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Exosome therapeutic Market Report- Trends Key Programs Analysis and Competitive Landscape and Forecast 2028 Amite Tangy Digest – Amite Tangy Digest

By daniellenierenberg

DBMR has added another report named Exosome therapeutic Market with information Tables for recorded and figure years addressed with Chats and Graphs spread through Pages with straightforward definite examination. The a-list report concentrates on broad assessment of the market development expectations and limitations. The systems range from new item dispatches, extensions, arrangements, joint endeavors, organizations, to acquisitions. This report includes profound information and data on what the markets definition, characterizations, applications, and commitment and furthermore clarifies the drivers and restrictions of the market which is gotten from SWOT investigation. Worldwide market examination report serves a great deal for the business and presents with answer for the hardest business questions. While making Exosome therapeutic Market report, examination and investigation has been completed with one stage or the mix of a few stages relying on the business and customer necessities.

Market definition canvassed in the predominant Exosome therapeutic Market advertising report investigates the market drivers that show factors causing ascend in the market development and market limitations which demonstrate the components causing fall in the market development. It helps clients or other market members to know about the issues they might confront while working in this market throughout a more extended timeframe. This statistical surveying report additionally concentrates on utilization of market, central participants included, deals, value, income and portion of the overall industry with volume and an incentive for every area. The greatness and straightforwardness proceeded in Exosome therapeutic Market business research report makes acquire the trust and dependence of part organizations and clients.

Global Exosome Therapeutic Market By Type (Natural Exosomes, Hybrid Exosomes), Source (Dendritic Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Blood, Milk, Body Fluids, Saliva, Urine Others), Therapy (Immunotherapy, Gene Therapy, Chemotherapy), Transporting Capacity (Bio Macromolecules, Small Molecules), Application (Oncology, Neurology, Metabolic Disorders, Cardiac Disorders, Blood Disorders, Inflammatory Disorders, Gynecology Disorders, Organ Transplantation, Others), Route of administration (Oral, Parenteral), End User (Hospitals, Diagnostic Centers, Research & Academic Institutes), Geography (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Latin America)

Market Analysis and Insights:Global Exosome Therapeutic Market

Exosome therapeutic market is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2019 to 2026. Data Bridge Market Research analyses that the market is growing with a CAGR of 21.9% in the forecast period of 2019 to 2026 and expected to reach USD 31,691.52 million by 2026 from USD 6,500.00 million in 2018. Increasing prevalence of lyme disease, chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other chronic degenerative diseases are the factors for the market growth.

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Exosomes are used to transfer RNA, DNA, and proteins to other cells in the body by making alteration in the function of the target cells. Increasing research activities in exosome therapeutic is augmenting the market growth as demand for exosome therapeutic has increased among healthcare professionals.

Increased number of exosome therapeutics as compared to the past few years will accelerate the market growth. Companies are receiving funding for exosome therapeutic research and clinical trials. For instance, In September 2018, EXOCOBIO has raised USD 27 million in its series B funding. The company has raised USD 46 million as series a funding in April 2017. The series B funding will help the company to set up GMP-compliant exosome industrial facilities to enhance production of exosomes to commercialize in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry.

Increasing demand for anti-aging therapies will also drive the market. Unmet medical needs such as very few therapeutic are approved by the regulatory authority for the treatment in comparison to the demand in global exosome therapeutics market will hamper the market growth market. Availability of various exosome isolation and purification techniques is further creates new opportunities for exosome therapeutics as they will help company in isolation and purification of exosomes from dendritic cells, mesenchymal stem cells, blood, milk, body fluids, saliva, and urine and from others sources. Such policies support exosome therapeutic market growth in the forecast period to 2019-2026.

This exosome therapeutic market report provides details of market share, new developments, and product pipeline analysis, impact of domestic and localised market players, analyses opportunities in terms of emerging revenue pockets, changes in market regulations, product approvals, strategic decisions, product launches, geographic expansions, and technological innovations in the market. To understand the analysis and the market scenario contact us for anAnalyst Brief, our team will help you create a revenue impact solution to achieve your desired goal.

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Competitive Landscape and Exosome Therapeutic Market Share Analysis

Global exosome therapeutic market competitive landscape provides details by competitor. Details included are company overview, company financials, revenue generated, market potential, investment in research and development, new market initiatives, global presence, production sites and facilities, company strengths and weaknesses, product launch, product trials pipelines, concept cars, product approvals, patents, product width and breadth, application dominance, technology lifeline curve. The above data points provided are only related to the companys focus related to global exosome therapeutic market.

The major players covered in the report are evox THERAPEUTICS, EXOCOBIO, Exopharm, AEGLE Therapeutics, United Therapeutics Corporation, Codiak BioSciences, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, ReNeuron Group plc, Capricor Therapeutics, Avalon Globocare Corp., CREATIVE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY HOLDINGS INC., Stem Cells Group among other players domestic and global. Exosome therapeutic market share data is available for Global, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America separately. DBMR analysts understand competitive strengths and provide competitive analysis for each competitor separately.

Many joint ventures and developments are also initiated by the companies worldwide which are also accelerating the global exosome therapeutic market.

For instance,

Partnership, joint ventures and other strategies enhances the company market share with increased coverage and presence. It also provides the benefit for organisation to improve their offering for exosome therapeutics through expanded model range.

Global Exosome Therapeutic Market Scope and Market Size

Global exosome therapeutic market is segmented of the basis of type, source, therapy, transporting capacity, application, route of administration and end user. The growth among segments helps you analyse niche pockets of growth and strategies to approach the market and determine your core application areas and the difference in your target markets.

Based on type, the market is segmented into natural exosomes and hybrid exosomes. Natural exosomes are dominating in the market because natural exosomes are used in various biological and pathological processes as well as natural exosomes has many advantages such as good biocompatibility and reduced clearance rate compare than hybrid exosomes.

Exosome is an extracellular vesicle which is released from cells, particularly from stem cells. Exosome functions as vehicle for particular proteins and genetic information and other cells. Exosome plays a vital role in the rejuvenation and communication of all the cells in our body while not themselves being cells at all. Research has projected that communication between cells is significant in maintenance of healthy cellular terrain. Chronic disease, age, genetic disorders and environmental factors can affect stem cells communication with other cells and can lead to distribution in the healing process. The growth of the global exosome therapeutic market reflects global and country-wide increase in prevalence of autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases, along with increasing demand for anti-aging therapies. Additionally major factors expected to contribute in growth of the global exosome therapeutic market in future are emerging therapeutic value of exosome, availability of various exosome isolation and purification techniques, technological advancements in exosome and rising healthcare infrastructure.

Rising demand of exosome therapeutic across the globe as exosome therapeutic is expected to be one of the most prominent therapies for autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases treatment, according to clinical researches exosomes help to processes regulation within the body during treatment of autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases. This factor has increased the research activities in exosome therapeutic development around the world for exosome therapeutic. Hence, this factor is leading the clinician and researches to shift towards exosome therapeutic. In the current scenario the exosome therapeutic are highly used in treatment of autoimmune disease, chronic inflammation, Lyme disease and chronic degenerative diseases and as anti-aging therapy as it Exosomes has proliferation of fibroblast cells which is significant in maintenance of skin elasticity and strength.

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Exosome therapeutic Market Country Level Analysis

The global exosome therapeutic market is analysed and market size information is provided by country by type, source, therapy, transporting capacity, application, route of administration and end user as referenced above.

The countries covered in the exosome therapeutic market report are U.S. and Mexico in North America, Turkey in Europe, South Korea, Australia, Hong Kong in the Asia-Pacific, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Venezuela, Panama, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Paraguay, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, Uruguay as part of Latin America.

Country Level Analysis, By Type

North America dominates the exosome therapeutic market as the U.S. is leader in exosome therapeutic manufacturing as well as research activities required for exosome therapeutics. At present time Stem Cells Group holding shares around 60.00%. In addition global exosomes therapeutics manufacturers like EXOCOBIO, evox THERAPEUTICS and others are intensifying their efforts in China. The Europe region is expected to grow with the highest growth rate in the forecast period of 2019 to 2026 because of increasing research activities in exosome therapeutic by population.

The country section of the report also provides individual market impacting factors and changes in regulation in the market domestically that impacts the current and future trends of the market. Data points such as new sales, replacement sales, country demographics, regulatory acts and import-export tariffs are some of the major pointers used to forecast the market scenario for individual countries. Also, presence and availability of global brands and their challenges faced due to large or scarce competition from local and domestic brands, impact of sales channels are considered while providing forecast analysis of the country data.

Huge Investment by Automakers for Exosome Therapeutics and New Technology Penetration

Global exosome therapeutic market also provides you with detailed market analysis for every country growth in pharma industry with exosome therapeutic sales, impact of technological development in exosome therapeutic and changes in regulatory scenarios with their support for the exosome therapeutic market. The data is available for historic period 2010 to 2017.

About Data Bridge Market Research:

An absolute way to forecast what future holds is to comprehend the trend today!Data Bridge set forth itself as an unconventional and neoteric Market research and consulting firm with unparalleled level of resilience and integrated approaches. We are determined to unearth the best market opportunities and foster efficient information for your business to thrive in the market. Data Bridge endeavors to provide appropriate solutions to the complex business challenges and initiates an effortless decision-making process.

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Exosome therapeutic Market Report- Trends Key Programs Analysis and Competitive Landscape and Forecast 2028 Amite Tangy Digest - Amite Tangy Digest

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Lack of awareness about blood stem cell donation is one of the leading causes for low number of donors in In.. – ETHealthworld.com

By daniellenierenberg

Shahid Akhter, editor, ETHealthworld spoke to Dr. Dinesh Bhurani, Director, Department of Hemato-Oncology & Bone Marrow Transplant, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, to know about the progress of NPRD and the challenges associated with blood stem cell transplants.

How do you think the National Policy for Rare Diseases will impact the treatment of patients suffering from rare blood disorders? Will it help reduce the lag that we often see in policy and practice when it comes to healthcare systems?National Policy on Rare Diseases is a step-in right direction and must be welcomed by the Indian medical fraternity. It not only recognizes rare diseases for the first time in India but also has brought forward the possibility of affordable treatment for life-threatening rare diseases which were not previously covered under the national health program. The policy advocates access for treatment through center of excellences, crowd funding and financial assistance.

The NPRD in a bid to enable patients suffering from rare blood disorders has laid emphasis on the option of one-time curative treatment through hematopoietic stem cell transplant for diseases such as Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID), Chronic Granulomatous disease, Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome, Osteopetrosis, and Fanconi Anaemia. By committing to provide a Rs. 20 lakhs cover for the one-time treatment cost of diseases falling under Group 1 through the umbrella scheme of Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi, the NPRD has attempted to provide coverage to almost 40 per cent of the population who are eligible under the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana. The NPRD as a policy that advocates affordable and accessible healthcare and has the potential to lead to the creation of a conducive healthcare ecosystem whereby multisectoral partnerships can collaboratively work towards reduction in the lag between policy and practice often seen otherwise, thereby leading people to live healthier and fuller lives.

Another reason for low number of donors in India is the misconception that stem cell donation comes with a cost to donor. This idea is completely misplaced and untrue as the cost of procedure starting from sample collection, donation and travel is free of cost, and covered under the cost of treatment of a patient for whom the donation is needed. Added to this is the fact that the number of organizations working in the country in the space of blood stem cell transplant is limited at best, thus awareness generation as compared to other health issues is nominal. However, the situation is gradually evolving and ICMR in its 2021 guidelines has gone on to recognize seven registries across the country as active stakeholders in this ecosystem. This recognition by ICMR will hopefully lead to greater awareness generation.

For blood stem cell transplant knowledge is key in establishing patient donor linkage, and by storing the requisite information with them, these registries do just that. Technology is a tool that has been successfully leveraged by stakeholders in the ecosystem to establish linkages. The Hap- E Search is one such tool that has been used by hospitals in the country to find donor matches for their patients. This software is perhaps one of the most enabling tools available to us in the ecosystem, as it helps find HLA matches not just in the country but across the world. This software is now being used by many government hospitals like AIIMS, Delhi and PGIMER Chandigarh. Once the matching donor is found via the HAP-E Search, the donor is encouraged to make the donation, provided counselling and support to donate blood stem cells, and post donation the stem cells are transported to the patients location.

The NPRD proposed crowdfunding and PPP models to ensure more patients availing treatment for rare diseases. How beneficial do you think such partnerships can be to enable blood stem cell transplant ecosystem?Treatment for rare diseases has been found to be expensive across the world. It is thus that despite stem cell transplants being a proven effective solution in the case of some blood disorders, affordability continues to be a challenge for patients and their families. With treatment costs ranging anywhere between Rs. 15-45 lakh, it remains out of reach for most patients in the country. Also, blood disorders, classified as rare, have limited infrastructure in health systems, networks, and subsidies for patients to access treatments are few. In such a scenario, crowdfunding is definitely a feasible option for patients that would ensure that they do not have to forego treatment due to a paucity of resources.

As per the NPRD, the money raised through crowdfunding would directly get credited to the treatment centre thus ensuring that there is adequate linkage. Further, the public private partnership model suggested by the government has enabled it to avail the support of non- governmental and not-for- profit agencies present in the country. This is truly commendable as not only will this ensure more patient donor linkage in the blood stem transplant ecosystem but will also lead to greater awareness generation and registrations of donors as well. One significant organization that has already partnered with the government in this arena is the DKMS BMST Foundation India. With over 50,000 blood stem cell donors registered with them, this organization has been steadily working towards enabling the ecosystem. In the case of rare diseases, it is imperative that stakeholders do not work in isolation and the government working alongside the private can lead to greater hope for many patients with greater amenities and facilities for treatment being made accessible to them.

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Distinguished physician-scientist takes the helm of first Frost Institute – University of Miami

By daniellenierenberg

Trained as a chemist, biophysicist, internist, and cardiologist, Mark Yeager is eager to propel the Frost Institute for Chemistry and Molecular Science into a leading research center.

Even in his youth Mark Yeager could picture the door to his future. Scuffed, chipped, and almost black from layers of varnish, the old, wooden door had a frosted window with five words stenciled in glossy black: Laboratory of Dr. Mark Yeager.

Yet Yeager, the inaugural executive director of the University of Miamis Frost Institute for Chemistry and Molecular Science (FICMS), is quite happy that his new lab in the 94,000-square-foot building slated to open late next year wont even have a door. The $60 million facilitys open floor plan was designed to encourage the free flow of people and ideasand help transform the University into one of the worlds premier research centers for improving the health of humans and that of our planet.

That is the vision, but its not a fantastical vision, said Yeager, a distinguished biophysicist and cardiologist whose top priority is attracting a diverse and elite group of scientists as the institutes first faculty. It is achievable, and it will happen because the University has not wavered in its commitment to elevate STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) to advance scientific discovery. Theres something going on here thats organic and alive and excitingand Im thrilled to be part of it.

Yeager, whose own groundbreaking research focuses on the molecular causes of heart disease and viral infections, trained as a chemist at Carnegie-Mellon University, as a physician and biophysicist at Yale University and as an internist and cardiologist at Stanford University. He spent two decades at Scripps Research in California, where he established his first independent laboratory, served as the director of research in cardiology, and helped launch the Skaggs Clinical Scholars Program in Translational Research. He has also served as a consultant and scientific and clinical advisor to several biotech companies.

Now he is transitioning to the University from the University of Virginia School of Medicine (UVA), where he chaired the Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry for nearly a dozen years and helped establish the Sheridan G. Snyder Translational Research Building. At UVA, he also established one of the nations five regional centers for cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM)the technique he advanced for flash-freezing, imaging, and studying proteins and other macromolecules in their near-natural state.

It is exciting to see the progress being made on the evolution of our Frost Institutes, starting with Data Science and Computing and now the emergence of Chemistry and Molecular Science. We are fortunate to have Mark overseeing our Frost Institute for Chemistry and Molecular Science and working across the entire institutionhis interdisciplinary knowledge and perspective on chemistry are essential for our success, said Jeffrey Duerk, executive vice president for academic affairs and provost. Mark brings a wealth of knowledge and experience to the University of Miami and we are looking forward to his impactful leadership continuing as we move forward.

Yeager said he knew he was making the right career move on his first visit to the University last November. Although the COVID-19 pandemic had curtailed in-person learning and suspended new construction, he heard the unmistakable sound of heavy equipment as he walked past the royal palms and fountain at the end of Memorial Drive, where the five-story FICMS now stands.

I could see an excavation area and heard a cacophony of construction noise where I had a hunch the institute should be, he recalled. That told me that the University was all in. They had made this commitment to fortify STEM and to do transformational science and nothing was going to stop them. In spite of the pandemic, it was all systems go.

The Universitys longtime benefactors, Phillip and Patricia Frost, enabled that commitment in 2017, when they announced their landmark $100 million gift to establish the Frost Institutes for Science and Engineering, now a key initiative of the Roadmap to Our New Centurythe strategic plan guiding the University toward its centennial mark. The umbrella organization for a group of multidisciplinary research centers patterned after the National Institutes of Health and its network of affiliated institutes, the Frost Institutes were envisioned to translate interdisciplinary research into solutions for real-world problems.

Though Yeager officially started his new role on June 1, he has been heavily involved in planning the FICMS' interior for months. He recently placed a $20 million order to equip the facility with five different electron microscopy instruments that chemists, molecular scientists, and engineers will use to explore the molecular structure of exquisitely beam-sensitive soft materials like proteins, hard materials such as metal alloys, as well as nanomaterials comprised of soft and hard components. Along with the buildings state-of-the-art technology and the Universitys research infrastructure, hes confident its location in the heart of the Coral Gables campus will help him recruit a diverse and elite group of scientists who are exploring challenging avenues of impactful researchsomething he has been driven to do almost his entire life.

An occasional songwriter, guitar player, and jogger who in his younger days ran 18 marathons, Yeager was always fascinated by scientific discoveries that illuminated unknown and unseen worlds. A child of the Sputnik era who began entering science fairs in junior high, he began forging his own career as a physician-scientist while in high school in Colorado Springs, Colorado, where his father, an agricultural economist, settled his family after a number of job-related moves.

Inspired by an experiment in Scientific American magazine, he convinced physicians in the therapeutic radiology department at Penrose Hospital to irradiate his fruit flies so he could compare the effects of administering different doses of radiation on their eye pigments. Delivered in Styrofoam cups, his experiments on what is now called dose fractionationand used to reduce tissue damage during cancer treatmentswon him first place in the U.S. Department of Agricultures 1967 International Science Fair and a research stint in an insect toxicology lab in Berkeley, California.

The following summer, when Yeager returned to Penrose Hospital to work as an orderly, he realized that he loved patient care as much as laboratory research and began plotting how he could pursue both careers.

I just got incredible satisfaction from helping patients get out of bed and into a wheelchair, transfer to a gurney, learn to use crutches, recalled Yeager, who joins the University as one of its 100 Talents for 100 Years, a Roadmap initiative to add 100 new endowed chairs to the faculty by the Universitys 2025 centennial. But I also loved chemistry. I loved physics. I loved too many things.

After earning his undergraduate degree in chemistry from Carnegie-Mellon, he was accepted to the Medical Scientist Training Program at Yale University, where, along with his medical degree, he earned his masters degree and doctorate in molecular biophysics and biochemistry. There, he encountered the first of many trailblazing scientists, including two future Nobel laureates, who would influence his lifes work. His Ph.D. advisor, Lubert Stryer, was particularly influential. Stryer authored a premier textbook of biochemistry, pioneered fluorescence-based techniques to explore the motions of biological macromolecules, and made fundamental discoveries on the molecular basis of vision. Yeagers graduate work on rhodopsin, a photoreceptor membrane protein, triggered his fascination with elucidating the molecular bases for such diseases as sudden cardiac death, heart attacks, HIV-1, and other viral infections.

Yeager completed his medical residency and specialized fellowship training in cardiovascular medicine at Stanford University Medical Center, where he managed the pre- and post-operative care of heart transplant patients and wrote 13 chapters in the book Handbook of Difficult Diagnoses.

He also continued exploring cellular biology in the laboratory of Nigel Unwin, who had collaborated with future Nobel laureate Richard Henderson to pioneer the use of cryoEM to determine the molecular structure of membrane proteinsand inspired Yeagers groundbreaking research on gap junction channels. The electrical conduits that connect every cell in the body to its neighbor, gap junction channels play a critical role in maintaining the normal heartbeat.

That research, which Yeager continued at Scripps and at UVA, explained how gap junction channels behave in their normal state, and during an injured state, such as a heart attack. His quest to answer another question particularly relevant todayhow viruses enter host cells, replicate, and assemble infectious particlesis exemplified by his breakthrough research on the assembly, structure, and maturation of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS.

Today, those insights, which Yeager humbly calls a few bricks in the edifice of science, hold important clues for developing new, more effective therapies to prevent HIV-1 infection, repair injured tissue, and treat cancer and cardiovascular diseasethe kind of impactful research that the FICMS was designed to advance with collaborative partners across the University, and beyond.

As a pioneer in the field of cryo-transmission electron microscopy, a forefront technology in materials and biological research, Marks expertise and knowledge will position the University as aleader in these cutting-edge fields, said Leonidas Bachas, dean of the College of Arts and Sciences who served as the initial interim director of the FICMS. We look forward to having him lead the Frost Institute for Chemistry and Molecular Science as we continue to advance the sciences, innovate, and expand research collaborations with our faculty and industry partners.

