are Stem Shot, Provia Laboratories LLC, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. Mesoblast Ltd., Roslin Cells, Regeneus Ltd. etc. among others.

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The Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Therapy market to be in conjunction to growth from 2018 to 2026 - PRnews Leader

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Exploring Genetic Variation and COVID-19 Clinical Variability – Technology Networks

By daniellenierenberg

One of the biggest challenges that scientists and healthcare professionals are facing during the COVID-19 pandemic is the high rate of clinical variability. Whilst some patients present as asymptomatic, others are developing more severe symptoms such as pneumonia, and some cases are ultimately proving fatal. Why?The answer remains elusive; however, extensive research is exploring the possible contribution our genetics may be having. Genetic variation differences in the DNA sequences that make up our genome can impact our response to infectious diseases.

GoodCell uniquely measures and monitors inherited and acquired genetic variations in stem cells and other nucleated cells in our blood over time. Technology Networks recently spoke with Dr Salvatore Viscomi, chief medical officer at GoodCell, and attending physical at Baystate Health, to explore factors that might influence COVID-19 risk, and to discuss how the company is working to identify at-risk individuals through genetic variation analysis.

Molly Campbell (MC): For our readers that may be unfamiliar, can you discuss why medicine is moving towards a personalized approach, and why this is important considering genetic variation?Salvatore Viscomi (SV): Healthcare has traditionally taken the approach of one size fits all in defining individual risk for a disease and prescribing therapy for it. Understanding the differences between individuals on a molecular level optimizes assessment of an individuals susceptibility to a certain disease and predicting response to pharmacological therapy. Genomics plays the most important role in the emergence of personalized therapy. Identifying the inherited and acquired genetic variation will direct personalized screening and prevention plans and inform bespoke medical therapies.

MC: We know that there is high clinical variability across COVID-19 patients. How might genetic variation be contributing here, and what published evidence exists to support this?SV: Understanding immune response is critical to identifying individuals at high risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Emerging research suggests that accumulated genetic variation in our blood cells may be associated with a dysfunctional inflammatory response to COVID-19 leading to its pulmonary, cardiac and coagulopathic complications.

In a recent study published by JAMA Cardiology, researchers demonstrated an association between the presence of accumulated genetic change in our blood cells and a pro-inflammatory immune response that resembles the exaggerated cytokine release syndrome (CRS) manifested in COVID-19-positive patients. Direct evidence has emerged more recently; a study published in Cancers examined patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and found a significantly higher prevalence of accumulated genetic variation in all age groups compared to age-matched control groups.

MC: What impact might genetic variation in COVID-19 patients have on efforts to develop therapeutics or preventives, such as vaccines?SV: Identifying highly susceptible individuals through blood testing could have many applications. As an initial wave of vaccines move through Phase III trials and potentially come to market, we would have the data to determine prioritization of vaccinations when one is available. Business and government sectors need insight into risk factors that can inform inoculation strategies for societys most vulnerable, inform decisions around who should and should not be on the front lines, and give people more control when making personal decisions about how to mitigate individual risk. The broader field of genetics offers a window into the potential to correlate inherited and acquired gene mutations with immune response for the betterment of society, providing a more robust and accurate set of risk factors unique to every individual.

Furthermore, in high-risk individuals, targeting inflammation may be a clinical strategy to mitigate its clinical consequencesin COVID-19. For example, we may identify patients who are most responsive to pro-inflammatory inhibitors. Implementing measures intended to reduce subjects exposure to the infection or likelihood of contracting such infection through self-isolation, quarantine or social distancing may be advised.

MC: Can you explain the aims of GoodCell, and what the company does in terms of "banking blood for life"?SV: GoodCells mission is to extend and improve the quality of life through technology powered by our own cells. Blood is the author of our bodies, and can both cure as well as cause disease. Through our proprietary data aggregation and analytics technology platform, which aims to decode our blood cells and harness their insights to advance population and personal health, we empower individuals to identify, track and mitigate health risks. By getting ahead of their health risks, we enable the potential for a better life. In addition, through our personal biobanking service, long-term storage of your healthiest cells provides the opportunity for potential use in future therapeutics if you need them you are your best donor.