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Operational Highlights and Financial Results for the Year Ended June 30, 2021 – GlobeNewswire

By daniellenierenberg

NEW YORK, Aug. 30, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Mesoblast Limited (Nasdaq:MESO; ASX:MSB), global leader in allogeneic cellular medicines for inflammatory diseases, today reported operational highlights and financial results for the fourth quarter and full-year ended June 30, 2021 (FY2021).

During this calendar year we made significant progress in both regulatory and clinical outcomes for our lead product candidate, remestemcel-L, after experiencing a disappointing set-back last year said Silviu Itescu, Chief Executive of Mesoblast. We are pleased with recent recommendations by FDAs CBER to meet with the review team and address remaining CMC items for remestemcel-L in the treatment of steroid-refractory acute graft versus host disease in children. Additionally, our most recent meeting with the FDA has provided clarity on the pathway towards an emergency use authorization for remestemcel-L in the treatment of COVID ARDS.

Operational Highlights

Remestemcel-L Outcome of recent meeting with FDA on regulatory pathway for emergency use authorization in the treatment of COVID-19 ARDS:

Remestemcel-L in the treatment of steroid-refractory acute graft versus host disease (SR-aGVHD) in children:

Rexlemestrocel-L in the treatment of chronic heart failure and chronic low back pain:

Manufacturing

Financial Highlights

DETAILED CLINICAL ACTIVITIES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR FY2021

Remestemcel-L

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to COVID-19

Mesoblast recently presented results from the randomized controlled trial of remestemcel-L in 222 ventilator-dependent COVID-19 patients with moderate/severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) at the biennial Stem Cells, Cell Therapies, and Bioengineering in Lung Biology and Diseases conference hosted by the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, and at the International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy (ISCT) Scientific Signatures Series event on Cell and Gene-Based Therapies in Lung Diseases and Critical Illnesses.

The presented data included improved respiratory function in patients treated with remestemcel-L, as well as 90-day survival outcomes showing remestemcel-L significantly reduced mortality by 48% at 90 days compared to controls in a pre-specified exploratory analysis of 123 treated patients under 65 years old. The trial had been halted after the third interim analysis since the 30-day primary endpoint would not be attained.

Key presentation findings were:

Mesoblast plans to move forward with an additional Phase 3 trial in COVID-19 ARDS with the next step being to agree with the FDA the final protocol and potency assay.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Crohns Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

A randomized, controlled study of remestemcel-L delivered by an endoscope directly to areas of inflammation and tissue injury in up to 48 patients with medically refractory Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis commenced at Cleveland Clinic in October 2020. The investigator-initiated study is the first in humans using local cell delivery in the gut and will enable Mesoblast to compare clinical outcomes using this delivery method with results from an ongoing randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with biologic-refractory Crohns disease where remestemcel-L was administered intravenously.

Rexlemestrocel-L

Chronic Heart Failure

The results from the landmark DREAM-HF randomized controlled trial in 537 treated patients with chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) who received rexlemestrocel-L (REVASCOR) or control sham, demonstrated that a single dose of rexlemestrocel-L resulted in substantial and durable reductions in heart attacks, strokes, and cardiac deaths. The trials primary endpoint of reduction in volume overload related hospitalizations was not achieved. The results of this trial identify New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II HFrEF patients as the optimal target population for greatest rexlemestrocel-L treatment effect, and therefore a focus for developing rexlemestrocel-L in the largest market in heart failure.

The incidence of heart attacks and strokes were reduced by 60% over a median follow-up period of 30 months following a single dose of rexlemestrocel-L in the entire population of 537 treated patients. The incidence of death from cardiovascular causes was reduced by 60% in the 206 patients with NYHA class II disease, a significant reduction which was evident in both ischemic and non-ischemic subgroups as well as diabetic and nondiabetic patients.

The results also show that the NYHA class II patients in the control group, following an initial period of approximately 20 months of disease stability, progressed to cardiac death rates in-line with NYHA class III patients. NYHA class II patients treated with a single dose of rexlemestrocel-L did not show such cardiac death progression.

The combination of the three pre-specified outcomes of cardiac death, heart attack or stroke into a single composite outcome - called the three-point major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) is a well-established endpoint used by the FDA to determine cardiovascular risk. Rexlemestrocel-L reduced this three-point MACE by 30% compared to controls across the entire population of 537 treated patients. In the NYHA class II subgroup of 206 patients, rexlemestrocel-L reduced the three-point MACE by 55% compared to controls.

Mesoblast expects feedback from the FDA in the next quarter on the potential pathway to US regulatory approval for rexlemestrocel-L in patients with chronic heart failure.

Chronic Low Back Pain due to Degenerative Disc Disease

The results from the randomized controlled trial of its allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cell (MPC) therapy rexlemestrocel-L in 404 enrolled patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) refractory to conventional treatments indicate that a single injection of rexlemestrocel-L+hyaluronic acid (HA) carrier may provide a safe, durable, and effective opioid-sparing therapy for patients with chronic inflammatory back pain due to degenerative disc disease, and that greatest benefits are seen when administered earlier in the disease process before irreversible fibrosis of the intervertebral disc has occurred. The trial's composite outcomes of pain reduction together with functional responses to treatment were not met by either MPC group.

The rexlemestrocel-L+HA treatment group achieved substantial and durable reductions in CLBP compared to control through 24 months across the entire evaluable study population (n=391) compared with saline controls. Greatest pain reduction was observed in the pre-specified population with CLBP of shorter duration than the study median of 68 months (n=194) and subjects using opioids at baseline (n=168) with the rexlemestrocel-L+HA group having substantially greater reduction at all time points (1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months) compared with saline controls. There was no appreciable difference in the safety of MPC groups compared to saline control over the 24-month period of follow-up in the entire study population. In subjects using opioids at baseline, the MPC+HA demonstrated a reduction in the average opioid dose over 24 months, while saline control subjects had essentially no change.

There is a significant need for a safe, efficacious, and durable opioid-sparing treatment in patients with chronic low back pain due to severely inflamed degenerative disc disease. Mesoblast has filed a request and expects to receive feedback from the FDA on the pathway to US regulatory approval in patients with chronic low back pain due to degenerative disc disease.

Intellectual Property

Mesoblast has an extensive patent portfolio with over 1,000 patents and patent applications across 77 patent families, and patent terms extending through 2041. These patents cover composition of matter, manufacturing, and therapeutic applications of mesenchymal lineage cells, and provide strong commercial protection for our products in all major markets, including the United States, Europe, Japan and China. During the fiscal year Mesoblast has significantly expanded its patent portfolio, focusing on areas of its strategic commercial interests.

Licensing agreements with JCR, Grnenthal, Tasly and Takeda highlight the strength of Mesoblast's extensive intellectual property portfolio covering mesenchymal lineage cells. Mesoblast will continue to use its patents to prosecute its commercial rights as they relate to its core strategic product portfolio. When consistent with the Companys strategic objectives, it may consider providing third parties with commercial access to its patent portfolio.

DETAILED FINANCIAL RESULTS

Financial Results for the Year Ended June 30, 2021 (FY2021)

In August we entered into a contractual amendment to extend the interest-only period of its current senior debt facility to at least January 2022 and as a result no loan repayments will be required prior to January 2022. Mesoblast is in active discussions to refinance the facility.

We expect to recognize the existing US$21.9 million of remestemcel-L pre-launch inventory on the balance sheet if we receive FDA approval.

As a result of the above and other remeasurements on revaluation of assets and liabilities, the loss after tax for FY2021 was US$98.8 million compared to US$77.9 million for FY2020. The net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders was 16.33 US cents per share for FY2021, compared with 14.74 US cents per share for FY2020.

Conference Call

There will be a webcast today, beginning at 7.00pm EDT (Monday, August 30, 2021); 9.00am AEST (Tuesday, August 31). It can be accessed via:https://webcast.boardroom.media/mesoblast-limited/20210826/NaN61036c41df5665001c97fc67

The archived webcast will be available on the Investor page of the Companys website: http://www.mesoblast.com

About Mesoblast

Mesoblast is a world leader in developing allogeneic (off-the-shelf) cellular medicines for the treatment of severe and life-threatening inflammatory conditions. The Company has leveraged its proprietary mesenchymal lineage cell therapy technology platform to establish a broad portfolio of late-stage product candidates which respond to severe inflammation by releasing anti-inflammatory factors that counter and modulate multiple effector arms of the immune system, resulting in significant reduction of the damaging inflammatory process.

Mesoblast has a strong and extensive global intellectual property portfolio with protection extending through to at least 2041 in all major markets. The Companys proprietary manufacturing processes yield industrial-scale, cryopreserved, off-the-shelf, cellular medicines. These cell therapies, with defined pharmaceutical release criteria, are planned to be readily available to patients worldwide.

Mesoblast has completed Phase 3 trials of rexlemestrocel-L for advanced chronic heart failure and chronic low back pain. Remestemcel-L is being developed for inflammatory diseases in children and adults including steroid refractory acute graft versus host disease and moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Two products have been commercialized in Japan and Europe by Mesoblasts licensees, and the Company has established commercial partnerships in Europe and China for certain Phase 3 assets.

Mesoblast has locations in Australia, the United States and Singapore and is listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (MSB) and on the Nasdaq (MESO). For more information, please see http://www.mesoblast.com, LinkedIn: Mesoblast Limited and Twitter: @Mesoblast

References / Footnotes

Forward-Looking Statements

This announcement includes forward-looking statements that relate to future events or our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. We make such forward-looking statements pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and other federal securities laws. Forward-looking statements should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results, and actual results may differ from the results anticipated in these forward-looking statements, and the differences may be material and adverse. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about the initiation, timing, progress and results of Mesoblasts preclinical and clinical studies, and Mesoblasts research and development programs; Mesoblasts ability to advance product candidates into, enroll and successfully complete, clinical studies, including multi-national clinical trials; Mesoblasts ability to advance its manufacturing capabilities; the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, manufacturing activities and product marketing activities, if any; the commercialization of Mesoblasts product candidates, if approved; regulatory or public perceptions and market acceptance surrounding the use of stem-cell based therapies; the potential for Mesoblasts product candidates, if any are approved, to be withdrawn from the market due to patient adverse events or deaths; the potential benefits of strategic collaboration agreements and Mesoblasts ability to enter into and maintain established strategic collaborations; Mesoblasts ability to establish and maintain intellectual property on its product candidates and Mesoblasts ability to successfully defend these in cases of alleged infringement; the scope of protection Mesoblast is able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering its product candidates and technology; estimates of Mesoblasts expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and its needs for additional financing; Mesoblasts financial performance; developments relating to Mesoblasts competitors and industry; and the pricing and reimbursement of Mesoblasts product candidates, if approved. You should read this press release together with our risk factors, in our most recently filed reports with the SEC or on our website. Uncertainties and risks that may cause Mesoblasts actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those which may be expressed or implied by such statements, and accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We do not undertake any obligations to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.

Release authorized by the Chief Executive.

For more information, please contact:

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Operational Highlights and Financial Results for the Year Ended June 30, 2021 - GlobeNewswire

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The Covid booster shot is not for everyone. It’s only meant for severely immunocompromised people – ETHealthworld.com

By daniellenierenberg

The increasing prevalence of new coronavirus variants is raising questions about how well protected those who've already had their COVID-19 shots are against evolving forms of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, microbiology and infectious disease specialist William Petri of the University of Virginia answers some common questions about COVID-19 booster shots.

1. What is a booster shot?Boosters are an extra dose of a vaccine given to maintain vaccine-induced protection against a disease. They are commonly used to bolster many vaccines because immunity can wear off over time. For example, the flu vaccine needs a booster every year, and the diphtheria and tetanus vaccine every 10 years.

Boosters are often identical to the original vaccine. In some cases, however, the booster shot has been modified to enhance protection against new viral variants. The seasonal flu vaccine, most notably, requires an annual booster because the flu virus changes so rapidly.

3. Why aren't booster shots recommended for everyone yet?While vaccine-induced immunity may not last forever, it is not clear when a booster will be needed.

Encouragingly, all of the currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines induce a robust immune memory against the coronavirus. The vaccine teaches your immune system's memory B cells to produce antibodies when you're exposed to the virus. Researchers have detected high levels of memory B cells in the lymph nodes of people who received the Pfizer vaccine for at least 12 weeks after they got the shot.

Studies also suggest that authorized COVID-19 vaccines are continuing to offer protection even against emerging strains of the coronavirus. Among one study's participants, the Johnson & Johnson vaccine had 73% and 82% efficacy 14 days and 28 days post shot, respectively, at warding off severe disease from the beta variant. Another study found the Pfizer vaccine to be 88% effective against the delta variant.

4. How will I know if I need a booster?You may need to wait for an outbreak in people who have been vaccinated. Researchers are still figuring out the best way to measure the strength of someone's vaccine-induced immunity. The COVID-19 vaccines have been so effective that there are not many failures to test.

The best candidate to measure are certain antibodies the vaccine induces the immune system to make. They recognize the spike protein that allows the coronavirus to enter and infect cells. Evidence supporting the importance of anti-spike antibodies includes a study showing that the somewhat more effective mRNA vaccines like Pfizer and Moderna generate higher antibody levels in the blood than the adenovirus vector vaccines like Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca. In a preliminary study that has not yet been peer-reviewed, anti-spike antibody levels were lower in people who caught COVID-19 after they were vaccinated with the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine.

Medical workers would love to be able to give patients a blood test that would tell them how well protected they are or aren't against COVID-19. That would be a clear indication as to whether a booster shot is needed.

But until researchers know for sure how to measure vaccine-induced immunity, the next indication that boosters may be needed are breakthrough infections in older adults who have already been vaccinated. People over the age of 80 make lower levels of antibodies after vaccination, so their immunity may wane sooner than that of the general population. The elderly would also most likely be the most susceptible to new viral variants that evade the protection current vaccines provide.

5. Who does the FDA and CDC recommend get a third shot?An extra shot may be necessary for certain immunocompromised people. In one study, 39 of 40 kidney transplant recipients and a third of dialysis patients failed to make antibodies after vaccination. Another study identified 20 patients with rheumatic or musculoskeletal diseases on medications that suppress the immune system who also did not have detectable antibodies. Both of these studies were done after patients received the full vaccine dose.

Currently, the CDC recommends that the following people consider getting a third dose:

Those who are immunocompromised may wonder if the vaccine they received is successfully generating immunity in their body. A preliminary study that has not yet been peer-reviewed did find that a test that specifically targets the anti-spike antibodies the vaccines trigger may be helpful in determining whether the vaccine worked. But for now, the FDA does not recommend antibody tests to assess immunity.

6. Does my third dose need to match my first two?Likely not. Recent research has shown that mRNA vaccines, like Pfizer and Moderna, can be mixed with adenovirus-based vaccines like AstraZeneca with comparable results.

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The Covid booster shot is not for everyone. It's only meant for severely immunocompromised people - ETHealthworld.com

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Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell ((iPSC) Market to Reach $2.3 Billion by 2026 – Yahoo Finance UK

By daniellenierenberg

Abstract: Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell ((iPSC) Market to Reach $2. 3 Billion by 2026 . Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold tremendous clinical potential to transform the entire therapeutic landscape by offering treatments for various medical conditions and disorders.

New York, Aug. 05, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) Industry" - https://www.reportlinker.com/p05798831/?utm_source=GNW These cells are derived from somatic cells like blood or skin cells that are genetically reprogrammed into embryonic stem cell-like state for developing an unlimited source of a diverse range of human cells for therapeutic applications. The global market is propelled by increasing demand for these cells, rising focus on researchers in the field, and their potential application in treatment of various diseases. The market growth is supplemented by rising prevalence of several chronic disorders such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke and cancer. Moreover, increasing awareness about stem cells and associated research, potential clinical applications and rising financial assistance by governments and private players are expected to contribute significantly to the market expansion. The iPSC technique is anticipated to find extensive adoption in the pharmaceutical industry for developing efficient cell sources like iPSC-derived functional cells to support drug screening and toxicity testing.

Amid the COVID-19 crisis, the global market for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell ((iPSC) estimated at US$1.6 Billion in the year 2020, is projected to reach a revised size of US$2.3 Billion by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 6.6% over the analysis period. Vascular Cells, one of the segments analyzed in the report, is projected to record a 7.2% CAGR and reach US$835.8 Million by the end of the analysis period. After a thorough analysis of the business implications of the pandemic and its induced economic crisis, growth in the Cardiac Cells segment is readjusted to a revised 7.9% CAGR for the next 7-year period. The demand for iPSC-derived cardiac cells is attributed to diverse applications including cardiotoxicity testing, drug screening and drug validation along with metabolism studies and electrophysiology applications.

The U.S. Market is Estimated at $767.1 Million in 2021, While China is Forecast to Reach $82.4 Million by 2026

The Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell ((iPSC) market in the U.S. is estimated at US$767.1 Million in the year 2021. China, the world`s second largest economy, is forecast to reach a projected market size of US$82.4 Million by the year 2026 trailing a CAGR of 8.5% over the analysis period. Among the other noteworthy geographic markets are Japan and Canada, each forecast to grow at 5.5 % and 6.8% respectively over the analysis period. Within Europe, Germany is forecast to grow at approximately 6.5% CAGR. North America leads the global market, supported by continuing advances related to iPSC technology and access to functional cells used in pre-clinical drug screening. The market growth is supplemented by increasing insights into the iPSC platform along with high throughput analysis for drug toxicity. The iPSC market in Asia-Pacific is estimated to post a fast growth due to increasing R&D projects across countries like Australia, Japan and Singapore.

Neuronal Cells Segment to Reach $336.9 Million by 2026

In the global Neuronal Cells segment, USA, Canada, Japan, China and Europe will drive the 6.4% CAGR estimated for this segment. These regional markets accounting for a combined market size of US$202.9 Million in the year 2020 will reach a projected size of US$308 Million by the close of the analysis period. China will remain among the fastest growing in this cluster of regional markets. Led by countries such as Australia, India, and South Korea, the market in Asia-Pacific is forecast to reach US$19.8 Million by the year 2026. Select Competitors (Total 51 Featured)

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Axol Bioscience Ltd.

Cynata Therapeutics Limited

Evotec SE

Fate Therapeutics, Inc.

FUJIFILM Cellular Dynamics, Inc.

Ncardia

Pluricell Biotech

REPROCELL USA, Inc.

Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd.

Takara Bio, Inc.

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.

ViaCyte, Inc.

Read the full report: https://www.reportlinker.com/p05798831/?utm_source=GNW

I. METHODOLOGY

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. MARKET OVERVIEW Influencer Market Insights Impact of Covid-19 and a Looming Global Recession Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Market Gains from Increasing Use in Research for COVID-19 Studies Employing iPSCs in COVID-19 Research Stem Cells, Application Areas, and the Different Types: A Prelude Applications of Stem Cells Types of Stem Cells Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC): An Introduction Production of iPSCs First & Second Generation Mouse iPSCs Human iPSCs Key Properties of iPSCs Transcription Factors Involved in Generation of iPSCs Noteworthy Research & Application Areas for iPSCs Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell ((iPSC) Market: Growth Prospects and Outlook Drug Development Application to Witness Considerable Growth Technical Breakthroughs, Advances & Clinical Trials to Spur Growth of iPSC Market North America Dominates Global iPSC Market Competition Recent Market Activity Select Innovation/Advancement

2. FOCUS ON SELECT PLAYERS Axol Bioscience Ltd. (UK) Cynata Therapeutics Limited (Australia) Evotec SE (Germany) Fate Therapeutics, Inc. (USA) FUJIFILM Cellular Dynamics, Inc. (USA) Ncardia (Belgium) Pluricell Biotech (Brazil) REPROCELL USA, Inc. (USA) Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd. (Japan) Takara Bio, Inc. (Japan) Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (USA) ViaCyte, Inc. (USA)

3. MARKET TRENDS & DRIVERS Effective Research Programs Hold Key in Roll Out of Advanced iPSC Treatments Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Giant Leap in the Therapeutic Applications Research Trends in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Space EXHIBIT 1: Worldwide Publication of hESC and hiPSC Research Papers for the Period 2008-2010, 2011-2013 and 2014-2016 EXHIBIT 2: Number of Original Research Papers on hESC and iPSC Published Worldwide (2014-2016) Concerns Related to Embryonic Stem Cells Shift the Focus onto iPSCs Regenerative Medicine: A Promising Application of iPSCs Induced Pluripotent: A Potential Competitor to hESCs? EXHIBIT 3: Global Regenerative Medicine Market Size in US$ Billion for 2019, 2021, 2023 and 2025 EXHIBIT 4: Global Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Market by Product (in %) for the Year 2019 EXHIBIT 5: Global Regenerative Medicines Market by Category: Breakdown (in %) for Biomaterials, Stem Cell Therapies and Tissue Engineering for 2019 Pluripotent Stem Cells Hold Significance for Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine EXHIBIT 6: Leading Causes of Mortality Worldwide: Number of Deaths in Millions & % Share of Deaths by Cause for 2017 EXHIBIT 7: Leading Causes of Mortality for Low-Income and High -Income Countries Growing Importance of iPSCs in Personalized Drug Discovery Persistent Advancements in Genetics Space and Subsequent Growth in Precision Medicine Augur Well for iPSCs Market EXHIBIT 8: Global Precision Medicine Market (In US$ Billion) for the Years 2018, 2021 & 2024 Increasing Prevalence of Chronic Disorders Supports Growth of iPSCs Market EXHIBIT 9: Worldwide Cancer Incidence: Number of New Cancer Cases Diagnosed for 2012, 2018 & 2040 EXHIBIT 10: Number of New Cancer Cases Reported (in Thousands) by Cancer Type: 2018 EXHIBIT 11: Fatalities by Heart Conditions: Estimated Percentage Breakdown for Cardiovascular Disease, Ischemic Heart Disease, Stroke, and Others EXHIBIT 12: Rising Diabetes Prevalence Presents Opportunity for iPSCs Market: Number of Adults (20-79) with Diabetes (in Millions) by Region for 2017 and 2045 Aging Demographics Add to the Global Burden of Chronic Diseases, Presenting Opportunities for iPSCs Market EXHIBIT 13: Expanding Elderly Population Worldwide: Breakdown of Number of People Aged 65+ Years in Million by Geographic Region for the Years 2019 and 2030 Growth in Number of Genomics Projects Propels Market Growth EXHIBIT 14: Genomic Initiatives in Select Countries EXHIBIT 15: New Gene-Editing Tools Spur Interest and Investments in Genetics, Driving Lucrative Growth Opportunities for iPSCs: Total VC Funding (In US$ Million) in Genetics for the Years 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 Launch of Numerous iPSCs-Related Clinical Trials Set to Benefit Market Growth EXHIBIT 16: Number of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells based Studies by Select Condition: As on Oct 31, 2020 iPSCs-based Clinical Trial for Heart Diseases Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Stroke Treatment ?Off-the-shelf? Stem Cell Treatment for Cancer Enters Clinical Trial iPSCs for Hematological Disorders Market Benefits from Growing Funding for iPSCs-Related R&D Initiatives EXHIBIT 17: Stem Cell Research Funding in the US (in US$ Million) for the Years 2016 through 2021 Human iPSC Banks: A Review of Emerging Opportunities and Drawbacks EXHIBIT 18: Human iPSC Banks Worldwide: An Overview EXHIBIT 19: Cell Sources and Reprogramming Methods Used by Select iPSC Banks Innovations, Research Studies & Advancements in iPSCs Key iPSC Research Breakthroughs for Regenerative Medicine Researchers Develop Novel Oncogene-Free and Virus-Free iPSC Production Method Scientists Study Concerns of Genetic Mutations in iPSCs iPSCs Hold Tremendous Potential in Transforming Research Efforts Researchers Highlight Potential Use of iPSCs for Developing Novel Cancer Vaccines Scientists Use Machine Learning to Improve Reliability of iPSC Self-Organization STEMCELL Technologies Unveils mTeSR? Plus Challenges and Risks Related to Pluripotent Stem Cells A Glance at Issues Related to Reprogramming of Adult Cells to iPSCs A Note on Legal, Social and Ethical Considerations with iPSCs

4. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE Table 1: World Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 2: World 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 3: World Current & Future Analysis for Vascular Cells by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 4: World 7-Year Perspective for Vascular Cells by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 5: World Current & Future Analysis for Cardiac Cells by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 6: World 7-Year Perspective for Cardiac Cells by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 7: World Current & Future Analysis for Neuronal Cells by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 8: World 7-Year Perspective for Neuronal Cells by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 9: World Current & Future Analysis for Liver Cells by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 10: World 7-Year Perspective for Liver Cells by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 11: World Current & Future Analysis for Immune Cells by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 12: World 7-Year Perspective for Immune Cells by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 13: World Current & Future Analysis for Other Cell Types by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 14: World 7-Year Perspective for Other Cell Types by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 15: World Current & Future Analysis for Cellular Reprogramming by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 16: World 7-Year Perspective for Cellular Reprogramming by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 17: World Current & Future Analysis for Cell Culture by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 18: World 7-Year Perspective for Cell Culture by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 19: World Current & Future Analysis for Cell Differentiation by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 20: World 7-Year Perspective for Cell Differentiation by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 21: World Current & Future Analysis for Cell Analysis by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 22: World 7-Year Perspective for Cell Analysis by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 23: World Current & Future Analysis for Cellular Engineering by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 24: World 7-Year Perspective for Cellular Engineering by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 25: World Current & Future Analysis for Other Research Methods by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 26: World 7-Year Perspective for Other Research Methods by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 27: World Current & Future Analysis for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 28: World 7-Year Perspective for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 29: World Current & Future Analysis for Academic Research by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 30: World 7-Year Perspective for Academic Research by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 31: World Current & Future Analysis for Regenerative Medicine by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 32: World 7-Year Perspective for Regenerative Medicine by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 33: World Current & Future Analysis for Other Applications by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 34: World 7-Year Perspective for Other Applications by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2020 & 2027

III. MARKET ANALYSIS

UNITED STATES Table 35: USA Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 36: USA 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 37: USA Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 38: USA 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 39: USA Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 40: USA 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027

CANADA Table 41: Canada Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 42: Canada 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 43: Canada Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 44: Canada 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 45: Canada Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 46: Canada 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027

JAPAN Table 47: Japan Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 48: Japan 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 49: Japan Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 50: Japan 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 51: Japan Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 52: Japan 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027

CHINA Table 53: China Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 54: China 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 55: China Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 56: China 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 57: China Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 58: China 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027

EUROPE Table 59: Europe Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK and Rest of Europe Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 60: Europe 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for France, Germany, Italy, UK and Rest of Europe Markets for Years 2020 & 2027

Table 61: Europe Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 62: Europe 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 63: Europe Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 64: Europe 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 65: Europe Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 66: Europe 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027

FRANCE Table 67: France Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 68: France 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 69: France Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 70: France 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Research Method - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Cellular Reprogramming, Cell Culture, Cell Differentiation, Cell Analysis, Cellular Engineering and Other Research Methods for the Years 2020 & 2027

Table 71: France Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

Table 72: France 7-Year Perspective for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Drug Development & Toxicology Testing, Academic Research, Regenerative Medicine and Other Applications for the Years 2020 & 2027

GERMANY Table 73: Germany Current & Future Analysis for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) by Cell Type - Vascular Cells, Cardiac Cells, Neuronal Cells, Liver Cells, Immune Cells and Other Cell Types - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR

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Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell ((iPSC) Market to Reach $2.3 Billion by 2026 - Yahoo Finance UK

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Emerging Quadruplets, Novel Targets, and Immunotherapy Advances Personalized Medicine in Multiple Myeloma – OncLive

By daniellenierenberg

The future is quite bright for multiple myeloma. We are really homing in on the best regimen for frontline therapy in transplant-eligible and -ineligible [patient populations], Martin said. We are also closer with our recommendations to figuring out how to treat early-relapsed multiple myeloma. We have a variety of novel drugs that are approved for use to treat [patients with] late relapse. That [setting] has been our unmet medical need, [historically].

Martin, a clinical professor of medicine in the Adult Leukemia and Bone Marrow Transplantation Program; associate director of the Myeloma Program; and co-leader of the Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy Program at the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center of the University of California, San Francisco; added that there are several very exciting therapies under investigation in clinical trials, including BiTEs. [These therapies] are showing unprecedented responses in very refractory patients, [including] the triple-class exposed patients, which is amazing.

He spoke with OncLive during an Institutional Perspectives in Cancer webinar on multiple myeloma. He chaired the virtual meeting which covered updates in frontline, early-, and late-relapsed multiple myeloma, immunotherapy in multiple myeloma, and frontline and relapsed/refractory amyloidosis.

Martin discussed the latest news in frontline, early relapsed, and heavily pretreated multiple myeloma, including the growing promise of quadruplets, emerging targets beyond BCMA, and the potential emergence of quadruplets, venetoclax (Venclexta), and antiviral therapy in amyloidosis.

Martin: For frontline therapy in multiple myeloma, we break [our algorithm] up [according to] patients who are fit and [unfit. Patients who are fit] can likely go to stem cell transplant. A quadruplet is going to be where we are headed, and it is going to be [a quadruplet using] the 3 different classes of drugs: a monoclonal antibody, an immunomodulatory drug [IMiD], and a proteasome inhibitor [PI], together with a steroid. [The combination of] those 4 classes of drugs [were evaluated] in the GRIFFIN [NCT02874742] and Cassiopeia trials [NCT02541383]. The GRIFFIN trial looked at daratumumab [Darzalex], lenalidomide [Revlimid], bortezomib [Velcade], and dexamethasone, whereas the Cassiopeia trial looked at daratumumab, thalidomide [Thalomid], and dexamethasone. Both [trials] showed spectacular early responses for induction therapy to [the respective] quadruplets.

Another study looked at daratumumab [plus] carfilzomib [Kyprolis], lenalidomide, and dexamethasone [KRd]. That trial too showed unprecedented early responses as frontline therapy. More studies are looking at other CD38[-directed monoclonal antibodies], like isatuximab-irfc [Sarclisa], together with lenalidomide, as well as KRd.

These quadruplets are showing fast and deep responses after 4 cycles [of treatment]. For patients who are transplant eligible, [treatment with a quadruplet] prepares them for transplant quite well. They can go into transplant with a nice, deep response and, hopefully, [derive] a deeper response after remission.

The question exists of whether the quadruplets and other therapies may take away the need for autologous stem cell transplant. Right now, transplant is still part of frontline therapy and is especially useful in patients who have high-risk disease.

In the transplant-ineligible population, the MAIA trial [NCT02252172] looked at daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone vs lenalidomide and dexamethasone. The triplet has shown a median progression-free survival [PFS] approaching 60 months; that is just amazing for frontline therapy. We will see if quadruplets are needed in the transplant-ineligible setting.

We have several trials testing quadruplet therapy in the transplant-eligible population. Both daratumumab and isatuximab are being combined with IMiDs, PIs, and dexamethasone in a randomized fashion [vs triplet therapy]. We will see what the winner is. It will be interesting as we move forward, but right now, if we start that triplet therapy, we expect a PFS of 60 months, which is just amazing.

When we think about early relapse, what becomes important is what patients were on when they became relapsed or refractory. If they were on an IMiD, most of the time it was lenalidomide as maintenance therapy. We would then consider that patient lenalidomide refractory. In that scenario, we would use a CD38[-directed monoclonal antibody] plus pomalidomide [Pomalyst] and dexamethasone or a CD38[-directed monoclonal antibody] plus a PI and dexamethasone.

The data with daratumumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone, as well as isatuximab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone, are quite good. Truthfully, my favorite [approach] is that if the patient is on an IMiD, I give an antibody together with a PI. The IKEMA [NCT03275285] and CANDOR [NCT03158688] studies have shown deep and durable responses with a CD38[-directed monoclonal antibody] plus carfilzomib and dexamethasone in the early-relapsed setting.

The CANDOR study showed a PFS of about 28 months. We still need longer follow-up from the IKEMA study to see what the PFS is going to be, but it is certainly going to be at least 28 months. Specifically, [in the IKEMA] study we showed that 30% of patients had achieved minimal residual disease [MRD] negativity with the triplet combination in the early-relapsed setting. Its unprecedented to see these deep responses with evidence of MRD negativity.

If patients have not received a CD38[-directed monoclonal antibody] as part of frontline therapy, that is what the first component should be to add for first relapse. The other regimens, which weve used before and are good, include pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone, or pomalidomide, carfilzomib, and dexamethasone. There are multiple other choices, but those are my favorites.

In early-to-mid relapse, we usually use a ping-pong approach where we go back and forth between the categories of agents. Eventually, after 2 or 3 lines of therapy, patients have been exposed to what I call the big 5, which are lenalidomide, bortezomib, carfilzomib, pomalidomide, and a CD38-directed antibody. This is a setting which had been our unmet medical need.

We now have 3 agents that are FDA approved for that group of patients. We have selinexor [Xpovio] plus dexamethasone, which was approved based on the STORM trial [NCT02336815]. That doublet can be used in the [originally indicated] twice-weekly [dose], or given once weekly, which is much better tolerated. Often, we combine [selinexor] with another agent, such as bortezomib, carfilzomib, pomalidomide, or, even, daratumumab, so it is a kind of pick-your-partner [agent] in that regard. There are toxicities associated with selinexor, and we must follow patients closely. We cant just give them the therapy and see them in 4 weeks. We must follow their sodium closely because some patients need salt replacement, hydration, and anti-emetics.

The second [agent approved for triple-class refractory multiple myeloma] is belantamab mafodotin-blmf [Blenrep], which is an antibody-drug conjugate that targets BCMA. The poison is MMAF, which is associated with thrombocytopenia and ocular toxicity. We found that when belantamab mafodotin is used as a single agent without a steroid, the response rate was just over 30%. Patients who respond have durable responses upward of 10 or 12 months. We just have to watch patients for ocular toxicity because [belantamab mafodotin] can cause keratitis on the surface of the eye. Patients must see an ophthalmologist before each dose of belantamab mafodotin, which is dosed every 3 weeks. In my experience, [keratitis] usually occurs after the second or third dose. Most patients respond after the first or second dose, so we can see if the patient responds, and then continue or modify the regimen. We can lengthen the dose out to every 4 weeks or every 6 weeks or drop the dose from 2.5 mg/kg to 1.9 mg/kg.

Lastly, we have a new drug called melphalan flufenamide [melflufen; Pepaxto], which is a lipophilic, alkylator-based therapy. The lipophilic component gets the drug fast into cells, but it can be cleaved off the alkylator by aminopeptidases. In fact, normal cells dont have many aminopeptidases, so [melflufen] gets in and out of normal cells relatively quickly; however, the drug gets in myeloma cells, the lipophilic component is cleaved off, and the alkylator gets trapped inside the cell. [Melflufen] is [administered as] one flat dose of 40 mg every 4 weeks with weekly dexamethasone. It is tolerable; the big adverse effect [AE] is blood count suppression. Weve seen response rates in the 25% to 30% range.

The newest [therapy] on the block in what is available for patients who have had 4 prior lines of therapy is the CAR T-cell therapy ide-cel. It is BCMA directed, the original vector was known as bb2121. It is now FDA approved.

The rollout [of ide-cel] has been a little slow in terms of slot allocation, and it has been difficult for centers across the country to get patients on slots. We are hoping that the slot availability will increase over the next few months.

That said, for patients who are triple-class refractory and have had 4 prior lines of therapy, [ide-cel] is a perfect therapy. The CAR T cells have to be done at a licensed CAR T-cell center, of which there are only about 70 in the United States. That comes with some overhead because patients must move to the center and remain there for the first 30 days of therapy because of the significant toxicities associated with CAR T-cell therapy. [These AEs] are mostly cytokine release syndrome [CRS], which happens 80% to 90% of the time, and some neurotoxicity, which is reported in around 15% to 20% of patients. Patients must be followed closely and require initial hospitalization between 7 to 14 days. Then, patients must stay local [for follow-up].

There is a lot of overhead, but it is a one-and-done treatment. We collect their T cells, give them lymphodepletion, give them back the T cells, and patients are off therapy. The median PFS for ide-cel is about 12 months, so hopefully patients get 12 months of free time where they dont need therapy and have truly good quality of life, which is quite nice.

The nice thing about immunotherapy is that multiple targets are being investigated. BCMA was our first target, but we have others, such as GPRC5D and FcRH5. We have multiple different CAR T-cell therapies currently in research studies to try to build upon ide-cel.

We also have BiTEs, in which one arm binds to BCMA or whatever the target is on the myeloma cell, and the other arm looks for the immune cell in the local environment. Most of the other arms bind to CD3 on T cells to activate the T cells. [BiTEs] are a little bit different in terms of how they bind to the myeloma cell and how much they activate the T cell by binding to CD3.

That said, in the early research, most of these therapeutics as single agents have shown response rates on the order of 60% to 80%. Thats, again, unprecedented for single agents. These therapeutics are quite impressive in terms of response rates, but they are also associated with CRS and mild neurotoxicity. They require initial dosing in the hospital and patients are usually hospitalized for 7 to 10 days for step-up dosing. After that, [treatment] can be done in the outpatient setting with intermittent dosing. BiTEs vary from dosing weekly and then less frequently to every 3 weeks. Coming back to the center every 3 weeks is reasonable, even for patients who live outside the research center.

In San Francisco, we have patients coming in every 3 weeks to get their therapy and then they head back home, which is nice. However, it is ongoing therapy and patients must continue their therapy rather than receive a one-and-done treatment. This is because BiTEs are off-the-shelf products. There is not a collection and manufacturing step. These drugs are going to be given in the community eventually once they are approved. These drugs will be used in many more patients compared with CAR T-cell therapy just because of the logistics of CAR T-cell therapies, so BiTEs are exciting.

These advances [observed in multiple myeloma] have also spilled over to amyloidosis. We now have great frontline therapy for amyloidosis, as well as many irons in the fire [evaluating] ways we can treat relapsed amyloidosis. Weve had a troubled past [with] antiviral therapy in amyloidosis. However, there is renewed interest in this and, certainly, there are patients with amyloidosis who would benefit from antiviral therapy.

There is a lot of work going on in amyloidosis currently. The ANDROMEDA study [NCT03201965] has shown in randomized fashion that daratumumab plus bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone [VCd] results in better organ response rates and PFS vs VCd alone, which had really been our standard therapy in amyloidosis. Going forward, patients with amyloidosis should receive this quadruplet as frontline therapy.

Patients with amyloidosis also have a high incidence of 11;14 translocations [t11;14]. Some case reports [have read out] of patients being treated with venetoclax. Ongoing research avenues are going to further investigate venetoclax with or without the combination of other drugs. Venetoclax will have a strong response rate in patients with amyloidosis and will be used for initial relapse. Eventually, [venetoclax] might be used in patients with t11;14, but those studies are being done. Approval for that is a long way down the road.

Also down the road for amyloidosis are BiTEs. BCMA is on the surface of plasma cells in amyloidosis, also, [as in multiple myeloma]. There is also a renewed interest in antiviral therapy in amyloidosis. The amyloid proteins deposit in the cell and cause significant organ toxicity, especially in the [heart] and kidneys. Antiviral therapy may enhance and quicken organ responses to improve survival for patients, including those with severe cardiac amyloidosis.

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Emerging Quadruplets, Novel Targets, and Immunotherapy Advances Personalized Medicine in Multiple Myeloma - OncLive

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cardiovascular disease | Symptoms, Causes, Treatment …

By daniellenierenberg

Cardiovascular disease, any of the diseases, whether congenital or acquired, of the heart and blood vessels. Among the most important are atherosclerosis, rheumatic heart disease, and vascular inflammation. Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of health problems and death.

This micrograph shows a cross section of a coronary artery narrowed by an atherosclerotic plaque (purplish matter inside the artery). The extensive buildup of plaque impedes the flow of blood through the artery and to the heart's tissues.

Britannica Quiz

44 Questions from Britannicas Most Popular Health and Medicine Quizzes

How much do you know about human anatomy? How about medical conditions? The brain? Youll need to know a lot to answer 44 of the hardest questions from Britannicas most popular quizzes about health and medicine.

Life depends on the functioning of the heart; thus, the heart is involved in all death, but this does not account for its prominence in causing death. To some degree, as medical science advances, more people are saved from other illnesses only to die from one of the unsolved and uncontrolled disorders of the cardiovascular system. Some forms of cardiovascular diseases are becoming less frequent causes of death, and continued research and preventive measures may provide even greater benefits. However, changes in lifestyle and diet, including the adoption of more sedentary lifestyles and the consumption of fried foods and foods high in sugar, have resulted in increases in the incidence of otherwise preventable cardiovascular-related illness and death.

Heart disease as such was not recognized in non-technological cultures, but the beating heart and its relationship to death have always been appreciated. Sudden death, now usually attributed to heart disease, was recognized as early as the 5th century bce by the Greek physician Hippocrates and was noted to be more common in the obese. The role of disease in affecting the heart itself did not become apparent until the 17th century, when examination of the body after death became acceptable.

Gradually, the involvement of the heart valves, the blood vessels, and the heart muscle was observed and categorized in an orderly fashion. The circulation of the blood through the heart was described in 1628 by the British physician William Harvey. The recognition of the manifestations of heart failure came later, as did the ability to diagnose heart ailments by physical examination through the techniques of percussion (thumping), auscultation (listening) with the stethoscope, and other means. It was not until early in the 20th century that the determination of arterial blood pressure and the use of X-rays for diagnosis became widespread.

In 1912 James Bryan Herrick, a Chicago physician, first described what he called coronary thrombosis (he was describing symptoms actually caused by myocardial infarction). Angina pectoris had been recorded centuries earlier. Cardiovascular surgery in the modern sense began in the 1930s, and open-heart surgery began in the 1950s.

The exact incidence of heart disease in the world population is difficult to ascertain, because complete and adequate public health figures for either prevalence or related deaths are not available. Nonetheless, in the 21st century, in many parts of the world, cardiovascular disease was recognized as a leading cause of death. In the more technologically developed countries of the worldsuch as the United Kingdom and most continental European countriesarteriosclerotic heart disease (heart disease resulting from thickening and hardening of the artery walls) was one of the most common forms of cardiovascular disease. In the early 21st century in the United States, an estimated one-half of the adult population was affected by some form of cardiovascular disease; while heart disease and stroke accounted for a significant proportion of this disease burden, high blood pressure was the most common condition. In other areas of the world, such as the countries of Central Africa, other forms of heart disease, often nutritional in nature, were a common cause of death. In Asia and the islands of the Pacific, hypertensive cardiovascular disease, disease involving high blood pressure, constituted a major health hazard.

The hearts complicated evolution during embryological development presents the opportunity for many different types of congenital defects to occur. Congenital heart disease is one of the important types of diseases affecting the cardiovascular system, with an incidence of about 8 per 1,000 live births. In most patients the causes appear to fit in the middle of a continuum from primarily genetic to primarily environmental.