MC: Does GoodCell measure other "omics" parameters outside of genomics (DNA measurements and analysis), such as proteomics or metabolomics?SV: GoodCells platform leverages the power of blood to assess risk as such, we of course look at acquired and inherited genetic changes, but there are many more opportunities afforded by blood to understand and assess risk including routine blood chemistry tests, tests for biomarkers of disease, including emerging capabilities in liquid biopsy for earlier detection of solid tumor cancers. Ultimately, we are always looking to incorporate novel health and data insights into our product platform to better inform both an individuals health, as well as population-based health. Transcriptomics, epigenomics and metabolomics are but a few of the opportunities we are evaluating.

MC: What work is GoodCell currently conducting in the COVID-19 space?SV: GoodCell is currently engaged in a research collaboration with the New York Blood Center to evaluate how specific acquired and inherited genetic variation contribute to COVID-19 severity and recovery. We are analyzing genetic variation in asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic patients compared to hospitalized/ICU patients. GoodCell will evaluate the genetic variation in the collected samples using our proprietary assay platform to identify and validate their association with COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.

Salvatore Viscomi was speaking to Molly Campbell, Science Writer, Technology Networks.

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Exploring Genetic Variation and COVID-19 Clinical Variability - Technology Networks

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KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) Plus LENVIMA (lenvatinib) Demonstrated Statistically Significant Improvement in Progression-Free Survival (PFS), Overall…

By daniellenierenberg

KENILWORTH, N.J., & WOODCLIFF LAKE, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Nov 10, 2020--

Merck (NYSE: MRK):

KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) Plus LENVIMA (lenvatinib) Demonstrated Statistically Significant Improvement inProgression-Free Survival (PFS), Overall Survival (OS) and Objective Response Rate (ORR) Versus Sunitinib as First-Line Treatment for Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

LENVIMA Plus Everolimus Also Showed Statistically Significant Improvement in PFS and ORR Endpoints Versus Sunitinib

Results of Investigational Phase 3 KEYNOTE-581/CLEAR Trial (Study 307) to be Presented at Upcoming Medical Meeting

Merck (NYSE: MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, and Eisai today announced new investigational data demonstrating positive top-line results from the pivotal Phase 3 KEYNOTE-581/CLEAR trial (Study 307). In the trial, the combinations of KEYTRUDA, Mercks anti-PD-1 therapy, plus LENVIMA, the orally available multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovered by Eisai, and LENVIMA plus everolimus were evaluated versus sunitinib for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). KEYTRUDA plus LENVIMA met the trials primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS) and its key secondary endpoints of overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR), demonstrating a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in PFS, OS and ORR versus sunitinib in the intention-to-treat (ITT) study population. LENVIMA plus everolimus also met the trials primary endpoint of PFS and a key secondary endpoint of ORR, demonstrating a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in PFS and ORR versus sunitinib in the ITT study population. The ITT population included patients across all Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk groups (favorable, intermediate and poor). The safety profiles of both KEYTRUDA plus LENVIMA and LENVIMA plus everolimus were consistent with previously reported studies. Merck and Eisai will discuss these data with regulatory authorities worldwide, with the intent to submit marketing authorization applications based on these results, which will be presented at an upcoming medical meeting.

The results for KEYTRUDA plus LENVIMA versus sunitinib, which showed a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival, overall survival and objective response rate, build on the growing scientific evidence that supports the investigation of KEYTRUDA-based combinations for the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma, said Dr. Gregory Lubiniecki, Associate Vice President, Oncology Clinical Research, Merck Research Laboratories. Merck and Eisai are committed to working together to continue to explore the potential of the KEYTRUDA plus LENVIMA combination, particularly in areas of great unmet need such as renal cell carcinoma.

The results from KEYNOTE-581/CLEAR (Study 307) support the potential use of KEYTRUDA plus LENVIMA for the first-line treatment of advanced RCC. These data also support the potential first-line use of LENVIMA plus everolimus, which is already approved in advanced RCC following prior antiangiogenic therapy, said Dr. Takashi Owa, Vice President, Chief Medicine Creation and Chief Discovery Officer, Oncology Business Group at Eisai. These findings energize our efforts as we continue to advance our understanding and address the unmet needs of patients with difficult-to-treat cancers.

Merck and Eisai are continuing to study the KEYTRUDA plus LENVIMA combination through the LEAP (LEnvatinib And Pembrolizumab) clinical program across 19 trials in 13 different tumor types (endometrial carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, RCC, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, urothelial cancer, biliary tract cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, glioblastoma, ovarian cancer and triple-negative breast cancer).

About KEYNOTE-581/CLEAR (Study 307)

KEYNOTE-581/CLEAR (Study 307) is a multi-center, randomized, open-label, Phase 3 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02811861 ) evaluating LENVIMA in combination with KEYTRUDA or in combination with everolimus versus sunitinib for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced RCC. The primary endpoint is PFS by independent review per RECIST v1.1 criteria. Key secondary endpoints include OS, ORR and safety. The study enrolled approximately 1,050 patients who were randomized to one of three treatment arms to receive:

About Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)

Worldwide, it is estimated there were more than 403,000 new cases of kidney cancer diagnosed and more than 175,000 deaths from the disease in 2018. In the U.S. alone, it is estimated there will be nearly 74,000 new cases of kidney cancer diagnosed and almost 15,000 deaths from the disease in 2020. Renal cell carcinoma is by far the most common type of kidney cancer; about nine out of 10 kidney cancers are RCCs. Renal cell carcinoma is about twice as common in men as in women. Most cases of RCC are discovered incidentally during imaging tests for other abdominal diseases. Approximately 30% of patients with RCC will have metastatic disease at diagnosis, and as many as 40% will develop metastases after primary surgical treatment for localized RCC. Survival is highly dependent on the stage at diagnosis, and with a five-year survival rate of 12% for metastatic disease, the prognosis for these patients is poor.

About KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) Injection, 100 mg

KEYTRUDA is an anti-PD-1 therapy that works by increasing the ability of the bodys immune system to help detect and fight tumor cells. KEYTRUDA is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, thereby activating T lymphocytes which may affect both tumor cells and healthy cells.

Merck has the industrys largest immuno-oncology clinical research program. There are currently more than 1,200 trials studying KEYTRUDA across a wide variety of cancers and treatment settings. The KEYTRUDA clinical program seeks to understand the role of KEYTRUDA across cancers and the factors that may predict a patient's likelihood of benefitting from treatment with KEYTRUDA, including exploring several different biomarkers.

Selected KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) Indications

Melanoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of patients with melanoma with involvement of lymph node(s) following complete resection.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

KEYTRUDA, in combination with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations.

KEYTRUDA, in combination with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or paclitaxel protein-bound, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic squamous NSCLC.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with NSCLC expressing PD-L1 [tumor proportion score (TPS) 1%] as determined by an FDA-approved test, with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations, and is stage III where patients are not candidates for surgical resection or definitive chemoradiation, or metastatic.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors express PD-L1 (TPS 1%) as determined by an FDA-approved test, with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy. Patients with EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations should have disease progression on FDA-approved therapy for these aberrations prior to receiving KEYTRUDA.

Small Cell Lung Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy and at least 1 other prior line of therapy. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

KEYTRUDA, in combination with platinum and fluorouracil (FU), is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic or with unresectable, recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic or with unresectable, recurrent HNSCC whose tumors express PD-L1 [combined positive score (CPS) 1] as determined by an FDA-approved test.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy.

Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL).

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients with refractory cHL, or cHL that has relapsed after 2 or more lines of therapy.

Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with refractory primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL), or who have relapsed after 2 or more prior lines of therapy. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials. KEYTRUDA is not recommended for treatment of patients with PMBCL who require urgent cytoreductive therapy.

Urothelial Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who are not eligible for cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and whose tumors express PD-L1 [combined positive score (CPS) 10], as determined by an FDA-approved test, or in patients who are not eligible for any platinum-containing chemotherapy regardless of PD-L1 status. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy or within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-unresponsive, high-risk, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with carcinoma in situ (CIS) with or without papillary tumors who are ineligible for or have elected not to undergo cystectomy.