Of the few cases that have a genetic nature, the defect may be the result of a single mutant gene, while in other cases it may be associated with a chromosomal abnormality, the most common of which is Down syndrome, in which about 50 percent of afflicted children have a congenital cardiac abnormality. In the even smaller number of cases of an obvious environmental cause, a variety of specific factors are evident. The occurrence of rubella (German measles) in a woman during the first three months of pregnancy is caused by a virus and is associated in the child with patent ductus arteriosus (nonclosure of the opening between the aorta and the pulmonary artery). Other viruses may be responsible for specific heart lesions, and a number of drugs, including antiepileptic agents, are associated with an increased incidence of congenital heart disease.

In most cases, congenital heart disease is probably caused by a variety of factors, and any genetic factor is usually unmasked only if it occurs together with the appropriate environmental hazard. The risk of a sibling of a child with congenital heart disease being similarly affected is between 2 and 4 percent. The precise recurrence can vary for individual congenital cardiovascular lesions.

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities is still at an early stage. The most promising technique is ultrasonography, used for many years to examine the fetus in utero. The increasing sophistication of equipment has made it possible to examine the heart and the great vessels from 16 to 18 weeks of gestation onward and to determine whether defects are present. Amniocentesis (removal and examination of a small quantity of fluid from around the developing fetus) provides a method by which the fetal chromosomes can be examined for chromosomal abnormalities associated with congenital heart disease. In many children and adults the presence of congenital heart disease is detected for the first time when a cardiac murmur is heard. A congenital cardiovascular lesion is rarely signaled by a disturbance of the heart rate or the heart rhythm.

Congenital cardiac disturbances are varied and may involve almost all components of the heart and great arteries. Some may cause death at the time of birth, others may not have an effect until early adulthood, and some may be associated with an essentially normal life span. Nonetheless, about 40 percent of all untreated infants born with congenital heart disease die before the end of their first year.

Congenital heart defects can be classified into cyanotic and noncyanotic varieties. In the cyanotic varieties, a shunt bypasses the lungs and delivers venous (deoxygenated) blood from the right side of the heart into the arterial circulation. The infants nail beds and lips have a blue colour due to the excess deoxygenated blood in the system. Some infants with severe noncyanotic varieties of congenital heart disease may fail to thrive and may have breathing difficulties.

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cardiovascular disease | Symptoms, Causes, Treatment ...

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FDA Approves Expanded Indication for Merck’s KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) in Locally Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (cSCC) – Business Wire

By daniellenierenberg

KENILWORTH, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Merck (NYSE: MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved an expanded label for KEYTRUDA, Mercks anti-PD-1 therapy, as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with locally advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) that is not curable by surgery or radiation. This approval is based on data from the second interim analysis of the Phase 2 KEYNOTE-629 trial, in which KEYTRUDA demonstrated an objective response rate (ORR) of 50% (95% CI, 36-64) (n=54), including a complete response rate of 17% and a partial response rate of 33% in the cohort of patients with locally advanced disease. Among the 27 responding patients, 81% had a duration of response (DOR) of six months or longer, and 37% had a DOR of 12 months or longer. In June 2020, KEYTRUDA was granted its first indication in cSCC, as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic disease that is not curable by surgery or radiation.

This approval is great news for these patients and further demonstrates Mercks commitment to the skin cancer community. KEYTRUDA has shown meaningful efficacy in patients with locally advanced or recurrent or metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma that cannot be cured by surgery or radiation, said Dr. Vicki Goodman, vice president, clinical research, Merck Research Laboratories. This expanded indication reinforces the role of KEYTRUDA in this cancer type, which is the second most common form of non-melanoma skin cancer.

Immune-mediated adverse reactions, which may be severe or fatal, can occur in any organ system or tissue and can affect more than one body system simultaneously. Immune-mediated adverse reactions can occur at any time during or after treatment with KEYTRUDA, including pneumonitis, colitis, hepatitis, endocrinopathies, nephritis, dermatologic reactions, solid organ transplant rejection, and complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Important immune-mediated adverse reactions listed here may not include all possible severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions. Early identification and management of immune-mediated adverse reactions are essential to ensure safe use of KEYTRUDA. Based on the severity of the adverse reaction, KEYTRUDA should be withheld or permanently discontinued and corticosteroids administered if appropriate. KEYTRUDA can also cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions. Based on its mechanism of action, KEYTRUDA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. For more information, see Selected Important Safety Information below.

Data Supporting the Approval

The approval was based on data from KEYNOTE-629 (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03284424), a multicenter, multi-cohort, non-randomized, open-label trial that enrolled patients with recurrent or metastatic cSCC or locally advanced cSCC. The trial excluded patients with autoimmune disease or a medical condition that required immunosuppression.

Patients received KEYTRUDA 200 mg intravenously every three weeks until documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or a maximum of 24 months. Patients with initial radiographic disease progression could receive additional doses of KEYTRUDA during confirmation of progression unless disease progression was symptomatic, rapidly progressive, required urgent intervention, or occurred with a decline in performance status.

Assessment of tumor status was performed every six weeks during the first year and every nine weeks during the second year. The major efficacy outcome measures were ORR and DOR as assessed by blinded independent central review (BICR) according to RECIST v1.1, modified to follow a maximum of 10 target lesions and a maximum of five target lesions per organ.

Among the 54 patients with locally advanced cSCC treated, the study population characteristics were: median age of 76 years (range, 35 to 95), 80% age 65 or older; 72% male; 83% white, 13% race unknown; 41% Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 0 and 59% ECOG PS of 1. Twenty-two percent received one or more prior lines of therapy; 63% received prior radiation therapy.

The ORR was 50% (95% CI, 36-64), including a complete response rate of 17% and a partial response rate of 33%, for patients treated with KEYTRUDA. After a median follow-up of 13.4 months, the median DOR had not yet been reached (range, 1.0+ to 17.2+ months). Among the 27 responding patients, 81% had a DOR of six months or longer, and 37% had a DOR of 12 months or longer.

Among the 159 patients with advanced cSCC (recurrent or metastatic or locally advanced disease) enrolled in KEYNOTE-629, the median duration of exposure to KEYTRUDA was 6.9 months (range, 1 day to 28.9 months). Adverse reactions occurring in patients with recurrent or metastatic cSCC or locally advanced cSCC were similar to those occurring in 2,799 patients with melanoma or non-small cell lung cancer treated with KEYTRUDA as a single agent. Laboratory abnormalities (Grades 3-4) that occurred at a higher incidence included lymphopenia (10%) and decreased sodium (10%).

About KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) Injection, 100 mg

KEYTRUDA is an anti-programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) therapy that works by increasing the ability of the bodys immune system to help detect and fight tumor cells. KEYTRUDA is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, thereby activating T lymphocytes which may affect both tumor cells and healthy cells.

Merck has the industrys largest immuno-oncology clinical research program. There are currently more than 1,500 trials studying KEYTRUDA across a wide variety of cancers and treatment settings. The KEYTRUDA clinical program seeks to understand the role of KEYTRUDA across cancers and the factors that may predict a patient's likelihood of benefitting from treatment with KEYTRUDA, including exploring several different biomarkers.

Selected KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) Indications in the U.S.

Melanoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of patients with melanoma with involvement of lymph node(s) following complete resection.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

KEYTRUDA, in combination with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations.

KEYTRUDA, in combination with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or paclitaxel protein-bound, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic squamous NSCLC.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with NSCLC expressing PD-L1 [tumor proportion score (TPS) 1%] as determined by an FDA-approved test, with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations, and is stage III where patients are not candidates for surgical resection or definitive chemoradiation, or metastatic.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors express PD-L1 (TPS 1%) as determined by an FDA-approved test, with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy. Patients with EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations should have disease progression on FDA-approved therapy for these aberrations prior to receiving KEYTRUDA.

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

KEYTRUDA, in combination with platinum and fluorouracil (FU), is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic or with unresectable, recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic or with unresectable, recurrent HNSCC whose tumors express PD-L1 (CPS 1) as determined by an FDA-approved test.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy.

Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL).

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients with refractory cHL, or cHL that has relapsed after 2 or more lines of therapy.

Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with refractory primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL), or who have relapsed after 2 or more prior lines of therapy. KEYTRUDA is not recommended for treatment of patients with PMBCL who require urgent cytoreductive therapy.

Urothelial Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who are not eligible for cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and whose tumors express PD-L1 (CPS 10), as determined by an FDA-approved test, or in patients who are not eligible for any platinum-containing chemotherapy regardless of PD-L1 status. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or mUC who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy or within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-unresponsive, high-risk, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with carcinoma in situ with or without papillary tumors who are ineligible for or have elected not to undergo cystectomy.

Microsatellite Instability-High or Mismatch Repair Deficient Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR)solid tumors that have progressed following prior treatment and who have no satisfactory alternative treatment options

This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials. The safety and effectiveness of KEYTRUDA in pediatric patients with MSI-H central nervous system cancers have not been established.

Microsatellite Instability-High or Mismatch Repair Deficient Colorectal Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic MSI-H or dMMR colorectal cancer (CRC).

Gastric Cancer

KEYTRUDA, in combination with trastuzumab, fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-containing chemotherapy, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic HER2-positive gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma whose tumors express PD-L1 (CPS 1) as determined by an FDA-approved test, with disease progression on or after two or more prior lines of therapy including fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-containing chemotherapy and if appropriate, HER2/neu-targeted therapy. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Esophageal Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal or GEJ (tumors with epicenter 1 to 5 centimeters above the GEJ) carcinoma that is not amenable to surgical resection or definitive chemoradiation either:

Cervical Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer with disease progression on or after chemotherapy whose tumors express PD-L1 (CPS 1) as determined by an FDA-approved test. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have been previously treated with sorafenib. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Merkel Cell Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA, in combination with axitinib, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

Tumor Mutational Burden-High Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic tumor mutational burden-high (TMB-H) [10 mutations/megabase] solid tumors, as determined by an FDA-approved test, that have progressed following prior treatment and who have no satisfactory alternative treatment options. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials. The safety and effectiveness of KEYTRUDA in pediatric patients with TMB-H central nervous system cancers have not been established.

Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) or locally advanced cSCC that is not curable by surgery or radiation.

Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

KEYTRUDA, in combination with chemotherapy, is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally recurrent unresectable or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) whose tumors express PD-L1 (CPS 10) as determined by an FDA-approved test. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on progression-free survival. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Selected Important Safety Information for KEYTRUDA

Severe and Fatal Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

KEYTRUDA is a monoclonal antibody that belongs to a class of drugs that bind to either the programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) or the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway, thereby removing inhibition of the immune response, potentially breaking peripheral tolerance and inducing immune-mediated adverse reactions. Immune-mediated adverse reactions, which may be severe or fatal, can occur in any organ system or tissue, can affect more than one body system simultaneously, and can occur at any time after starting treatment or after discontinuation of treatment. Important immune-mediated adverse reactions listed here may not include all possible severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions.

Monitor patients closely for symptoms and signs that may be clinical manifestations of underlying immune-mediated adverse reactions. Early identification and management are essential to ensure safe use of antiPD-1/PD-L1 treatments. Evaluate liver enzymes, creatinine, and thyroid function at baseline and periodically during treatment. In cases of suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, initiate appropriate workup to exclude alternative etiologies, including infection. Institute medical management promptly, including specialty consultation as appropriate.

Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity of the immune-mediated adverse reaction. In general, if KEYTRUDA requires interruption or discontinuation, administer systemic corticosteroid therapy (1 to 2 mg/kg/day prednisone or equivalent) until improvement to Grade 1 or less. Upon improvement to Grade 1 or less, initiate corticosteroid taper and continue to taper over at least 1 month. Consider administration of other systemic immunosuppressants in patients whose adverse reactions are not controlled with corticosteroid therapy.

Immune-Mediated Pneumonitis

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis. The incidence is higher in patients who have received prior thoracic radiation. Immune-mediated pneumonitis occurred in 3.4% (94/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including fatal (0.1%), Grade 4 (0.3%), Grade 3 (0.9%), and Grade 2 (1.3%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 67% (63/94) of patients. Pneumonitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 1.3% (36) and withholding in 0.9% (26) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, 23% had recurrence. Pneumonitis resolved in 59% of the 94 patients.

Pneumonitis occurred in 8% (31/389) of adult patients with cHL receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, including Grades 3-4 in 2.3% of patients. Patients received high-dose corticosteroids for a median duration of 10 days (range: 2 days to 53 months). Pneumonitis rates were similar in patients with and without prior thoracic radiation. Pneumonitis led to discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 5.4% (21) of patients. Of the patients who developed pneumonitis, 42% interrupted KEYTRUDA, 68% discontinued KEYTRUDA, and 77% had resolution.

Immune-Mediated Colitis

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated colitis, which may present with diarrhea. Cytomegalovirus infection/reactivation has been reported in patients with corticosteroid-refractory immune-mediated colitis. In cases of corticosteroid-refractory colitis, consider repeating infectious workup to exclude alternative etiologies. Immune-mediated colitis occurred in 1.7% (48/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (1.1%), and Grade 2 (0.4%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 69% (33/48); additional immunosuppressant therapy was required in 4.2% of patients. Colitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.5% (15) and withholding in 0.5% (13) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, 23% had recurrence. Colitis resolved in 85% of the 48 patients.

Hepatotoxicity and Immune-Mediated Hepatitis

KEYTRUDA as a Single Agent

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated hepatitis. Immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 0.7% (19/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.4%), and Grade 2 (0.1%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 68% (13/19) of patients; additional immunosuppressant therapy was required in 11% of patients. Hepatitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.2% (6) and withholding in 0.3% (9) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, none had recurrence. Hepatitis resolved in 79% of the 19 patients.

KEYTRUDA with Axitinib

KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib can cause hepatic toxicity. Monitor liver enzymes before initiation of and periodically throughout treatment. Consider monitoring more frequently as compared to when the drugs are administered as single agents. For elevated liver enzymes, interrupt KEYTRUDA and axitinib, and consider administering corticosteroids as needed. With the combination of KEYTRUDA and axitinib, Grades 3 and 4 increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (20%) and increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (13%) were seen, at a higher frequency compared to KEYTRUDA alone. Fifty-nine percent of the patients with increased ALT received systemic corticosteroids. In patients with ALT 3 times upper limit of normal (ULN) (Grades 2-4, n=116), ALT resolved to Grades 0-1 in 94%. Among the 92 patients who were rechallenged with either KEYTRUDA (n=3) or axitinib (n=34) administered as a single agent or with both (n=55), recurrence of ALT 3 times ULN was observed in 1 patient receiving KEYTRUDA, 16 patients receiving axitinib, and 24 patients receiving both. All patients with a recurrence of ALT 3 ULN subsequently recovered from the event.

Immune-Mediated Endocrinopathies

Adrenal Insufficiency

KEYTRUDA can cause primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency. For Grade 2 or higher, initiate symptomatic treatment, including hormone replacement as clinically indicated. Withhold KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Adrenal insufficiency occurred in 0.8% (22/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.3%), and Grade 2 (0.3%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 77% (17/22) of patients; of these, the majority remained on systemic corticosteroids. Adrenal insufficiency led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (1) and withholding in 0.3% (8) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement.

Hypophysitis

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated hypophysitis. Hypophysitis can present with acute symptoms associated with mass effect such as headache, photophobia, or visual field defects. Hypophysitis can cause hypopituitarism. Initiate hormone replacement as indicated. Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Hypophysitis occurred in 0.6% (17/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.3%), and Grade 2 (0.2%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 94% (16/17) of patients; of these, the majority remained on systemic corticosteroids. Hypophysitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.1% (4) and withholding in 0.3% (7) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement.

Thyroid Disorders

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated thyroid disorders. Thyroiditis can present with or without endocrinopathy. Hypothyroidism can follow hyperthyroidism. Initiate hormone replacement for hypothyroidism or institute medical management of hyperthyroidism as clinically indicated. Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Thyroiditis occurred in 0.6% (16/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 2 (0.3%). None discontinued, but KEYTRUDA was withheld in <0.1% (1) of patients.

Hyperthyroidism occurred in 3.4% (96/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 3 (0.1%) and Grade 2 (0.8%). It led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (2) and withholding in 0.3% (7) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement. Hypothyroidism occurred in 8% (237/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 3 (0.1%) and Grade 2 (6.2%). It led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (1) and withholding in 0.5% (14) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement. The majority of patients with hypothyroidism required long-term thyroid hormone replacement. The incidence of new or worsening hypothyroidism was higher in 1185 patients with HNSCC, occurring in 16% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent or in combination with platinum and FU, including Grade 3 (0.3%) hypothyroidism. The incidence of new or worsening hypothyroidism was higher in 389 adult patients with cHL (17%) receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, including Grade 1 (6.2%) and Grade 2 (10.8%) hypothyroidism.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Which Can Present With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Monitor patients for hyperglycemia or other signs and symptoms of diabetes. Initiate treatment with insulin as clinically indicated. Withhold KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Type 1 DM occurred in 0.2% (6/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA. It led to permanent discontinuation in <0.1% (1) and withholding of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (1) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement.

Immune-Mediated Nephritis With Renal Dysfunction

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated nephritis. Immune-mediated nephritis occurred in 0.3% (9/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.1%), and Grade 2 (0.1%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 89% (8/9) of patients. Nephritis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.1% (3) and withholding in 0.1% (3) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, none had recurrence. Nephritis resolved in 56% of the 9 patients.

Immune-Mediated Dermatologic Adverse Reactions

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated rash or dermatitis. Exfoliative dermatitis, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, has occurred with antiPD-1/PD-L1 treatments. Topical emollients and/or topical corticosteroids may be adequate to treat mild to moderate nonexfoliative rashes. Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Immune-mediated dermatologic adverse reactions occurred in 1.4% (38/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 3 (1%) and Grade 2 (0.1%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 40% (15/38) of patients. These reactions led to permanent discontinuation in 0.1% (2) and withholding of KEYTRUDA in 0.6% (16) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, 6% had recurrence. The reactions resolved in 79% of the 38 patients.

Other Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

The following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred at an incidence of <1% (unless otherwise noted) in patients who received KEYTRUDA or were reported with the use of other antiPD-1/PD-L1 treatments. Severe or fatal cases have been reported for some of these adverse reactions. Cardiac/Vascular: Myocarditis, pericarditis, vasculitis; Nervous System: Meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and demyelination, myasthenic syndrome/myasthenia gravis (including exacerbation), Guillain-Barr syndrome, nerve paresis, autoimmune neuropathy; Ocular: Uveitis, iritis and other ocular inflammatory toxicities can occur. Some cases can be associated with retinal detachment. Various grades of visual impairment, including blindness, can occur. If uveitis occurs in combination with other immune-mediated adverse reactions, consider a Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-like syndrome, as this may require treatment with systemic steroids to reduce the risk of permanent vision loss; Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis, to include increases in serum amylase and lipase levels, gastritis, duodenitis; Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue: Myositis/polymyositis rhabdomyolysis (and associated sequelae, including renal failure), arthritis (1.5%), polymyalgia rheumatica; Endocrine: Hypoparathyroidism; Hematologic/Immune: Hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi lymphadenitis), sarcoidosis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, solid organ transplant rejection.

Infusion-Related Reactions

KEYTRUDA can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions, including hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis, which have been reported in 0.2% of 2799 patients receiving KEYTRUDA. Monitor for signs and symptoms of infusion-related reactions. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion for Grade 1 or Grade 2 reactions. For Grade 3 or Grade 4 reactions, stop infusion and permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA.

Complications of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)

Fatal and other serious complications can occur in patients who receive allogeneic HSCT before or after antiPD-1/PD-L1 treatment. Transplant-related complications include hyperacute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), acute and chronic GVHD, hepatic veno-occlusive disease after reduced intensity conditioning, and steroid-requiring febrile syndrome (without an identified infectious cause). These complications may occur despite intervening therapy between antiPD-1/PD-L1 treatment and allogeneic HSCT. Follow patients closely for evidence of these complications and intervene promptly. Consider the benefit vs risks of using antiPD-1/PD-L1 treatments prior to or after an allogeneic HSCT.

Increased Mortality in Patients With Multiple Myeloma

In trials in patients with multiple myeloma, the addition of KEYTRUDA to a thalidomide analogue plus dexamethasone resulted in increased mortality. Treatment of these patients with an antiPD-1/PD-L1 treatment in this combination is not recommended outside of controlled trials.

Embryofetal Toxicity

Based on its mechanism of action, KEYTRUDA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise women of this potential risk. In females of reproductive potential, verify pregnancy status prior to initiating KEYTRUDA and advise them to use effective contraception during treatment and for 4 months after the last dose.

Adverse Reactions

In KEYNOTE-006, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 9% of 555 patients with advanced melanoma; adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation in more than one patient were colitis (1.4%), autoimmune hepatitis (0.7%), allergic reaction (0.4%), polyneuropathy (0.4%), and cardiac failure (0.4%). The most common adverse reactions (20%) with KEYTRUDA were fatigue (28%), diarrhea (26%), rash (24%), and nausea (21%).

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FDA Approves Expanded Indication for Merck's KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) in Locally Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (cSCC) - Business Wire

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2 Reasons to Buy Intellia — and 1 Big Reason Why I Won’t – The Motley Fool

By daniellenierenberg

Clinical trial data supporting the safety of the CRISPR-Cas9 genomic editing tool was presented on Monday by Intellia Therapeutics (NASDAQ:NTLA) for its lead product, NTLA-2001. The data was highly encouraging. However, despite NTLA-2001's positive early results as a potential treatment for the rare disease transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, there's still a long way to go before Intellia could bring it to market.