Microsatellite Instability-High or Mismatch Repair Deficient Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR)

This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials. The safety and effectiveness of KEYTRUDA in pediatric patients with MSI-H central nervous system cancers have not been established.

Microsatellite Instability-High or Mismatch Repair Deficient Colorectal Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic MSI-H or dMMR colorectal cancer (CRC).

Gastric Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma whose tumors express PD-L1 (CPS 1) as determined by an FDA-approved test, with disease progression on or after two or more prior lines of therapy including fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-containing chemotherapy and if appropriate, HER2/neu-targeted therapy. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Esophageal Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus whose tumors express PD-L1 (CPS 10) as determined by an FDA-approved test, with disease progression after one or more prior lines of systemic therapy.

Cervical Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer with disease progression on or after chemotherapy whose tumors express PD-L1 (CPS 1) as determined by an FDA-approved test. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have been previously treated with sorafenib. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Merkel Cell Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA, in combination with axitinib, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Endometrial Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA, in combination with LENVIMA, is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced endometrial carcinoma that is not MSI-H or dMMR, who have disease progression following prior systemic therapy and are not candidates for curative surgery or radiation. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trial.

Tumor Mutational Burden-High

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic tumor mutational burden-high (TMB-H) [10 mutations/megabase (mut/Mb)] solid tumors, as determined by an FDA-approved test, that have progressed following prior treatment and who have no satisfactory alternative treatment options. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials. The safety and effectiveness of KEYTRUDA in pediatric patients with TMB-H central nervous system cancers have not been established.

Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) that is not curable by surgery or radiation.

Selected Important Safety Information for KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab)

Immune-Mediated Pneumonitis

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis, including fatal cases. Pneumonitis occurred in 3.4% (94/2799) of patients with various cancers receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 1 (0.8%), 2 (1.3%), 3 (0.9%), 4 (0.3%), and 5 (0.1%). Pneumonitis occurred in 8.2% (65/790) of NSCLC patients receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, including Grades 3-4 in 3.2% of patients, and occurred more frequently in patients with a history of prior thoracic radiation (17%) compared to those without (7.7%). Pneumonitis occurred in 6% (18/300) of HNSCC patients receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, including Grades 3-5 in 1.6% of patients, and occurred in 5.4% (15/276) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with platinum and FU as first-line therapy for advanced disease, including Grades 3-5 in 1.5% of patients.

Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of pneumonitis. Evaluate suspected pneumonitis with radiographic imaging. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater pneumonitis. Withhold KEYTRUDA for Grade 2; permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA for Grade 3 or 4 or recurrent Grade 2 pneumonitis.

Immune-Mediated Colitis

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated colitis. Colitis occurred in 1.7% (48/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 2 (0.4%), 3 (1.1%), and 4 (<0.1%). Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of colitis. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater colitis. Withhold KEYTRUDA for Grade 2 or 3; permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA for Grade 4 colitis.

Immune-Mediated Hepatitis (KEYTRUDA) and Hepatotoxicity (KEYTRUDA in Combination With Axitinib)

Immune-Mediated Hepatitis

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated hepatitis. Hepatitis occurred in 0.7% (19/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 2 (0.1%), 3 (0.4%), and 4 (<0.1%). Monitor patients for changes in liver function. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater hepatitis and, based on severity of liver enzyme elevations, withhold or discontinue KEYTRUDA.

Hepatotoxicity in Combination With Axitinib

KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib can cause hepatic toxicity with higher than expected frequencies of Grades 3 and 4 ALT and AST elevations compared to KEYTRUDA alone. With the combination of KEYTRUDA and axitinib, Grades 3 and 4 increased ALT (20%) and increased AST (13%) were seen. Monitor liver enzymes before initiation of and periodically throughout treatment. Consider more frequent monitoring of liver enzymes as compared to when the drugs are administered as single agents. For elevated liver enzymes, interrupt KEYTRUDA and axitinib, and consider administering corticosteroids as needed.

Immune-Mediated Endocrinopathies

KEYTRUDA can cause adrenal insufficiency (primary and secondary), hypophysitis, thyroid disorders, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Adrenal insufficiency occurred in 0.8% (22/2799) of patients, including Grade 2 (0.3%), 3 (0.3%), and 4 (<0.1%). Hypophysitis occurred in 0.6% (17/2799) of patients, including Grade 2 (0.2%), 3 (0.3%), and 4 (<0.1%). Hypothyroidism occurred in 8.5% (237/2799) of patients, including Grade 2 (6.2%) and 3 (0.1%). The incidence of new or worsening hypothyroidism was higher in 1185 patients with HNSCC (16%) receiving KEYTRUDA, as a single agent or in combination with platinum and FU, including Grade 3 (0.3%) hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism occurred in 3.4% (96/2799) of patients, including Grade 2 (0.8%) and 3 (0.1%), and thyroiditis occurred in 0.6% (16/2799) of patients, including Grade 2 (0.3%). Type 1 diabetes mellitus, including diabetic ketoacidosis, occurred in 0.2% (6/2799) of patients.

Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, hypophysitis (including hypopituitarism), thyroid function (prior to and periodically during treatment), and hyperglycemia. For adrenal insufficiency or hypophysitis, administer corticosteroids and hormone replacement as clinically indicated. Withhold KEYTRUDA for Grade 2 adrenal insufficiency or hypophysitis and withhold or discontinue KEYTRUDA for Grade 3 or Grade 4 adrenal insufficiency or hypophysitis. Administer hormone replacement for hypothyroidism and manage hyperthyroidism with thionamides and beta-blockers as appropriate. Withhold or discontinue KEYTRUDA for Grade 3 or 4 hyperthyroidism. Administer insulin for type 1 diabetes, and withhold KEYTRUDA and administer antihyperglycemics in patients with severe hyperglycemia.

Immune-Mediated Nephritis and Renal Dysfunction

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated nephritis. Nephritis occurred in 0.3% (9/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 2 (0.1%), 3 (0.1%), and 4 (<0.1%) nephritis. Nephritis occurred in 1.7% (7/405) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy. Monitor patients for changes in renal function. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater nephritis. Withhold KEYTRUDA for Grade 2; permanently discontinue for Grade 3 or 4 nephritis.

Immune-Mediated Skin Reactions

Immune-mediated rashes, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) (some cases with fatal outcome), exfoliative dermatitis, and bullous pemphigoid, can occur. Monitor patients for suspected severe skin reactions and based on the severity of the adverse reaction, withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA and administer corticosteroids. For signs or symptoms of SJS or TEN, withhold KEYTRUDA and refer the patient for specialized care for assessment and treatment. If SJS or TEN is confirmed, permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA.

Other Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

Immune-mediated adverse reactions, which may be severe or fatal, can occur in any organ system or tissue in patients receiving KEYTRUDA and may also occur after discontinuation of treatment. For suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, ensure adequate evaluation to confirm etiology or exclude other causes. Based on the severity of the adverse reaction, withhold KEYTRUDA and administer corticosteroids. Upon improvement to Grade 1 or less, initiate corticosteroid taper and continue to taper over at least 1 month. Based on limited data from clinical studies in patients whose immune-related adverse reactions could not be controlled with corticosteroid use, administration of other systemic immunosuppressants can be considered. Resume KEYTRUDA when the adverse reaction remains at Grade 1 or less following corticosteroid taper. Permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA for any Grade 3 immune-mediated adverse reaction that recurs and for any life-threatening immune-mediated adverse reaction.

The following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred in less than 1% (unless otherwise indicated) of 2799 patients: arthritis (1.5%), uveitis, myositis, Guillain-Barr syndrome, myasthenia gravis, vasculitis, pancreatitis, hemolytic anemia, sarcoidosis, and encephalitis. In addition, myelitis and myocarditis were reported in other clinical trials, including classical Hodgkin lymphoma, and postmarketing use.

Treatment with KEYTRUDA may increase the risk of rejection in solid organ transplant recipients. Consider the benefit of treatment vs the risk of possible organ rejection in these patients.