In transthyretin amyloidosis, cells in the liver produce misfolded TTR proteins, which accumulate throughout the body, causing debilitating complications that can involve the digestive system, nervous system, and heart. Once symptoms appear, they grow progressively worse, and the disease leads to death within a median of 4 to 17 years among patients with nervous system involvement, and 2 to 6 years among patients with cardiac involvement.

NTLA-2001 edits the genes in those liver cells, removing the segment that produces those lethal misfolded proteins.

Worldwide, an estimated 250,000-550,000 people suffer from some form of amyloidosis.

IMAGE SOURCE: GETTY IMAGES.

An interim readout from Intellia's ongoing phase 1 trial found that a single high-dose infusion of NTLA-2001 led to an 87% mean reduction in the amount of misfolded TTR in patients' bloodstreams, with a maximum reduction of 96% by day 28 in one patient. Encouragingly, no serious adverse events were observed in the six study participants. While this is a small pilot study, in previous studies of NTLA-2001 in mice, the maximum reductions in TTR persisted for 12 months after a single treatment.

All of this data provides an early indication that CRISPR gene therapies are safe and efficacious as treatments for at least some genetic diseases.

There are other treatments on the market for TTR amyloidosis, but one thing that would set CRISPR apart is the relative simplicity of administering it. And that factor could lead insurers to favor CRISPR treatments for certain rare and debilitating diseases such as TTR amyloidosis and hemophilia.

For example, Alnylam's (NASDAQ:ALNY) RNA-silencing therapy Onpattro requires an infusion every three weeks at a clinician's office. Ionis Pharmaceuticals' (NASDAQ:IONS) Tegsedi requires regular injections, though they can be self-administered. Both are priced in the neighborhood of $345,000 per year, and Onpattro comes with the additional costs associated with going to a medical office and having an infusion set up. Then there is Pfizer's (NYSE:PFE) once-daily oral medication Vyndamax, which costs $225,000 annually.

As a one-time infusion, gene therapy may become a compelling option for both patients and insurers, particularly given the high prices of currently available treatments. Though TTR amyloidosis treatments are a niche market, in 2020, Onpattro generated sales of $306 million, Tegsedi just under $70 million, and Vyndamax $429 million. Assuming that Intellia charges more for NTLA-2001 -- a one-time treatment with bluebird bio's (NASDAQ:BLUE) gene therapy for beta-thalassemia, Zynteglo, costs about $1.8 million -- TTR amyloidosis treatment could easily become a multibillion-dollar addressable market for the biotech.

Notably, CRISPR therapy for TTR amyloidosis may also put less stress on the healthcare system than the lentivirus and adenovirus gene therapies that are further along in clinical trials. Consider, for instance, Zynteglo, which requires a significant amount of effort and processing prior to treatment. First, physicians must extract stem cells from the patient, which must then be transported to and treated by bluebird bio. In the meantime, the patient undergoes "myeloablative conditioning" -- essentially knocking down the patient's bone marrow in preparation for a transplant of the edited stem cells, which will contain a repaired version of the gene that (when mutated) causes beta-thalassemia. This complicated process requires treatment at a qualified transplant center.

By comparison, for TTR amyloidosis, NTLA-2001 requires pre-medication with steroids and antihistamines. That's it. No prolonged patient preparation at the hospital. No bone marrow suppression. No shipping the patient's stem cells to a lab. The relative simplicity of administering CRISPR therapies is just one reason for the degree of excitement they are generating.

It may also give them a lower total cost of treatment than current gene therapies, which could make these therapies more palatable to insurers. If NTLA-2001 pans out, we may see a new biotech boom, with Intellia leading the charge.

Before investors get their hopes up too much, remember that these results were from a six-person, phase 1 trial, and that Intellia now holds a market cap of roughly $11 billion. In fact, its valuation rose by about $2.8 billion in a single trading session after the interim trial data was made public. That gain was more than the current $2.1 billion market cap of bluebird bio, which already has an approved gene therapy on the market as well as a CAR-T therapy, and has two more candidates in phase 3 trials.

For further context, bluebird bio announced phase 1 results for Zynteglo in December 2014. While Zynteglo was approved for use in the EU in late 2019, bluebird bio faced some backlash on pricing, and the company isn't selling it in Germany because the two sides could not agree on pricing.

Moreover, the NTLA-2001 study excluded patients who had previously received RNA-silencing therapy, and none of these patients had previously taken Vyndamax either. How previous treatments will affect the way patients respond to NTLA-2001 is not yet known. And with hundreds of millions of dollars in revenue annually on the line, it is doubtful that Alynam, Ionis, or Pfizer will surrender this market without a fight.

In sum, Intellia will still need to conduct several years of trials, leap many regulatory hurdles, and outmaneuver an array of rivals stand before it can declare the CRISPR-Cas9 platform a winner. Not only that, but -- recognizing that future studies won't be cheap -- Intellia has already proposed another public offering of $400 million worth of common stock this week, diluting its current shareholders.

So while long-term Intellia shareholders have reason to celebrate, let bluebird bio serve as a cautionary tale. That biotech was once flying high on positive trial data, hitting a market cap of around $15.5 billion in March 2018. Since then, its shares have nose-dived by more than 80%. This despite the fact that it now has two approved therapies and two more candidates in phase 3 trials.

As such, I would be concerned about investing new money in Intellia now. I suspect it will soon reach its peak for the foreseeable future. Biotech investing can be gut-wrenchingly fickle, and investors may want to consider taking a basket approach to high-risk clinical-stage biotechs, rather than investing too heavily in a single player.

This article represents the opinion of the writer, who may disagree with the official recommendation position of a Motley Fool premium advisory service. Were motley! Questioning an investing thesis -- even one of our own -- helps us all think critically about investing and make decisions that help us become smarter, happier, and richer.

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2 Reasons to Buy Intellia -- and 1 Big Reason Why I Won't - The Motley Fool

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Global Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market 2021 Outlook and Study of Top Players Regeneus, Mesoblast, Pluristem Therapeutics Inc, US STEM…

By daniellenierenberg

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Disease-modifying therapies for osteoarthritis | DDDT – Dove Medical Press

By daniellenierenberg

Why is the Development of Disease-Modifying Osteoarthritis Drugs (DMOADs) Required?Disease Burden

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent arthritis globally and represents a major challenge for twenty-first century health care systems.1,2 The Global Burden of Disease 2020 report showed an increase of 9.3% and 8.2% in the age-standardized OA point prevalence and annual incidence rate from 1990 to 2017.3 The prevalence rises with increasing age; in the USA (United States of America), OA was found in 13.9% of adults aged 25 years and 33.6% for those aged 65 years respectively in 2005.4 The lifetime risk of having symptomatic knee OA is about 40% in men and 47% in women, and the risk increases to 60.5% among obese persons.5 By the year 2040, an estimated 25.9% of the total adult population will have doctor-diagnosed arthritis in the USA.6

Globally, 80% of patients with OA suffer from limitations in movement, and 25% from difficulty in performing their major daily activities of life; representing a significant impact of OA on functional impairment and disability.7 In terms of economic burden, mean per-person earnings losses caused by OA were, on average, 7548 US$ per year from 2008 to 2011.8 The mean all-cause health care utilization of working-age patients with OA is $14,521 US$ per year.9 The socio-economic costs of OA were reported to range between 0.25% and 0.50% of a countrys GDP.10 In an individual patient data meta-analysis, the pooled estimate for premature mortality revealed a 23% increased risk (95% CI 1.07, 1.42) in patients with knee OA and a 20% increased risk (95% CI 1.04, 1.37) in hip OA.11

Current OA treatment options are focused on symptomatic improvement in pain and joint function and include paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioid analgesics, and intra-articular medications such as steroids and hyaluronic acids.14 Surgical treatments are typically indicated only for patients with end-stage OA, as a last resort. Recently, paracetamol and opioids are only conditionally or not recommended by several scientific organisations,12,13 highlighting the importance of finding new effective treatments for OA. In addition, outcomes for patients with OA are usually suboptimal and patients remain vulnerable to the clinical consequences of the disease on pain and physical function.14

OA was previously regarded as a degenerative disorder resulting from cartilage damage;15 however, the development and utilization of modern imaging methods revealed that it results from the failure of the joint organ with a heterogeneous involvement of the whole joint structures, including cartilage damage, subchondral bone remodeling, synovial inflammation and osteophyte development.16 Therefore, OA can be defined as a complex heterogeneous syndrome with multiple joint tissue involvement of varying severity. In part as a consequence, it is a huge challenge to develop a single one size fits all therapy that may be suitable and effective for all patients with OA.17

The central hallmark in the pathologic process of OA disease is the progressive deterioration in the biological, structural and mechanical properties and function of the joint tissues, and an effective medical treatment should possess the ability to delay these processes or ideally even halt them completely. Such pharmaceutical agents that will alter the natural history of disease progression by arresting joint structural change and ameliorating symptoms, either by reducing pain or improving physical function are termed as DMOADs.18

Currently, regulatory bodies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)19 and the European Medicines Agency (EMA)20 have not approved any drug as an effective DMOAD, as the approval guide requires a potential DMOAD to demonstrate a slowing in the loss of knee or hip joint space width (JSW) on x-ray with associated symptomatic improvement.17 Therefore, current OA trials for DMOAD development pipeline need to meet both clinically meaningful symptom improvement with concomitant structural benefits according to US FDAs published draft industry guidance on structural endpoints for OA published in 2018.18

Because OA is characterised by its extraordinary inter-patient variability in clinical and structural manifestations, identification of patient/disease subtypes appropriate for targeted therapy is probably one of the promising ways forward in drug development research.21,22 In addition, structural changes in OA result from complex interactions among different pathobiological pathways, which implicate a variety of catabolic factors and cytokines in the different joint tissues (molecular cross-talk).23 Therefore, a new model of classifying OA based on pathophysiological disease subtypes is needed.

These subtypes can be clinical phenotypes or molecular/mechanistic endotypes.24 A clinical phenotype can be defined as a group of observable traits (ie aetiologic factors, risk factors) that can identify and characterize a subtype in a defined population.25,26 In other words, these subgroups of patients have similar clinically observable characteristics for better identifying individuals who are at higher risk of progression (prognostic) or who are more likely to respond to a specific intervention (prescriptive).27,28

An endotype is a disease subtype defined by distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms, including cellular, molecular and biomechanical signalling pathways.29 Therefore, the endotype is distinct from a phenotype, and indicates the presence of a well-defined molecular mechanism. A given clinical phenotype of OA may comprise overlapping molecular endotypes (ie, different mechanisms giving rise to the same manifestation at varying degrees during different phases of the disease).24

From the point of view of targeted drug discovery, where identifying and directing the right pathobiological mechanism and structural manifestations of disease is key for success, drug development in OA should be based on the endotypes as the basis of the main drivers of OA disease.30 In this review, we will, therefore, focus on currently ongoing phase 2 and 3 clinical trials of active drug development (Figure 1) related to three main molecular/mechanistic endotypes: 1) Cartilage-driven endotype, 2) Bone-driven endotype, 3) Inflammation-driven endotype. While each drug has been assigned to and is discussed under one endotype based on its predominant activity, a particular therapeutic may have broader endotype-effects and where present, these are duly noted.

Figure 1 Active drugs related to the three main molecular or mechanistic OA endotypes (phase 2 and 3).

One author (WMO) conducted electronic and manual searches on the https://clinicaltrials.gov/ for identifying ongoing phase 2/3 clinical trials in active drug development pipelines, as well as electronic database searches in the PubMed and Embase via Ovid for published reports of phase-2/3 clinical trials results from the inception of these databases to 31st March 2021 using the following MESH or keywords: osteoarthritis OR osteoarthrosis AND DMOAD/ OR structure modification OR disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs/.

Cartilage damage is considered as a central part of OA disease process, which involves a variety of catabolic and reparative mechanisms at the molecular level. The pharmaceutical drugs in phase 2 and 3 stages of development for cartilage-driven endotype are summarized in Table 1.

Matrix-degrading enzymes in the joint such as collagenases and aggrecanases are responsible for proteolysis of extracellular matrix components such as type II collagen and aggrecan, which is the most abundant proteoglycan in cartilage.31 Proteinases such as matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and ADAMTS5 (a Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin-motif-5) are involved in cartilage destruction and progression of cartilage damage in OA pre-clinical models.32,33 The potential benefits of MMP inhibitors in preserving the OA joint have been investigated. However, in patients with knee OA, broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors such as PG-116800 showed reversible musculoskeletal toxicities in a dose-dependent manner without clinical benefits, leading to the termination of further development of this drug.34

S201086/GLPG1972 is a potent and highly selective active site inhibitor of ADAMTS5. It possesses an excellent selectivity profile in animal models and high stability in dog and human liver microsomes and hepatocytes.35 Phase-1 clinical studies revealed favorable pharmacokinetics as well as a strong and consistent target engagement in both healthy subjects and OA patients (n=171).36 In a phase-2 study (Roccella study) which investigated the efficacy and safety profile of three different once-daily oral doses of GLPG1972/S201086 (n=932), the change in cartilage thickness [in mm (SD)] of central medial tibiofemoral compartment of the target knee via quantitative MRI was 0.116 (0.27) for the placebo group and 0.068 (0.20), 0.097 (0.27) and 0.085 (0.22), for the low, medium and high dose, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference versus placebo in both MRI and clinical outcome measures.37 Another ADAMTS5-targeting agent, M6495 an anti-ADAMTS5 Nanobody (Ablynx), showed an acceptable safety profile and dose-dependent effects in a phase-1 study.38

Sprifermin is a recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) which binds to fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) in cartilage.39 It stimulates the proliferation of articular chondrocytes and induces hyaline extracellular matrix synthesis in rat OA models.40 At the cellular level, intermittent administration may transiently promote an anabolic effect, while continuous administration may stimulate other signalling pathways, leading to a weaker effect.41

Lohmander et al reported in 2014 that intra-articular (IA) sprifermin administration did not improve medial tibiofemoral cartilage-thickness over 12 months quantified by MRI (n=168) possibly as follow-ups were too short for detection of the full disease-modifying effect of treatment.39 However, a significant dose-dependent response was detected in total and lateral tibiofemoral cartilage-thickness and radiographic JSW over 12 months. The authors speculated that the dynamic loading implicated in predominantly medial tibiofemoral involvement seems to impede attempts to prevent cartilage loss or regenerate cartilage tissue. Sprifermin had no major local or systemic adverse events compared with placebo. Conference abstracts published in 2015 and 2016 reported the structure-modifying effects on cartilage thickness and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) on MRI on 12-month follow-up, using post-hoc analyses of the same study.42,43

In another clinical trial in which Sprifermin was administered up to 300 g for advanced knee OA, it was reported in 2016 that no significant benefits were detected for cartilage outcomes on histology, synovitis, effusion, BMLs on MRI and JSW on X-ray. However, the study was underpowered as MRI was only available in 30 out of 52 patients and the follow-up period was only 24 weeks, which may be too short for capturing the structure-modifying effects.44

In a 5-year, phase 2 dose-finding, multicenter randomized clinical trial [FGF18 Osteoarthritis Randomized Trial with administration of Repeated Doses (FORWARD) study], the effects of Sprifermin on changes in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness (n=549) on MRI was evaluated at 2-year follow-up (NCT01919164). Hochberg et al reported in 2019 that three once-weekly IA injection of 100 g sprifermin provided a significant improvement in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness [0.05 mm (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.07 mm)] for participants administered every 6 months and [0.04 mm (95% CI, 0.02 to 0.06 mm)] for participants administered every 12 months, compared with the placebo saline injection provided every 6 months (0.02 mm).45 No significant improvement in total WOMAC scores was detected, compared with placebo. The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse event was arthralgia and showed no difference from the placebo group (43%). An exploratory analysis of the same study at 3 year-follow-up (n=442) reveals significant differences (0.05 mm [95% CI, 0.030.07 mm]) in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness over MRI between Sprifermin (100 g of Sprifermin every 6 months) and placebo (saline every 6 months).45 However, the clinical significance of a 0.05-mm increase of cartilage thickness in this study remains unclear in terms of reducing risk for knee replacement, delaying time towards knee replacement, or both.46 No significant change in total WOMAC scores in this study may be attributed to using intra-articular saline injections as a control since the IA saline injection may act as an active placebo,47 masking symptomatic benefits. In addition, a large number of patients with low baseline pain and/or high baseline cartilage thickness may result in a potential floor effect on symptoms as 32% of this study had <40/100 points on WOMAC pain score at baseline and 50% had medial minimum joint space width (mJSW) >4.0 mm on baseline X-rays. Therefore, analysis of a more selective subgroup, featuring baseline characteristics associated with rapid structural and symptomatic OA progression should be investigated. In a 2019 ACR conference abstract, it was reported that in a subgroup at risk (n=161) of structural and symptomatic progression with a baseline medial or lateral mJSW between 1.5 and 3.5 mm and WOMAC pain score of 4090 out of 100, WOMAC pain was significantly improved on 3 year follow-up [8.8 (22.4, 4.9)] in the group administered with the 100 g Sprifermin (n=34) compared with the placebo (n=33)48 suggesting that, in this subgroup, the drug effect reaches the absolute minimal clinically important improvement for the WOMAC pain subscore which ranges 69.49

In a recent 2020 paper using a post-hoc analysis of the same data from the FORWARD study, thinning/thickening scores and ordered values of femorotibial cartilage thickness change on MRI over 24 months were analyzed by applying location-independent (ie not region-specific) analysis methodology in the knee joint.50 With administration of 100g Sprifermin every 6 months cartilage thickening is more than double [856m (717 to 996) vs 356m (313 to 398)] and cartilage thinning almost reduced to [432m (521 to 343) vs 335m (381 to 288)] that in healthy reference subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative dataset (n=82). The authors concluded that the finding supported the evidence of substantial structure-protective action of Sprifermin. However, as this is a post-hoc analysis, further study will be required to confirm its structure-modifying effect.

At a molecular level, the regulation of Wnt signalling determines osteoblast and chondrocyte lineage specification and their homeostasis.51 Increased Wnt signaling predisposes MSCs to an osteogenic lineage fate and induces generation of metalloproteinases which can cause cartilage degradation in OA.52 Increased expression and activation of the Wnt pathway in articular cartilage chondrocytes in OA similarly promotes cartilage degradation, while elevated Wnt signalling in subchondral bone enhances bone formation and sclerosis.5355 Therefore, pharmacological modulation of Wnt signaling might have potential benefits in repairing osteochondral dysregulation detected in OA disease process. Moreover, increased Wnt signaling in the synovium may potently lead to the OA progression via increased production of MMPs as well as activation of osteoclast differentiation and enhanced subchondral bone turnover.56,57

Lorecivivint (SM04690) is a small-molecule CLK/DYRK1A inhibitor that blocks Wnt signalling at the transcriptional level.58 It showed induction of chondrogenesis and reduction in cartilage degradation in preclinical studies.5860 In a 52-week, multicenter, phase-2 trial (n=455) (NCT02536833), the primary end point, a significant improvement in the WOMAC pain score compared with placebo at week 13, was not met, compared with IA placebo saline injection, However, at 52-week follow-up, intra-articular administration of 0.07 mg demonstrated a significant benefit in pain and functional scores [between-group difference versus placebo, 8.73, 95% CI (17.44, 0.03) and 10.26, 95% CI (19.82, 0.69)], as well as improvement in mJSW on X-rays [between-group difference versus placebo, +0.39 mm, 95% CI (0.06, 0.72)] in patients with unilateral knee OA. Serious adverse events were reported in 17 (3.7%) patients.61 The most common SAEs included infections and cardiac disorders and were deemed unrelated to the study drug by the investigators.62

Another phase-2 trial evaluated in 700 patients for 24 weeks was completed (NCT03122860) where the 0.07 mg lorecivivint treatment group demonstrated more favorable reductions in both WOMAC indices as compared with placebo.63 Recently, the investigators reported the safety data after the combined analysis of the two trials, which included 848 Lorecivivint-treated and 360 control subjects in total. The incidence of adverse effects or serious adverse effects was similar in treatment (41.3% and 2.4%) and control groups (38.3% and 1.1%), respectively. The most commonly reported AE in both groups was arthralgia (7.6% vs 7.2%).64 Two small phase-2 (NCT03727022, NCT03706521) and three phase-3 (NCT03928184, NCT04385303, NCT04520607) trials are still active.