Infusion-Related Reactions

KEYTRUDA can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions, including hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis, which have been reported in 0.2% (6/2799) of patients. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of infusion-related reactions. For Grade 3 or 4 reactions, stop infusion and permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA.

Complications of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)

Immune-mediated complications, including fatal events, occurred in patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT after treatment with KEYTRUDA. Of 23 patients with cHL who proceeded to allogeneic HSCT after KEYTRUDA, 6 (26%) developed graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (1 fatal case) and 2 (9%) developed severe hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) after reduced-intensity conditioning (1 fatal case). Cases of fatal hyperacute GVHD after allogeneic HSCT have also been reported in patients with lymphoma who received a PD-1 receptorblocking antibody before transplantation. Follow patients closely for early evidence of transplant-related complications such as hyperacute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), Grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD, steroid-requiring febrile syndrome, hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), and other immune-mediated adverse reactions.

In patients with a history of allogeneic HSCT, acute GVHD (including fatal GVHD) has been reported after treatment with KEYTRUDA. Patients who experienced GVHD after their transplant procedure may be at increased risk for GVHD after KEYTRUDA. Consider the benefit of KEYTRUDA vs the risk of GVHD in these patients.

Increased Mortality in Patients With Multiple Myeloma

In trials in patients with multiple myeloma, the addition of KEYTRUDA to a thalidomide analogue plus dexamethasone resulted in increased mortality. Treatment of these patients with a PD-1 or PD-L1 blocking antibody in this combination is not recommended outside of controlled trials.

Embryofetal Toxicity

Based on its mechanism of action, KEYTRUDA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise women of this potential risk. In females of reproductive potential, verify pregnancy status prior to initiating KEYTRUDA and advise them to use effective contraception during treatment and for 4 months after the last dose.

Adverse Reactions

In KEYNOTE-006, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 9% of 555 patients with advanced melanoma; adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation in more than one patient were colitis (1.4%), autoimmune hepatitis (0.7%), allergic reaction (0.4%), polyneuropathy (0.4%), and cardiac failure (0.4%). The most common adverse reactions (20%) with KEYTRUDA were fatigue (28%), diarrhea (26%), rash (24%), and nausea (21%).

In KEYNOTE-002, KEYTRUDA was permanently discontinued due to adverse reactions in 12% of 357 patients with advanced melanoma; the most common (1%) were general physical health deterioration (1%), asthenia (1%), dyspnea (1%), pneumonitis (1%), and generalized edema (1%). The most common adverse reactions were fatigue (43%), pruritus (28%), rash (24%), constipation (22%), nausea (22%), diarrhea (20%), and decreased appetite (20%).

In KEYNOTE-054, KEYTRUDA was permanently discontinued due to adverse reactions in 14% of 509 patients; the most common (1%) were pneumonitis (1.4%), colitis (1.2%), and diarrhea (1%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 25% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA. The most common adverse reaction (20%) with KEYTRUDA was diarrhea (28%).

In KEYNOTE-189, when KEYTRUDA was administered with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy in metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 20% of 405 patients. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were pneumonitis (3%) and acute kidney injury (2%). The most common adverse reactions (20%) with KEYTRUDA were nausea (56%), fatigue (56%), constipation (35%), diarrhea (31%), decreased appetite (28%), rash (25%), vomiting (24%), cough (21%), dyspnea (21%), and pyrexia (20%).

In KEYNOTE-407, when KEYTRUDA was administered with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or paclitaxel protein-bound in metastatic squamous NSCLC, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 15% of 101 patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 2% of patients were febrile neutropenia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection. Adverse reactions observed in KEYNOTE-407 were similar to those observed in KEYNOTE-189 with the exception that increased incidences of alopecia (47% vs 36%) and peripheral neuropathy (31% vs 25%) were observed in the KEYTRUDA and chemotherapy arm compared to the placebo and chemotherapy arm in KEYNOTE-407.

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KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) Plus LENVIMA (lenvatinib) Demonstrated Statistically Significant Improvement in Progression-Free Survival (PFS), Overall...