Transforming growth factor- (TGF-) induces extracellular matrix protein synthesis and modulates cartilage development. A variety of TGF- signalling pathways are crucial for early cartilage growth, maintaining cartilage homeostasis in later life and may also possess anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties.65 Impaired TGF- function in cartilage might be related to an increased susceptibility to OA.66 However, the biological effect of TGF- is under complex control, and may switch from being protective in normal joints to detrimental in OA as a result of changes in the predominant cell-surface receptors and intra-cellular signalling pathways in various joint tissues (cartilage, bone, synovium).67 In addition, osteocyte TGF- signaling could regulate the osteogenic and osteoclastic activity of mesenchymal stem cells and may be associated with the remodeling of subchondral bone in advanced OA.68

TissueGene-C (TG-C) uses a cell-mediated cytokine gene therapy approach and includes non-irradiated allogeneic human chondrocytes and irradiated allogeneic human GP2-293 cells in a ratio of 3:1, retrovirally transduced to promote TGF-beta1 transcription (hChonJb#7 cells).6971 A recent study reported as a possible mechanism of action that TG-C induced an M2 macrophage-dominant pro-anabolic micro-environment in a rat model, thereby providing a beneficial effect on cartilage regeneration.72 At one-year follow-up after a single IA administration, there were significant improvements in pain, sports activities and quality of life but structure-modifying effects on the cartilage were insignificant (n=156).73 In a phase-2 trial (NCT01221441) including 57 patients in the treatment group and 29 patients in the placebo group, the TG-C administration caused less progression (47.9% vs 34.6%; adjusted RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.51.1) of cartilage damage than placebo over 12-months.69 In a phase-3 trial (NCT02072070) which included 163 patients, symptomatic benefit was detected.74

The two pivotal phase-3 trials (NCT03203330, NCT03291470) had been on hold in April 2019 while the regulators were investigating chemistry, manufacturing, and control issues related with the potential mislabeling of ingredients.75 This clinical hold was lifted in April 2020, and trial enrollments have been reinitiated later in 2020.76 Recently, analysis of the safety data from an observational long-term safety follow-up trial showed that there is no evidence to suggest that injection of TG-C was associated with increased risk of cancer nor generated any long-term safety concerns over an average 10 years.71

Senescence is characterized mainly by altered responses to cellular stress and proliferation arrest of cells.77 Senescent cells (SnCs) are a newly implicated factor in the OA pathogenic process78 by promoting pathological age-related deterioration via the production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, extracellular proteases, and growth factors (termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP))79 and altering the function of neighbouring cells (termed secondary or paracrine senescence).80 Therefore, senotherapeutics which are directed at SnCs are an emerging therapy for treating diseases related to ageing. Senotherapeutics can be classified into of 3 types: 1) senolytics which kill and destroy SnCs selectively; 2) senomorphics which modulate or even reverse the phenotype of SnCs to those of young cells by blocking SASP; 3) senoinflammation, the immune system-mediated clearance of SnCs.81 Several senolytic pharmaceutical drugs such as Fisetin and UBX0101 are emerging.

Fisetin is a polyphenol extracted from fruits and vegetables and shows potential senolytic and anti-inflammatory activities.82 Fisetin inhibited IL-1-induced MMP13 and ADAMTS5 expression in human OA chondrocytes in vitro, and reduced cartilage damage along with subchondral bone thickening and synovitis in a mouse OA model induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM).83 Two phase-2 clinical trials (NCT 04210986, NCT04815902) are under investigation in patients with knee OA and estimated to be completed in 2022 and 2025, respectively.

UBX0101 is a small molecule inhibitor of the MDM2/p53 protein interaction, which possesses a potent senolytic candidate. In a preclinical study, UBX0101 improved chondrogenesis in human OA tissue in vitro, and in an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) OA model in mice UBX0101 attenuated SnCs by stimulating apoptosis, and reduced cartilage damage and joint pain.84 The amount SnCs in human OA synovial tissues positively correlated with knee pain, disease severity and synovitis severity.85 A phase-1 study (n=48) revealed that a single intra-articular injection of UBX0101 at different doses up to 4 mg had a favorable safety profile and dose-dependent, clinically meaningful improvements in pain on Numeric Rating Scale (010) [3.95 (95% CI, 4.74, 3.16)] and WOMAC function [1.05 (95% CI, 1.36,-0.74)] compared with placebo injection. Recently, UNITY Biotechnology announced 12-week data from UBX0101 Phase-2 Clinical Study (NCT04129944) which did not detect a significant change in pain and function in 183 patients with painful knee OA.86 A follow-up observational study of the previous trial (NCT04349956) was terminated in November 2020 due to failure to meet the trial outcomes.

Subchondral change in OA involves an uncoupled remodelling process, which is characterized by both increased osteoblast activation and bone formation but simultaneously macrophage infiltration and osteoclast formation.87 Activation of osteoclasts can result in pain genesis through developing acidic conditions at the osteochondral junction, thereby activating acid-sensing receptors of sensory neurons.88,89 Subchondral bone also undergoes remarkable alterations in both composition and structural organization, leading to adverse effects on the overlying articular cartilage.90 Therefore, targeting the pathways that modify subchondral bone turnover is an attractive option for DMOAD research.89 The pharmaceutical drugs in phase 2 and 3 stages of development for bone-driven endotype are summarized in Table 2.

Table 2 The Registered Phase 2/3 Clinical Trials on Compounds with Potential Disease-Modifying Effects on Subchondral Bone

Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease which induces bone resorption and cartilage damage through the breakdown of key bone matrix proteins.91,92 Cathepsin K knock out mice had attenuated cartilage damage in OA induced by DMM, and inhibition of Cathepsin K in rabbits by daily oral dosing with L-006235 reduced cartilage damage and subchondral bone remodelling in an ACLT model of OA.93,94

MIV-711 is a selective cathepsin K inhibitor, and in a 6-month phase 2 clinical trial (NCT02705625) (n=244), significantly reduced femoral bone disease progression and reduced cartilage loss, although there was no improvement in pain outcome.95 Infrequent musculoskeletal symptoms, infections and rashes were reported. A further 6-month open-level extension study showed the maintenance of structural benefit with symptomatic improvement (n=50).96 However, as most of the participants in the extension sub-study were selected because their symptoms did not worsen, a treatment benefit may be due to positive selection bias.95

Recombinant human PTH, teriparatide, is a 134 amino-acid fragment acquired from human PTH). Its anabolic action on bone production is used for osteoporosis management. In OA, it exhibits the ability to maintain articular cartilage health,97 stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix and induce chondrocyte proliferation in pre-clinical injury-induced OA models.98 PTH can increase subchondral bone mineral density, which could exert a negative effect on OA progression. In this sense, PTH could be an excellent drug in OA patients with osteoporosis and low subchondral sclerosis.99 Additionally, intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment attenuates OA pain in a DMM model, in association with inhibiting subchondral sensory innervation, subchondral bone deterioration, and articular cartilage degeneration.100 A phase-2 study is currently ongoing to evaluate the efficacy of PTH in knee OA participants (NCT03072147).

TPX-100 is a novel 23-amino-acid peptide derived from MEPE, a member of the Small Integrin-Binding Ligand, N-linked Glycoprotein (SIBLING) protein family, involved in subchondral bone remodeling.101 TPX-100 provided symptomatic improvements in patellofemoral OA knees administered with 4 weekly 200 mg injections compared with placebo injection in the contralateral knees (n=93), but only 14% of knees showed changes in cartilage thickness/volume measured on MRI over 12 months with no evidence of structural modification. No drug-related SAEs occurred in this study.102 Another 2020 OARSI conference abstract reported a statistically significant decrease in pathologic bone shape change in the femur at both 6 and 12 months using 3D femoral bone shape change.103

Antiresorptive drugs have shown reduction in bone remodeling and improvement in trabecular microarchitecture and bone mineralization. In clinical trials investigating the structure-modifying effects of bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid), the results are inconsistent across the studies and their outcomes presented a great heterogeneity.17,104 In a recent systematic review including preclinical studies (n=26) over the past two decades (20002020), these drugs showed better chondroprotective effects at high doses with a dose-dependent manner as well as depending on the timing of treatment initiation in relation to OA stage (time-dependency).105 Therefore, these agents may still be of potential benefits in certain OA endotypes with high rates of subchondral bone turnover. This phenotype-dependency has been demonstrated in pre-clinical research, where bisphosphonates are differentially effective in reducing pain and not only bone but also cartilage pathology in OA models with high versus low bone turnover.106109 Recently, clodronate (n=74)110 and neridronate (n=64)111 have been successfully used for the treatment of knee and hand OA, with an interesting efficacy on BMLs, although the sample sizes are small. An individual patient data meta-analysis for examining their efficacy in specific knee OA subtypes is still ongoing.112

In a multicentre, randomised controlled trial involving knee OA patients with significant knee pain and MRI-detected BMLs (n = 223), 2 annual infusions with 5 mg of zoledronic acid (the most potent of all bisphosphonates) did not significantly reduce cartilage volume loss, knee pain or BML size although the study was designed for detecting effects on the bone-driven subgroup with BMLs which may likely have potential benefits from this therapy.113 It was noted that more knee replacement procedures were performed in the zoledronic acid group compared with the placebo group (9% vs 2%) in contrast with other population-based studies.114,115

Another study involving Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) female participants (n=346) showed that bisphosphonate therapy may be protective of radiographic knee OA progression in nonoverweight patients with earlystage OA.116 Currently, a Phase 3 study (NCT04303026) to examine its effects in hip OA is ongoing. A phase 2 study examining the effects of another anti-resorptive, denosumab, in hand OA is expected to finish in 2021 (NCT02771860).

Vitamin D has a direct impact on cartilage by inducing proteoglycan synthesis in mature chondrocytes,117 and enhances chondrocyte viability and reduces their inflammatory cytokine synthesis through activating AMPK/mTOR and autophagy.118 Active vitamin D administration reduced cartilage degradation and inflammation in models of OA in mice and rats induced by meniscal injury/meniscectomy and ACLT.118120 Out of two recently published systematic reviews, one review showed the association of vitamin D deficiency with knee OA in patients but inconsistent evidence for its role in the prevention of incidence and progression of radiographic OA,121 while the other argued that inconsistent results may be attributed to factors such as severity of knee OA, baseline level of serum vitamin D, duration of treatment, and vitamin D dosages.122 There is a need for multicentric and well-conducted randomized studies using larger samples to determine its efficacy. A small Phase 4 clinical trial is currently active (NCT04739592).

Synovial inflammation (synovitis) is an important contributing factor to the OA pathogenesis through increased local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and mediators of joint tissue damage123,124 which may be amenable to a range of anti-inflammatory drugs commonly used in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The pharmaceutical drugs in phase 2 and 3 stages of development for inflammation-driven endotype are summarized in Table 3.

Diacerein is a purified anthraquinone derivative. It involves an inhibitory action on IL-1 and its signalling pathway, possesses an anticatabolic effect on OA tissues and reduces generation of metalloproteases.125 In animal models of OA (sheep meniscectomy, canine ACLT, rabbit ACLT and partial meniscectomy) diacerein has generally shown limited long-term effect on cartilage composition or pathology, but some evidence of reducing synovitis.126129 In a 2014 Cochrane review, the authors concluded that diacerein demonstrated only a minimal symptomatic improvement in patients with unclear benefits in JSW on X-rays, compared with placebo. Diarrhoea was the main adverse event with an absolute difference of 26%.130

The EMAs Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee suspended diacerein across Europe in 2013 due to its harms overweighing benefits,131 and then re-evaluated the drug in 2014, suggesting that it remain available with restrictions to limit risks of severe diarrhoea and hepatotoxicity.132 In 2016, the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) reported that diacerein had efficacy similar to that of NSAIDs with slower onset of action, suggesting that it might have some benefits for patients with contraindication to NSAID.133

Recently, results of a phase-3 clinical trial (NCT02688400) were reported where the authors explored the comparative efficacy and safety of diacerein vs celecoxib in patients with moderate and severe knee OA using a non-inferiority trial design [(6-months of diacerein 50 mg once daily for 1 month and twice daily thereafter (n = 187), or celecoxib 200 mg once daily (n = 193)]. Diacerein was non-inferior to celecoxib in reducing pain, stiffness, or functional limitations. The diacerein group had a higher number of emergent AEs (26.3%) compared with the celecoxib group (17.4%), mainly due to higher diarrhoea events (10.2% vs 3.7%). One patient in the diacerein group had three SAEs (abdominal pain, elevated transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, collectively suggestive of hepatitis) which resolved spontaneously following drug withdrawal.134

In in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies, interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), IL-6, IL-15, IL-17, and IL-18 exhibit pro-inflammatory actions, leading to the initiation and progression of cartilage damage and joint inflammation. So far, IL-1 and TNF- have been the most extensively studied cytokines in pre-clinical research.135,136 Despite this favorable evidence in animal OA models, most clinical trials investigating the disease-modifying effects demonstrated by inhibitors of IL-1 and TNF- in OA patients failed to meet the primary and secondary endpoints such as in cases of Gevokizumab (XOMA-052),137 AMG108,138 Lutikizumab (ABT-981),139,140 anakinra,141 adalimumab142144 and etanercept.145 In a meta-analysis evaluating the efficacy of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in OA, neither IL1-inhibitors nor TNF-inhibitors possess symptomatic benefits irrespective of the joint site affected or the inflammatory phenotype (erosive or non-erosive OA).146

These failed trial results may suggest the implication of a more complicated interaction among various cytokines in the OA pathogenic process. One of the reasons for failure may be that the clinical trials were designed to detect an effect on symptoms rather than on joint structure, which is conversely the main outcome evaluated in preclinical studies, or that they are underpowered or have not followed participants for long enough to find meaningful structural effects such as proposed in the recent CANTOS trial.147 In a recent exploratory analysis of the CANTOS trial involving patients with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels 2 mg/L and a history of myocardial infarction (n=10061), IL-1 inhibition using canakinumab may render a substantial reduction of THR/TKR rates as well as OA-related symptoms on an averaged 3.7 years follow-up.147 Although the study had some positives such as a large sample size and long-term follow-up, it was not primarily designed to investigate the DMOAD efficacy of canakinumab and many relevant OA outcomes were missing, necessitating further confirmatory studies.

IL-6 can increase the risk of radiographic OA and associated with knee cartilage damage,148 suggesting the potential role of low-level inflammation in the pathogenesis of OA. IL-6R blockage with tocilizumab contributes to cartilage preservation and increases bone volume in a mouse model of ischemic osteonecrosis,149 and reduced cartilage lesions, osteophyte formation and synovitis in DMM-induced OA in mice.150 However, male IL-6 knock out mice have increased cartilage damage and age-related OA.151 In local joint tissues, IL-6 classic signaling produces structure-protective effects, while trans-signaling leads to catabolic effects.152 This finding might suggest that selective inhibition of IL-6 trans-signaling could be a superior treatment strategy as this may inhibit deleterious IL-6 effects in OA, while maintaining protective IL-6 signaling via the classic pathway.153 Recently, in a phase-3 trial evaluating the efficacy of tocilizumab in hand OA for 12 weeks (n=104), it revealed no more effectiveness than placebo for pain relief (7.9 vs 9.9 on VAS score in the tocilizumab and placebo groups).154

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that potently and broadly suppresses proinflammatory cytokine activity. It also possesses chondroprotective effects, via reduced production of matrix metalloproteases155 as well as inhibition of chondrocyte apoptosis.156 Therefore, IL-10 could have potential benefits in OA management, both for pain improvement and suppression of the cartilage-damaging processes. Currently, there is a phase-2 clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of a single injection of XT-150 (a plasmid DNA with a variant of human IL-10 transgene) in patients with knee OA (NCT04124042), and it is estimated to be complete in 2022.

In this section, we briefly put forward the reasons for failures in OA clinical trials and possible steps to overcome these barriers (Figure 2).

Figure 2 Reasons for DMOAD trial failures.

The drug will be required to demonstrate symptomatic benefits (pain and/or function) coupled with structural modifications to meet regulatory requirements as a disease-modifying agent.19,20 To date, no agent has been approved by the regulatory agencies.17 Some argue that the improvements in structural change (in the absence of any meaningful symptomatic benefits) should be a meaningful target for approval, in and of itself. However, this is unlikely to meet consumers needs as their primary reason for clinical presentation relates to symptomatic complaints.30

On the other hand, OA is a slowly progressive disease and only 14% of patients with incident OA have measurable disease progression over a 1-year period (Figure 2).157 Therefore, structure-modifying effects using targeted therapy would be optimal to delay or even avoid disease worsening and joint replacement. In OA, symptom-structure discordance is often described.158 Analysis of data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative revealed that changes in bone structure over 2 years do not translate into pain worsening until 4 years,159 suggesting that a structure-modifying drug may need longer follow-up to detect symptomatic benefit. In addition, a variety of disease outcomes using different OA subtypes (genotypes, phenotypes and endotypes) are needed to demonstrate the ability of a structure-modifying drug to directly predict for symptomatic benefits to overcome the regulatory hurdles.18

In addition, FDAs formal recognition of OA as a serious disease paves the way for using surrogate outcome measures for regulatory approval of DMOADs under accelerated approval regulations. However, two challenges need to be addressed: 1) selection/qualification of appropriate surrogate outcome measures, and 2) appropriate designs for post-marketing confirmatory studies. To overcome the first challenge, the Foundation for NIH (FNIH) OA Biomarkers Consortium initiative was established.160 For addressing the second challenge, Kraus et al proposed two major study design scenarios: 1) prospective trial continuation which continue all patients on initial drug allocation into the post-marketing approval trial until a failure threshold is achieved; and 2) separate post-marketing approval study which use different study population administered with active treatment only.161

The imaging standard in OA clinical trials has been radiographically measured mJSW which is notoriously unresponsive to change as well as possessing several other drawbacks such as issues with alignment, positioning and assuming JSW as the composite contribution of changes in other structures in this heterogeneous OA with multiple-tissue involvement.162,163 Therefore, utilization of this insensitive-to-change measure may limit our opportunity to detect any modification in what oftentimes is a slow-moving disease.

In 2015 OARSI published recommendations related to the applications of knee imaging in knee OA trials to set standards and improve quality assurance.164 Although a range of different MRI approaches have been developed to evaluate changes in overall joint structure,165167 further validation studies and evaluation of their clinimetrics are required to gain acceptance by regulatory authorities as a suitable surrogate endpoint which is the focus of the FNIH OA Biomarkers Consortium.160

In addition, the emergence of approved surrogate outcomes would allow pharmaceutical companies to examine the efficacy of the DMOADs in a shorter duration of clinical trials and reduce drug development costs. In this way, there is a possibility of instituting accelerated approval based on surrogate imaging endpoints and post-marketing approval studies to prove the longitudinal benefit-to-harm profile and the durability of the potential new therapies.161

In the study design for post-marketing approval which uses observational outcomes such as time-to-event of joint replacement surgery, considerable barriers exist in terms of need for large sample sizes due to low annual incidence rates (1.611.9%),14 long study follow-ups (>5 years at least),46 and the impact of non-disease and other subjective factors on the outcome (ie, comorbidities and/or age of the patient, costs, insurance cover, etc.).168,169 There is a lack of universal consensus criteria for guiding patient recommendations regarding joint replacement surgery, leading to differences even among treatment centres within the same region. These issues need to be adequately addressed by study design.161 There is a need for developing a criteria set to define appropriateness for total knee replacement or a virtual total knee replacement.170

Instead of utilizing the systemic route of administration which may produce undesirable systemic toxicity and off-target effects, many of the agents in the development pipeline are focused on an intra-articular route for drug delivery. This can also potentially enhance the local bioavailability, thereby maximizing therapeutic effects locally in the joint with a higher safety profile compared to systemic exposure.171 On the other hand, the marked placebo effect generated by local intraarticular administration is well-documented in the literature,172 making the assessment of symptom efficacy more challenging.30

Another issue related with the intra-articular therapy is that drugs have a short residence time within the joint.171,173 To overcome this barrier, a variety of drug delivery systems were proposed to prolong drug residence time while providing a stable concentration within the therapeutic window, leading to a reduction of side effects and better patient compliance.174 It remains unclear how long particular drugs have to remain in the joint for a meaningful symptomatic relief and/or structure-modification after an intra-articular administration. An ideal drug delivery system should comply with adequate disease modification, biocompatibility, and biodegradability while responding to its physiological environment.175

In the randomized clinical trials for IA drugs, saline is commonly used as the placebo in the control group. A recent meta-analysis examining the effects of IA saline in 50 clinical trials (n=4076) revealed significant improvement of pain severity on 0100 VAS up to 6 months [13.4 (21.7/5.1)] and WOMAC function sub-score [10.1 (12.2,-8.0)]. The pooled responder rate after saline injections using the OMERACT-OARSI criteria is 48% at 3 months and 56% at 6 months,47 challenging the concept of saline being a mere placebo.176 However, there is no evidence supporting hypotheses advocating the disease-modifying role of saline injection. Future scientifically robust studies which examined the effects of sham injections compared with saline injections are required to shed new light on this issue.

The IA therapies show a considerably larger therapeutic effect after the adjustment for the effects of IA saline, suggesting an inappropriate underestimating of the true effect of the active medication.177 Further research is required to determine the underlying mechanisms and the factors influencing the placebo response and ways to overcome it. In addition, the mechanisms of pain genesis in OA are poorly understood and thought to involve a complex interaction among local pathological processes in the OA joint and neuronal mechanisms and alterations of pain processing (ie central sensitization, especially in advanced OA).178 Further studies should focus on the effects of these interactions on the outcomes in the placebo-controlled clinical trials. It is also necessary to strictly report in each clinical trial what placebo has been used as well as the presence or absence of any additional blinded clinical evaluator, even more, if considering clinical trials with intra-articular therapies.

As OA is a heterogeneous disease with a combination of different endotypes in varying degree at different stages of the disease process, a one size fits all approach using a single therapeutic agent targeting a single target within a single endotype may be unlikely to succeed in the management of OA.179 Therefore, as in the oncology therapeutic area, combinations of drugs targeting different hallmarks of OA pathogenic process should be considered. Further research examining the potential synergistic action of combining anabolic therapies with those that downregulate catabolic factors will be required.

OA is well known for marked variations of disease expression,180 involves a variety of tissue pathologies as a whole joint disease16 and presents with different pathobiological manifestations,181 suggesting the potential value of personalised and precision medicine from the treatment perspective. Personalized medicine is used for treatment focusing on the patient based on their individual clinical characterization, considering the diversity of symptoms, severity, and genetic traits.182 In precision medicine, the molecular information maximizes the accuracy with which the patients are categorized and treated, typically applying large amounts of data for identification of patient subtypes which possess sharing specific relevant characteristics to predict diagnosis, progression, or treatment response, and to utilize appropriate therapeutic targets.183 The use of precision medicine in OA remains limited.

The implementation of private/ public initiatives, such as the Osteoarthritis Initiative, the FNIH biomarkers consortium, the European APPROACH ((Applied Public-Private Research enabling OsteoArthritis Clinical Headway)) project have contributed greatly to moving the field forward. Clinical phenotypes, endotypes, and molecular and imaging biomarkers are being identified, but the exact interplay among them and underlying mechanisms of each remain to be elucidated.24 While these biomarkers may have potential benefits in detecting those patients with the greatest risk for structural progression, their use still needs to be translated into more efficient clinical trial design and widespread clinical application.184

There remains an immense unmet need for effective and safe targeted interventions to inhibit both pain and disease progression. The complex overlapping interplay among the pathobiological OA processes and heterogeneity of clinical presentations of patients with OA, call for a universally accepted classification of phenotypes and endotypes for developing targeted disease-modifying therapy and providing the appropriate treatment in clinical setting. Although challenges exist towards the eventual management of OA by applying the concepts of personalized and precision medicine, the lessons learned through failed clinical trials, the ongoing developments of more advanced imaging and sophisticated biomarkers tools and effective drug delivery systems are leading to substantial progress in our field.

WMO is supported by the Presidential Scholarship of Myanmar for his PhD course. DJH is supported by the NHMRC Investigator Grant. VD is supported by a University of Sydney Postgraduate Award scholarship.

DJH provides consulting advice on scientific advisory boards for Pfizer, Lilly, TLCBio, Novartis, Tissuegene, Biobone. CL has provided consulting advice for Merck Serono and Galapagos Pharmaceuticals, and receives research funding from numerous pharmaceutical companies (Fidia Farmaceutici, Inter-K Peptide Therapeutics Ltd, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Concentric Analgesics Inc, Cynata Therapeutics, CEVA Animal Health, Regeneus) through specific services/testing contract research agreements between and managed by The University of Sydney or the NSLHD. The authors report no other conflicts of interest in this work.

1. Hawker GA. Osteoarthritis is a serious disease. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2019;37 Suppl 120(5):36.

2. OARSI TP-cCfOPo. OARSI White Paper- OA as a Serious Disease; 2016.

3. Safiri S, Kolahi AA, Smith E, et al. Global, regional and national burden of osteoarthritis 19902017: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020;79(6):819828. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-216515

4. Neogi T. The epidemiology and impact of pain in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013;21(9):11451153. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2013.03.018

5. Murphy L, Schwartz TA, Helmick CG, et al. Lifetime risk of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59(9):12071213. doi:10.1002/art.24021

6. Hootman JM, Helmick CG, Barbour KE, Theis KA, Boring MA. Updated projected prevalence of self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation among US Adults, 20152040. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68(7):15821587. doi:10.1002/art.39692

7. WHO. Chronic rheumatic conditions; Published 2021. https://www.who.int/chp/topics/rheumatic/en/. Accessed June 7, 2021.

8. Osteoarthritis and Allied Disorders. In: The Burden of Musculoskeletal Diseases in the United States (BMUS). Third ed. 2014.

9. Lo J, Chan L, Flynn S. A systematic review of the incidence, prevalence, costs, and activity and work limitations of amputation, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, back pain, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, stroke, and traumatic brain injury in the United States: a 2019 Update. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2021;102(1):115131. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2020.04.001

10. Puig-Junoy J, Ruiz Zamora A. Socio-economic costs of osteoarthritis: a systematic review of cost-of-illness studies. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2015;44(5):531541. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2014.10.012

11. Leyland KM, Gates LS, Sanchez-Santos MT, et al. Knee osteoarthritis and time-to all-cause mortality in six community-based cohorts: an international meta-analysis of individual participant-level data. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2021;33(3):529545. doi:10.1007/s40520-020-01762-2

12. Bannuru RR, Osani MC, Vaysbrot EE, et al. OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee, hip, and polyarticular osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2019;27(11):15781589. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2019.06.011

13. Kolasinski SL, Neogi T, Hochberg MC, et al. 2019 American college of rheumatology/arthritis foundation guideline for the management of osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Care Res. 2020;72(2):149162. doi:10.1002/acr.24131

14. Weinstein AM, Rome BN, Reichmann WM, et al. Estimating the burden of total knee replacement in the United States. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95(5):385392.

15. Shane Anderson A, Loeser RF. Why is osteoarthritis an age-related disease? Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2010;24(1):1526. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2009.08.006

16. Loeser RF, Goldring SR, Scanzello CR, Goldring MB. Osteoarthritis: a disease of the joint as an organ. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(6):16971707. doi:10.1002/art.34453

17. Oo WM, Yu SP, Daniel MS, Hunter DJ. Disease-modifying drugs in osteoarthritis: current understanding and future therapeutics. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2018;23(4):331347. doi:10.1080/14728214.2018.1547706

18. Food and Drug Administration of the United States. Osteoarthritis: structural Endpoints for the Development of Drugs; 2018.

19. Food and Drug Administration of the United States. Draft guidance for industry: clinical development programs for drugs, devices, and biological products intended for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA); 1999.

20. European Medicines Agency. Clinical investigation of medicinal products used in the treatment of osteoarthritis; 2010.

21. Felson DT. Identifying different osteoarthritis phenotypes through epidemiology. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010;18(5):601604. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2010.01.007

22. Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Verhagen AP. Osteoarthritis subpopulations and implications for clinical trial design. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13(2):213. doi:10.1186/ar3299

23. Karsdal MA, Michaelis M, Ladel C, et al. Disease-modifying treatments for osteoarthritis (DMOADs) of the knee and hip: lessons learned from failures and opportunities for the future. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2016;24(12):20132021. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2016.07.017

24. Mobasheri A, Saarakkala S, Finnil M, Karsdal MA, Bay-Jensen A-C, van Spil WE. Recent advances in understanding the phenotypes of osteoarthritis. F1000Res. 2019;8:F1000Faculty Rev2091. doi:10.12688/f1000research.20575.1

25. DellIsola A, Allan R, Smith SL, Marreiros SS, Steultjens M. Identification of clinical phenotypes in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17(1):425. doi:10.1186/s12891-016-1286-2

26. Van Spil WE, Kubassova O, Boesen M, Bay-Jensen AC, Mobasheri A. Osteoarthritis phenotypes and novel therapeutic targets. Biochem Pharmacol. 2019;165:4148. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2019.02.037

27. Jameson JL, Longo DL. Precision medicine--personalized, problematic, and promising. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(23):22292234. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb1503104

28. Deveza LA, Nelson AE, Loeser RF. Phenotypes of osteoarthritis: current state and future implications. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2019;37 Suppl 120(5):6472.

29. Mobasheri A, van Spil WE, Budd E, et al. Molecular taxonomy of osteoarthritis for patient stratification, disease management and drug development: biochemical markers associated with emerging clinical phenotypes and molecular endotypes. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2019;31(1):8089. doi:10.1097/BOR.0000000000000567

30. Oo WM, Hunter DJ. Disease modification in osteoarthritis: are we there yet? Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2019;37 Suppl 120(5):135140.

31. Troeberg L, Nagase H. Proteases involved in cartilage matrix degradation in osteoarthritis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824(1):133145.

32. Wang M, Sampson ER, Jin H, et al. MMP13 is a critical target gene during the progression of osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15(1):R5R5. doi:10.1186/ar4133

33. Glasson SS, Askew R, Sheppard B, et al. Deletion of active ADAMTS5 prevents cartilage degradation in a murine model of osteoarthritis. Nature. 2005;434(7033):644648. doi:10.1038/nature03369

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Disease-modifying therapies for osteoarthritis | DDDT - Dove Medical Press

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Univ. of Washington and Sana researchers use gene editing to prep stem cells for heart repair – GeekWire

By daniellenierenberg

Heart muscle regeneration researchers (left to right) Naoto Muraoka, Elaheh Karbassi, and Chuck Murry. (University of Washington Photo)

Human stem cell scientists have long dreamed of repairing damaged hearts, but have been stymied by researchshowing that the cells yield irregular heartbeats in laboratory animals. A new genetic engineering approach overcomes this barrier, according to a report at the annual meeting of the International Society for Stem Cell Research by scientists at the University of Washington and Sana Biotechnology, a Seattle-based company.

A heart attack typically kills about one billion cells, said Charles Murry, director of the Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine at the UW, who presented the data Monday. Such massive cell death can lead to downstream effects such as heart failure, an often-debilitating condition that affects about 6.2 million people in the U.S. Using stem cells to repair the damage after a heart attack has long been a goal in his lab.

One major challenge in the field is that implanting cells into the hearts of laboratory animals can nudge the whole heart into beating rapidly, a condition called engraftment arrhythmia, said Murry, who is also a senior vice president and head of cardiometabolic cell therapy at Sana, which went public earlier this year.

This engraftment arrhythmia, where the heart races too quickly, has been one of the major hurdles weve been trying to overcome en route to clinical trials, said Murry in a press release.

In their study, Murry and his colleagues quelled engraftment arrhythmia using a genetic engineering strategy in cells implanted into pig hearts. Their next step is to see if the cells can repair heart damage in macaques if those studies work, the researchers will initiate clinical trials in people, he said.

To quell the arrhythmia, Murry and his colleagues turned to CRISPR, the Nobel Prize-winning technique to knock out genes. They knocked out three genes in stem cells encoding different ion channels, molecules embedded in the cell membrane that mediate impulses that propagate heart beats. They also added DNA for another ion channel, KCNJ2, which mediates the movement of potassium across the membrane, Its a chill out channel, Murry told GeekWire, It tells the heart cell not to be so excitable.

The engineered stem cells, derived from human embryonic stem cells, were coaxed in a petri dish to produce heart muscle cells, which were then implanted into pigs via open heart surgery or a catheter. The result was an even heartbeat the genetically altered cells did not cause engraftment arrhythmia.

The researchers landed on this strategy after years of effort, assessing which channels were present in the cells during arrhythmia, and knocking out multiple types of channels until they hit the right combination.

In their next set of experiments in macaques, We want to make sure these cells are still effective, said Murry, They look good beating in culture, so I think they are going to be OK. Moving forward, the researchers will also use induced human pluripotent stem cells, obtainable from adults and more amenable longer-term for clinical use.

In another recent study, published in Cell Systems, scientists at the Allen Institute for Cell Science took a close look at cardiac muscle cells derived from stem cells. They found that they could classify the state of the cells, such as how mature they were, by assessing both cell structure and which genes were turned on.

This paints a broader picture of our cells. If someone wants to really understand and characterize a cells state, we found that having both of these types of information can be complementary, said Kaytlyn Gerbin, a scientist at the Allen Institute for Cell Science in a statement. The findings provide a fine-tooth analysis of cell state, which may guide future experiments on cardiac muscle and other cell types.

Murrys research was conducted primarily at the UW, with financial support from Sana. In addition to its cardiac program, Sana has cell and gene therapy programs in diabetes, blood disorders, immunotherapy and other areas.

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Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market to Eyewitness Huge Growth by 2027 with Covid-19 Impact The Manomet Current – The Manomet Current

By daniellenierenberg

This Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies market report provides vital info on survey data and the present market place situation of each sector. The purview of this Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies market report is also expected to involve detailed pricing, profits, main market players, and trading price for a specific business district, along with the market constraints. This anticipated market research will benefit enterprises in making better judgments.

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This type of comprehensive and specialized market investigation also ponders the effect of these modernizations on the markets future development. Several innovative businesses are bouncing up in the business that are executing original innovations, unique approaches, and forthcoming contracts in order to govern the worldwide market and build their footprint. It is clear that market participants are making progress to combine the most cutting-edge technology in order to stay competitive. This is achievable since innovative products are introduced into the market on a frequent basis. The range of this Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies market report extends outside market settings to comprise analogous pricing, gains, vital players, and market value for a major market areas. This foreseeable marketing plan will help firms make more up-to-date decisions.

Key global participants in the Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies market include:Med cell Europe US STEM CELL, INC. Tigenix Mesoblast Pluristem Therapeutics Inc Brainstorm Cell Therapeutics Regeneus

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Segmentation on the Basis of Application:Neurodegenerative Disorders Autoimmune Diseases Cardiovascular Diseases

Market Segments by TypeEmbryonic Stem Cell Resident Cardiac Stem Cells Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells

Table of Content1 Report Overview1.1 Product Definition and Scope1.2 PEST (Political, Economic, Social and Technological) Analysis of Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market2 Market Trends and Competitive Landscape3 Segmentation of Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market by Types4 Segmentation of Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market by End-Users5 Market Analysis by Major Regions6 Product Commodity of Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market in Major Countries7 North America Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Landscape Analysis8 Europe Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Landscape Analysis9 Asia Pacific Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Landscape Analysis10 Latin America, Middle East & Africa Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Landscape Analysis 11 Major Players Profile

This market study also includes a geographical analysis of the world market, which includes North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, the Middle East, and Africa, as well as several other important regions that dominate the world market. The Market study highlights some of the most important resources that can assist in achieving high profits in the firm. This Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies market report also identifies market opportunities, which will aid stakeholders in making investments in the competitive landscape and a few product launches by industry players at the regional, global, and company levels. As numerous successful ways are offered in the study, it becomes possible to expand your firm. By referring to this one-of-a-kind market study, one can achieve business stability. With the help of this Market Research Study, you may achieve crucial positions in the whole market. It does a thorough market analysis for the forecast period of 2021-2027.

Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market Intended Audience: Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies manufacturers Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies traders, distributors, and suppliers Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies industry associations Product managers, Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies industry administrator, C-level executives of the industries Market Research and consulting firms

This comprehensive Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies market report offers a practical perspective to the current market situation. It also compiles pertinent data that will undoubtedly aid readers in comprehending particular aspects and their interactions in the current market environment. The material offered in this Market research report is discussed in detail on numerous levels, including technological advancements, effective methods, and market penetration factors. The reports recommendations are mostly employed by existing industry participants. It provides sufficient statistical data to comprehend its operation. It also outlines the changes that must be made in order for current businesses to grow and adapt to market developments in the future.

About Global Market MonitorGlobal Market Monitor is a professional modern consulting company, engaged in three major business categories such as market research services, business advisory, technology consulting.We always maintain the win-win spirit, reliable quality and the vision of keeping pace with The Times, to help enterprises achieve revenue growth, cost reduction, and efficiency improvement, and significantly avoid operational risks, to achieve lean growth. Global Market Monitor has provided professional market research, investment consulting, and competitive intelligence services to thousands of organizations, including start-ups, government agencies, banks, research institutes, industry associations, consulting firms, and investment firms.ContactGlobal Market MonitorOne Pierrepont Plaza, 300 Cadman Plaza W, Brooklyn,NY 11201, USAName: Rebecca HallPhone: + 1 (347) 467 7721Email: info@globalmarketmonitor.comWeb Site: https://www.globalmarketmonitor.com

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Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market to Eyewitness Huge Growth by 2027 with Covid-19 Impact The Manomet Current - The Manomet Current

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Stopping, blocking and dampening how Aussie drugs in the pipeline could treat COVID-19 – The Conversation AU

By daniellenierenberg

While widespread vaccination is key in our fight against COVID-19, people who are infected still need better treatment to improve their chance of survival and making a full recovery.

Early on, the world had high hopes for a range of repurposed medications which had previously been approved to treat other conditions including hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir and ivermectin to treat COVID-19. But the results have been disappointing.

Diseases caused by viruses are among the most difficult to treat, due to their ability to invade and repurpose infected cells. This limits the ability for drugs to directly act on the virus.

Read more: Developing antiviral drugs is not easy here's why

Yet researchers around the world are finding ways to overcome these barriers and directly target the coronavirus, including in Australia. So whats being developed here and how do they work?

Researchers at Queenslands Menzies Health Institute, in collaboration with scientists from the United States, have developed a novel treatment which targets key genes of the coronavirus, stopping the viruss ability to replicate.

The treatment uses an engineered particle called a small interfering RNA (si-RNA), which detects and binds to areas of the hosts genome, where the virus resides.

The si-RNA is encased in a nanoparticle to protect it as it travels through the bloodstream. It enters all cells in the hosts body, but will only act on the cells infected by the virus.

Read more: Have Australian researchers developed an effective COVID-19 treatment? Potentially, but we need to wait for human trials

Studies in mice showed the treatment reduced the amount of the virus in the lungs by more than 90%.

Its unclear if the results will translate to humans, but if they do, it could potentially protect infected people from severe disease and make them less likely to transmit the illness to others.

If it is successful, the researchers estimate the treatment could be available in 2023.

Another strategy is to block the virus from invading all together.

A number of research teams across Australia are working on engineered antibody treatments, which hunt out and bind to the virus before it enters a cell, effectively blocking it out.

Researchers at the Garvan and Kirby institutes in New South Wales are building on research developed after the 2003 SARS outbreak to create treatments using monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies are generated in the lab and mimic the immune system response to infection.

Once these monoclonal antibodies are injected into an infected person, they bind to the virus and stop it from invading host cells. They also mark it for destruction by the other immune cells.

While this research is in the pre-clinical (lab testing) phase, the researchers at Garvan are already working with clinicians at the Kirby institute to identify the best antibodies and move them through to human clinical trials.

As monoclonal antibody treatments are widely used in a range of diseases, these could potentially be deployed quickly for patients with COVID-19, or to protect people who have been exposed to the virus, to stop them getting sick and becoming infectious.

Another team at the Walter and Elizabeth Hall Institute in Melbourne is harnessing unique nanobodies, which are significantly smaller than human antibodies, derived from the immune system of alpacas.

These nanobodies have powerful and specific binding capacity. By vaccinating the alpacas with a synthetic component of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, nanobodies targeting the virus can be identified and synthesised for human use.

While these treatments are in the very early stages of development, they could prove revolutionary for all kinds of infectious and non-infectious diseases.

While some treatments aim to neutralise the virus, others are being developed to protect patients from the consequences of COVID-19.

One of the most severe reactions to an infection with the coronavirus is a widespread inflammatory reaction known as a cytokine storm, causing severe damage to the lungs.

While potent anti-inflammatory drugs such as hydrocortisone can help to prevent this response, they also can have severe side-effects such as bone weakening, immune system weakening, psychiatric symptoms and insomnia.

Researchers at the Victor Chang Cardiac Institute and St Vincents hospital in Sydney are proposing to trial a novel stem cell therapy, in an attempt to counteract this inflammatory storm.

While they havent disclosed specifically which cells they are planning to use, human studies show stem cell treatments can suppress inflammatory responses from the immune system.

The researchers are seeking approval for clinical studies and are using a stem cell that has been used in humans previously potentially speeding the pathway to clinical use.

Read more: Could a simple pill beat COVID-19? Pfizer is giving it a go

Another anti-inflammatory drug to control the damaging levels of immune response to the viral infection is being developed by Implicit Bioscience.

Its drug has already shown promising preliminary results in small trials for acute lung injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AML, a rare neurological disease also known as motor neurone disease), with phase 2 trials for AML due to be completed in 2021.

Two trials at major medical centres, one led by the US National Institutes of Health and the other by Quantum Leap Healthcare Collaborative, are now underway to test whether the drug is effective in patients with severe COVID-19.

Australian biotech company Ena Respiratory is developing a nasal spray to fight COVID-19.

These nasal sprays contain a compound designed to trigger a rapid immune response in the upper airways. This allows the immune system to destroy the virus and infected cells before serious disease can occur.

Ena Respiratorys product, called INNA-051, has produced promising results in animal models, with up to a 96% decrease in SARS-CoV-2 virus replication.

The next step is to see if these results translate to humans.

Australia has a long history of strong performance on the world stage in research. Fortunately, this has continued through the COVID-19 pandemic, with a number of key developments and innovations as described, which show promise for translation to human clinical trials.

Developments are continuing, including research by Vasso and her team into novel re-purposed and experimental drugs aimed at stopping coronavirus replication. This is a collaboration between Victoria University and researchers from the United States and Greece, and the team hopes to be able to report on its progress soon.

Read more: I'm a lung doctor testing the blood plasma from COVID-19 survivors as a treatment for the sick a century-old idea that could be a fast track to treatment

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Stopping, blocking and dampening how Aussie drugs in the pipeline could treat COVID-19 - The Conversation AU

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Taking on Harmful Cells That Contribute to Age-Related Diseases – Tufts Now

By daniellenierenberg

Its not the fountain of youth, but a fast-emerging class of drugs could bring us closer to achieving the age-old quest for longer life, better health, and greater vitality.

The drugs, called senolytics, carry out search-and-destroy missions against senescent cells, which are linked to aging. Early in life, senescent cells support crucial functions such as embryonic tissue development and later wound repair. They also send signals that cause women to go into labor and initiate live birth.

But senescent cells stop dividing over timethat is how they function. They accumulate in the body and release harmful molecules that contribute to arthritis, osteoporosis, glaucoma, Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease, and many other age-related conditions and afflictions. They were recently shown to be a major mediator of fatalities in coronavirus-infected mice, possibly explaining the increased susceptibility of older people to COVID-19.