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Global Progenitor Cell Product Professional Survey 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Types and Applications, Forecast to 2026 – Zenit News

By daniellenierenberg

The report on the Progenitor Cell Product Market offers elaborated knowledge on the Progenitor Cell Product market. parts like dominating firms, classification, size, business atmosphere, SWOT analysis, and most effectual trends within the business area unit comprised during this analysis study. In this report, the global Progenitor Cell Product market is valued at USD XX million in 2020and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2026, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2020and 2026. additionally to the current, the report sports charts, numbers, and tables that provide a transparent viewpoint of the Progenitor Cell Product market. The dominant firms NeuroNova AB, StemCells, ReNeuron Limited, Asterias Biotherapeutics, Thermo Fisher Scientific, STEMCELL Technologies, Axol Bio, RD Systems, Lonza, ATCC, Irvine Scientific, CDI area unit to boot mentioned within the report.

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The latest knowledge has been conferred within the Global Progenitor Cell Product market study on the revenue numbers, product details, and sales of the foremost corporations. additionally, to the current, this data conjointly includes the breakdown of the revenue for the Progenitor Cell Product market additionally to claiming a forecast for a similar within the calculable timeframe. The strategic business techniques accepted by the noteworthy members of the Global Progenitor Cell Product market have conjointly been integrated during this report. Key weaknesses and strengths, additionally to claiming the hazards encountered by the most contenders within the Progenitor Cell Product market, are a fraction of this analysis study. The report conjointly categorizes the market into main product kind Pancreatic progenitor cells, Cardiac Progenitor Cells, Intermediate progenitor cells, Neural progenitor cellsEndothelial progenitor cellsOthers and the sub-segments Medical care, Hospital, Laboratory of the Progenitor Cell Product market are depicted in the report

NOTE:Our report highlights the major issues and risks that companies might come across due to the exceptionaloutbreak of COVID-19.

The Global Progenitor Cell Product market report includes a profound outline of the key sectors of the Progenitor Cell Product market. each quickly and slowly growing sectors of the Progenitor Cell Product market are examined via this study. Forecast, share of the market, and size of every s and sub-segment is getable within the study. The key energetic possibilities associated with the foremost quickly growing segments of the market also are a fracturing of this report. what is more, classification supported geographies also because the trends powering the leading regional markets and developing geographies is obtainable during this analysis study. the Global Progenitor Cell Product market report wraps regions that area unit in the main classified into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Mideast and Africa.

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There are 15 Chapters to display the Global Progenitor Cell Product market

Chapter 1,Definition, Specifications and Classification of Progenitor Cell Product, Applications of Progenitor Cell Product, Market Segment by Regions;Chapter 2,Manufacturing Cost Structure, Raw Material, and Suppliers, Manufacturing Process, Industry Chain Structure;Chapter 3,Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Progenitor Cell Product, Capacity, and Commercial Production Date, Manufacturing Plants Distribution, R&D Status and Technology Source, Raw Materials Sources Analysis;Chapter 4,Overall Market Analysis, Capacity Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment);Chapter 5 and 6,Regional Market Analysis that includes the United States, China, Europe, Japan, Korea & Taiwan, Progenitor Cell Product Segment Market Analysis (by Type);Chapter 7 and 8,The Progenitor Cell Product Segment Market Analysis (by Application) Major Manufacturers Analysis of Progenitor Cell Product ;Chapter 9,Market Trend Analysis, Regional Market Trend, Market Trend by Product Type Pancreatic progenitor cells, Cardiac Progenitor Cells, Intermediate progenitor cells, Neural progenitor cellsEndothelial progenitor cellsOthers, Market Trend by Application;Chapter 10,Regional Marketing Type Analysis, International Trade Type Analysis, Supply Chain Analysis;Chapter 11,The Consumers Analysis of Global Progenitor Cell Product ;Chapter 12,Progenitor Cell Product Research Findings and Conclusion, Appendix, methodology and data source;Chapter 13, 14, and 15,Progenitor Cell Product sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix, and data source.

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Advancement: Know the Rapid Growth Factors of Biopreservation Market| Stay Up-To-Date With Emerging – PharmiWeb.com

By daniellenierenberg

Pune, Maharashtra,India, November 9 2020 (Wiredrelease) Origius Systems Private Limited :The increasing occurrence of chronic ailments and obesity all over the world is driving the global biopreservation market growth. The North America region is expected to lead the market growth in the projected period.

A latest report by Research Dive on the global biopreservation market reveals that the market is projected to hit $13,576.3 million by 2027, rising at a CAGR of 13.8% from 2020 to 2027. The report states the current outlook and future growth of the market. The research report is a perfect source of guidance for companies and individuals interested in investing in the market.

The report covers the following aspects:

A brief introduction of the market with its definition, advantages, and application areas. Inclusive insights on the market situation, dynamics, statistics, growth rate, revenues, market shares, and future predictions. Major market segments, drivers, limitations, and investment suitability. Current scenario of the global and regional market from the perspective of companies, countries, and end industries. Insights on foremost market players, current market trends & developments, SWOT Analysis, Porter Five Analysis, and winning business strategies.

Connect with Our Analyst to Contextualize Our Insights for Your Business:https://www.researchdive.com/connect-to-analyst/369

Factors Impacting the Market Growth:

According to the report, growing occurrence of chronic ailments like diabetes, cardiac, degenerative conditions affecting the joints, nerves, bones, and others as well as obesity all over the world are thrusting the demand for biopreservation techniques, which is fueling the growth of the market. Additionally, the increasing investments in R&D and development of advanced biopreservation products is expected to unlock rewarding opportunities for the market growth. However, greater costs involved in biopreservation processes, reliability concerns, and invention of low-priced processes are likely to detain the biopreservation market growth.

Segment Analysis:

The report segments the biopreservation market into type, biospecimen, application, end use, and region.

Based on biospecimen, the report divides the market into: Stem Cells Human Tissue Organs

Among these, the human tissue segment is expected to witness highest growth in the biopreservation market all through the projected period; mainly due to rising cases of chronic ailments, degenerative disorders, and obesity.

Based on application, the report classifies the market into: Therapeutic Research Clinical Trials

Among these, the therapeutic segment is projected to show noteworthy growth during the forecast period. This is mainly owing to the developments in treatment techniques, personalized drugs, regenerative drugs, increasing trend for cord blood banking, and increasing occurrence of chronic ailments worldwide.

Download Exclusive Free Sample Copy of the Report at:https://www.researchdive.com/request-toc-and-sample/369

Regional Analysis:

The report states the scenario of the global biopreservation market across several regions including: Europe LAMEA North America Asia Pacific

Among these, the North America region is projected to grab the highest market share of the biopreservation market in the forecast period. This is attributed to the growing awareness about personalized drugs, rising R&D in regenerative medicines, increasing prevalence of obesity, and chronic ailments.

Market Players and Business Strategies:

The report cites some of the leading players in the global biopreservation market which includes: Avantor, Inc. Bio-Techne Exact Sciences Corporation Merck KGaA ThermoGenesis Corp. BioLifeSolutions Inc. BioCision Chart Industries Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. Worthington Industries, Inc.

The report highlights some of the wining business strategies of the players such as mergers and acquisitions, ground-breaking advances, geographical expansions, new product inventions, and many more.Quick Download Top Companies Development Strategies Summary Report

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Research Dive is a market research firm based in Pune, India. Maintaining the integrity and authenticity of the services, the firm provides the services that are solely based on its exclusive data model, compelled by the 360-degree research methodology, which guarantees comprehensive and accurate analysis. With unprecedented access to several paid data resources, team of expert researchers, and strict work ethic, the firm offers insights that are extremely precise and reliable. Scrutinizing relevant news releases, government publications, decades of trade data, and technical & white papers, Research dive deliver the required services to its clients well within the required timeframe. Its expertise is focused on examining niche markets, targeting its major driving factors, and spotting threatening hindrances. Complementarily, it also has a seamless collaboration with the major industry aficionado that further offers its research an edge.

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This content has been published by Origius Systems Private Limited company. The WiredRelease News Department was not involved in the creation of this content. For press release service enquiry, please reach us at contact@wiredrelease.com.

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