To find out more about senolytics and their potential to prolong both the quality and length of life, Tufts Now talked with Christopher Wiley, a researcher on the Basic Biology of Aging Team at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts.

Tufts Now: What is cellular agingor senescenceand how does it contribute to aging?

Chris Wiley: Senescent cells are those that have been dividing, but stop doing so and go into permanent lockdown. If the cells are stem cells or other forms of progenitor cells, they are not able to contribute in a meaningful, positive way to that tissue ever again. If you have too many of these cells, you can easily imagine a situation in which your body is unable to regenerate after illness or injury.

The more problematic part of senescence is that these cells dont just sit there after their positive contributions are over. Instead, they release a blend of factors called the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, or SASP. This is a combination of molecules that can cause disease by promoting inflammation and disrupting the environment around the cell.

Senescent cells show up in virtually every vertebrate, from fish to humans. If you live long enough, they appear in nearly every tissue in the body. We cant keep up with the number of diseases that they seem to drive. Its almost as if theres a new one discovered every other month.

Can you provide some examples of senolytics?

One of the first that was discovered is fisetin, a flavonoid found in strawberries, apples, onions, and cucumbers. Flavonoids are compounds, often found in plants, that have many properties. For example, vitamin B2, or riboflavin, is a well-known dietary flavonoid.

Fisetin is one of the most prolific senolytics tested on mice so far, and has even entered clinical trials in humans. But this is not something where you eat a couple of strawberries every day and get a dose that would kill senescent cells. Youd have to consume an extremely large number, which no one should try. It is currently being sold to the public as a dietary supplement.

Another senolytic, quercetin, is the most abundant flavonoid in food. It is found in green tea, coffee, various berries, apples, onions, broccoli, grapes, citrus fruits, and red wine. Like fisetin, it is available as a dietary supplement.

What have studies shown about the effects of senolytics?

Studies in mice suggest that by destroying senescent cells, senolytics extended life by as much as 27 percent, which is pretty considerable. I want to be careful about extrapolating, but for illustrative purposes, life expectancy in the US before COVID was almost 79 years. If the mouse results were to apply in humans, that would boost life expectancy to 100 years.

Its not just that the mice lived longer, since if they were unhealthy, that wouldnt be good. Encouragingly, results from senolytic studies include better cardiac function, less dementia, fewer cataracts, and reduced muscle loss.

Early studies with human volunteers, which are designed to first test for safety, offer grounds for optimism. In one three-week trial, 14 patients with pulmonary fibrosis walked further, faster, and rose more quickly from their chairs after receiving a handful of doses of senolytics. I want to be cautious and note that there was not a control group for this early-stage study, the participants took additional medications, and many aspects of the disease did not improve.

The field is undergoing explosive growth, with as many as 100 companies exploring senolytics. Academic researchers are just as active. For example, theres a clinical trial for senolytics with diabetic kidney disease and another for addressing frailty. There are many others. The FDA process emphasizes drugs for specific diseases, so researchers are testing senolytics for individual conditions, even if they might have broader implications for aging.

I presume we shouldnt leap to the conclusion that these are miracle drugs. What caution would you offer about their efficacy and possible side effects?

Senolytics are only now being tested on humans, and while their effect on mice is often dramatic, we know that results from mice dont always translate to humans. Were also at the earliest stages of understanding efficacy, which will likely take years. There are at least 20 clinical trials taking place right now.

To date, side effects of senolytics have been things such as cough, shortness of breath, and gastrointestinal discomfort or heartburn. As we develop new senolytics, we should be able to improve both the efficiency of senescent cell elimination and the incidence of side effects.

Should people be taking these supplements based on these early findings?

Im a researcher, not a health-care provider, and people should consult their health-care provider before taking supplements.

Heres what I think: People should not look at early positive test results from studies in mice and start taking senolytic supplements. First, supplements are poorly regulated. At the basic level, there is no guarantee that youre going to get what it says on the bottle.

Second, you dont know what else has been added to the supplement.

Third, even if something works in mice, it is far from certain that it will work in humans.

Fourth, taking supplements may be harmful in some cases. If you take a senolytic supplement and have surgery, or a wound, senolytics could weaken the capacity of the body to respond properly.

And in light of the importance of senescent cells in embryo formulation, most definitely dont take them if you are or could be pregnant. This field is in its infancy; we have so much more work to do with safety and efficacy.

What does your senolytic research focus on?

There is a specific fatty acid made in small amounts in the body called dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid or DGLA. Its also present in tiny amounts in the diet. When I gave aged mice larger amounts of DGLA, they went from having quite a few senescent cells to having significantly fewer.

This presents a new therapeutic target. I identified a candidate compound using the DGLA metabolic pathway that works at a dose that is over 1,000 times lower than fisetin, so you can imagine were quite excited by these results.

Like many biomedical discoveries, it was accidental. DGLA makes anti-inflammatory lipids, which help alleviate conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. I was studying this aspect of DGLA when I was surprised to discover that it killed senescent cells.

My work is in its very early stages, and weve only studied a small number of mice, so its too early for even tentative conclusions, although Im obviously pleased that weve seen the elimination of a meaningful number of senescent cells in old mice. Well be closely monitoring DGLAs positive effects as well as any negative effects on the mice.

How would DGLA be given to people?

We are several years away from that, because everything has to be perfect with mice before we even think about trials with people.

First, we have to figure out how DGLA is killing senescent cells in mice. Again, not all studies with mice yield similar results in humans, so we are very careful about how we convey our findings and possible future actions.

But being at the HNRCA, I have met USDA researchers and nutrition scientists, and discovered that some of those folks were developing DGLA-enriched soybeans. In one scenario, you might go out for sushi and get a little bowl of DGLA-enriched edamame as a side. By the time youre done eating, youve helped reduce the odds of getting some age-related pathology.

I dont know if it will play out that way, but its an idea were working toward. I also am working on therapies that elevate the amount of naturally occurring DGLA in senescent cells that I am very excited about, so this would be an alternative approach.

You are also studying ways to test senolytic therapies beyond such measures as improvement in distance walked, right?

Yes, I am developing a quick and easy test to tell if senolytic therapy is working. Testing for senolytic effectiveness is not really being done nowyou just look for improvement in symptoms or functioning and essentially conclude that its due to the therapy.

But we cant say that with full confidence. Currently, researchers obtain skin or fat samples from patients in these trials before and after senolytic treatment to look for senescent cells. But this is an invasive procedure and its especially challenging for older people to undergo this testing.

One way to solve this dilemma is to identify a biomarker, a measurable compound that consistently and reliably can confirm an interventions effectiveness. For example, we know that a certain lipid, dihomo-15d-PGJ2, accumulates in large amounts inside of senescent cells.

When we give a senolytic therapy that kills these cells in mice or human cells, this lipid is liberated. Detecting it in blood and urine is far less invasive, so thats what Im working on now. Our aim is to be able to test people receiving senolytic therapy for the presence of dihomo-15d-PGJ2 in their blood and urine by the end of the summer.

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Novo Nordisk partners with Heartseed on heart failure cell therapy – PMLiVE

By daniellenierenberg

Danish pharma company Novo Nordisk has announced a new collaboration and licence agreement with Japans Heartseed to develop the companys investigational cell therapy HS-001 for heart failure.

HS-001, Heartseeds lead asset, is an investigational cell therapy using purified cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). The therapy is currently being developed as a treatment for heart failure.

Heartseed is already planning to launch a phase 1/2 study of HS-001 in Japan in the second half of 2021, which will evaluate the safety and efficacy of the therapy for the treatment of heart failure caused by ischaemic heart disease.

Under the terms of their agreement, Novo Nordisk will gain exclusive rights to develop, manufacture and commercialise HS-001 globally, excluding Japan where Heartseed will retain the rights to solely develop the therapy.

However, Novo Nordisk has the rights to co-commercialise HS-001 with Heartseed in Japan, with equal profit and cost sharing.

In return, Heartseed is eligible to receive up to a total $598m, with $55m earmarked in upfront and near-term milestone payments.

The Japanese biotech company is also eligible to receive tiered high single-digit to low double-digit royalties of annual net sales on the product outside Japan.

"We are delighted to have a company with the expertise and resources of Novo Nordisk as our partner for development and commercialisation of HS-001, and are also honoured that Novo Nordisk has recognised the innovativeness and high potential of our technology," said Keiichi Fukuda, chief executive officer of Heartseed.

"We believe that the partnership with Novo Nordisk is very valuable as we seek to disseminate our Japan-origin innovation globally as early as possible, he added.

Through this important collaboration with Heartseed, we aim to pioneer novel treatment solutions for people with cardiovascular disease, said Marcus Schindler, chief scientific officer, EVP research and early development at Novo Nordisk.

We [will] gain access to an innovative clinical asset, underlying technology and deep expertise within the field of iPSC biology and cardiac cell transplantation, which can be combined with our knowledge and capabilities in stem cell biology and manufacturing, he added.

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Global Cardiovascular Drug Delivery Markets Report 2021: Cell and Gene Therapies, Including Antisense and RNA Interference are Described in Detail -…

By daniellenierenberg

DUBLIN, May 21, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Cardiovascular Drug Delivery - Technologies, Markets & Companies" report from Jain PharmaBiotech has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

The cardiovascular drug delivery markets are estimated for the years 2018 to 2028 on the basis of epidemiology and total markets for cardiovascular therapeutics.

The estimates take into consideration the anticipated advances and availability of various technologies, particularly drug delivery devices in the future. Markets for drug-eluting stents are calculated separately. The role of drug delivery in developing cardiovascular markets is defined and unmet needs in cardiovascular drug delivery technologies are identified.

Drug delivery to the cardiovascular system is approached at three levels: (1) routes of drug delivery; (2) formulations; and finally (3) applications to various diseases.

Formulations for drug delivery to the cardiovascular system range from controlled release preparations to delivery of proteins and peptides. Cell and gene therapies, including antisense and RNA interference, are described in full chapters as they are the most innovative methods of delivery of therapeutics. Various methods of improving the systemic administration of drugs for cardiovascular disorders are described including the use of nanotechnology.

Cell-selective targeted drug delivery has emerged as one of the most significant areas of biomedical engineering research, to optimize the therapeutic efficacy of a drug by strictly localizing its pharmacological activity to a pathophysiologically relevant tissue system. These concepts have been applied to targeted drug delivery to the cardiovascular system. Devices for drug delivery to the cardiovascular system are also described.

The role of drug delivery in various cardiovascular disorders such as myocardial ischemia, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia is discussed. Cardioprotection is also discussed. Some of the preparations and technologies are also applicable to peripheral arterial diseases. Controlled release systems are based on chronopharmacology, which deals with the effects of circadian biological rhythms on drug actions. A full chapter is devoted to drug-eluting stents as treatment for restenosis following stenting of coronary arteries.Fifteen companies are involved in drug-eluting stents.

New cell-based therapeutic strategies are being developed in response to the shortcomings of available treatments for heart disease. Potential repair by cell grafting or mobilizing endogenous cells holds particular attraction in heart disease, where the meager capacity for cardiomyocyte proliferation likely contributes to the irreversibility of heart failure.

Cell therapy approaches include attempts to reinitiate cardiomyocyte proliferation in the adult, conversion of fibroblasts to contractile myocytes, conversion of bone marrow stem cells into cardiomyocytes, and transplantation of myocytes or other cells into injured myocardium.

Advances in the molecular pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases have brought gene therapy within the realm of possibility as a novel approach to the treatment of these diseases. It is hoped that gene therapy will be less expensive and affordable because the techniques involved are simpler than those involved in cardiac bypass surgery, heart transplantation and stent implantation.

Gene therapy would be a more physiologic approach to deliver vasoprotective molecules to the site of vascular lesions. Gene therapy is not only a sophisticated method of drug delivery; it may at times need drug delivery devices such as catheters for transfer of genes to various parts of the cardiovascular system.

Selected 83 companies that either develop technologies for drug delivery to the cardiovascular system or products using these technologies are profiled and 80 collaborations between companies are tabulated. The bibliography includes 200 selected references from recent literature on this topic.

Key Markets

Key Topics Covered:

Executive Summary

1. Cardiovascular Diseases

2. Methods for Drug Delivery to the Cardiovascular System

3. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

4. Gene Therapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

5. Drug-Eluting Stents

6. Markets for Cardiovascular Drug Delivery

7. Companies involved in Cardiovascular Drug Delivery

8. References

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/qqxmpd

Media Contact:

Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager [emailprotected]

For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900

U.S. Fax: 646-607-1907 Fax (outside U.S.): +353-1-481-1716

SOURCE Research and Markets

http://www.researchandmarkets.com

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Global Cardiovascular Drug Delivery Markets Report 2021: Cell and Gene Therapies, Including Antisense and RNA Interference are Described in Detail -...

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Global Cell Therapy Markets, Technologies, and Competitive Landscape Report 2020-2030: Applications, Cardiovascular Disorders, Cancer, Neurological…

By daniellenierenberg

DUBLIN, May 21, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Cell Therapy - Technologies, Markets and Companies" report from Jain PharmaBiotech has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

This report describes and evaluates cell therapy technologies and methods, which have already started to play an important role in the practice of medicine. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is replacing the old fashioned bone marrow transplants. The role of cells in drug discovery is also described. Cell therapy is bound to become a part of medical practice.

The cell-based markets was analyzed for 2020, and projected to 2030. The markets are analyzed according to therapeutic categories, technologies and geographical areas. The largest expansion will be in diseases of the central nervous system, cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Skin and soft tissue repair, as well as diabetes mellitus, will be other major markets.

The number of companies involved in cell therapy has increased remarkably during the past few years. More than 500 companies have been identified to be involved in cell therapy and 316 of these are profiled in part II of the report along with tabulation of 306 alliances. Of these companies, 171 are involved in stem cells.

Profiles of 73 academic institutions in the US involved in cell therapy are also included in part II along with their commercial collaborations. The text is supplemented with 67 Tables and 26 Figures. The bibliography contains 1,200 selected references, which are cited in the text.

Stem cells are discussed in detail in one chapter. Some light is thrown on the current controversy of embryonic sources of stem cells and comparison with adult sources. Other sources of stem cells such as the placenta, cord blood and fat removed by liposuction are also discussed. Stem cells can also be genetically modified prior to transplantation.

Cell therapy technologies overlap with those of gene therapy, cancer vaccines, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Pharmaceutical applications of stem cells including those in drug discovery are also described. Various types of cells used, methods of preparation and culture, encapsulation, and genetic engineering of cells are discussed. Sources of cells, both human and animal (xenotransplantation) are discussed. Methods of delivery of cell therapy range from injections to surgical implantation using special devices.

Cell therapy has applications in a large number of disorders. The most important are diseases of the nervous system and cancer which are the topics for separate chapters. Other applications include cardiac disorders (myocardial infarction and heart failure), diabetes mellitus, diseases of bones and joints, genetic disorders, and wounds of the skin and soft tissues.

Regulatory and ethical issues involving cell therapy are important and are discussed. The current political debate on the use of stem cells from embryonic sources (hESCs) is also presented. Safety is an essential consideration of any new therapy and regulations for cell therapy are those for biological preparations.

Key Topics Covered:

Part One: Technologies, Ethics & Regulations

Executive Summary

1. Introduction to Cell Therapy

2. Cell Therapy Technologies

3. Stem Cells

4. Clinical Applications of Cell Therapy

5. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

6. Cell Therapy for Cancer

7. Cell Therapy for Neurological Disorders

8. Ethical, Legal and Political Aspects of Cell therapy

9. Safety and Regulatory Aspects of Cell Therapy

Part II: Markets, Companies & Academic Institutions

10. Markets and Future Prospects for Cell Therapy

11. Companies Involved in Cell Therapy

12. Academic Institutions

13. References

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/oletip

Media Contact:

Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager [emailprotected]

For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900

U.S. Fax: 646-607-1907 Fax (outside U.S.): +353-1-481-1716

SOURCE Research and Markets

http://www.researchandmarkets.com

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Global Cell Therapy Markets, Technologies, and Competitive Landscape Report 2020-2030: Applications, Cardiovascular Disorders, Cancer, Neurological...

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Obesity-Related Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in COVID-19: | JIR – Dove Medical Press

By daniellenierenberg

Obesity, COVID-19 and Inflammation

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put into evidence another pandemic obesity, an increasing threat to societies around the world.1 The first studies of COVID-19 did not provide body mass index (BMI) data,2 and the association between disease severity and obesity was not perceived initially. Subsequent data from several countries, however, cast light on this association,3,4 and several studies have documented the association between obesity and COVID-19 severity.47 Currently, obesity may be considered a true independent risk factor for COVID-19 mortality.8

The mechanisms underlying the increased risk of complications and mortality in obese patients with COVID-19 are many, and of diverse nature (Figure 1). Obesity is associated with several disorders, related to defective homeostasis of the dysfunctional adipose tissue, in which local and systemic chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, altered release of cytokines, and impaired immune response play important roles911; all of these have been demonstrated to be associated with higher risk and worse prognosis of infectious diseases in this patient population.1214

Figure 1 The mechanisms underlying the increased risk of complications and mortality in obese patients with COVID-19 based on the association of low-grade inflammation, adipose tissue dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction: In obese patients with COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2, as well as, the bacterial endotoxins (LPS) of the intestinal bacterial translocation promote the activation of TLR4 in favor of the MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory pathway. The activation of NF-B is linked to the production of TNF-, IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 and other cytokines, contributing to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and increased expression of ECA2. In the adipose tissue of patients with COVID-19, there is an increase in the expression of ECA2, promoting greater entry of SARS-CoV-2, making this tissue a viral reservoir. Metabolic inflammation in obese patients is characterized by dysfunctional adipose tissue, with mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased fatty acid oxidation, causing an amount of inflammatory cells showing an increase in the influx of M1 macrophages and chemotactic signaling, via MCP-1 and release of IL-8 by adipocytes, associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species. Associated with this process of immune activation, obese patients with COVID-19 have systemic microvascular dysfunction and a predisposition to thrombus formation that is exacerbated by higher levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-, IL-1 and IL-6, worsening the outcomes in COVID-19.

Inflammation plays a central role in obesity.15 Obesity promotes profound changes in the structure and function of adipose tissue, as adipocytes undergo hypertrophy and hyperplasia, increasing oxygen need, which remains unmet due to the insufficient vascularization relative to the enlarged adipose tissue. This leads to tissue hypoxia and immune cell infiltration that perpetuates local inflammation.1618 Insulin resistance is also a link between obesity-related metabolic disorders and inflammation, as the remodeling of the adipose tissue leads to activation of NLRP3-inflammasome, which ultimately impairs of the insulin-signaling pathway and insulin resistance, a key factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome.19

Additionally, mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes may be a cause of adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. The defective mitochondrial function and decreased fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes increase triglyceride accumulation, adipocyte enlargement and consequent adipose tissue hypoxia; this, in its turn, leads to accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which promotes adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis.20 This continuous inflammatory cycle also contributes to a neuro-immuno-endocrine dysregulation in the context of the metabolic syndrome.21 The inflammatory state affecting obese individuals is called metabolic inflammation or metainflammation, in which there is also an increased influx of M1 macrophages occurring, as well as decreased M2 macrophages and Treg cells in the visceral adipose tissue22 through chemotactic signaling, via MCP-1 and IL-8 released by adipocytes.23

The excessive intake of carbohydrates is an important trigger for these processes.24 In addition, peripheral inflammation and various pro-inflammatory signals in the nucleus accumbens, including reactive gliosis, increased expression of cytokines, antigen-presenting markers and transcriptional activity of NFB25 contribute to the activation of the innate immune response, mainly through activation of Toll-type receptors (TLR), specifically TLR-4, considered an intersection of dysfunctional metabolism and activated immunity in obesity.26 NF-B is a molecular hub for pro-inflammatory gene induction both in innate and adaptive immune responses since it is highly regulated and regulates the expression of a vast array of genes.27 Among many different immune effects, NF-B activation is linked to the production of TNF-, IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 and other cytokines, and is also involved in NLRP3 inflammasome regulation and activation of CD4+ T-helper cells.28 It is noteworthy that there is evidence that the virus can bind and activate TLR4 signaling in favor of the proinflammatory MyD88-dependent and contributing to increased expression of ACE2 and promoting greater viral entry.29

The chronic impairment of systemic vascular endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, including hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and heart failure, when intensified by the detrimental effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) over the endothelium, may explain their worse outcomes in COVID-19.3033 Regarding obesity, a community-based clinical trial (n=521; mean follow-up of 8.5 years) showed that increases in weight, body mass index, waist circumference and body-fat percentage over time were associated with worsening of microvascular endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery.34 Most subjects (84%) were overweight or obese at baseline; those who lost weight over time had improved vascular endothelial function.34

In fact, vascular endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness are thought to contribute to a unfavorable response of the endothelium to the infection by SARS-CoV-2, whereas alterations in cardiac structure and function and the prothrombotic environment in obesity could provide a link for the augmented cardiovascular events in these patients.35 Moreover, fast increasing evidence from basic science, imaging and clinical observations suggest that COVID-19 could be considered as a vascular disease.36,37

Obesity is accompanied by functional and structural systemic microvascular dysfunction,38 and endothelial-dependent microvascular vasodilation is severely impaired in obesity.3941 Endothelial-dependent capillary recruitment, induced either by reactive hyperemia or by shear stress, is blunted in obese subjects, compared to non-obese counterparts.42,43 In the clinical setting, endothelial function and reactivity can be assessed using different technologies that evaluate microvascular flow and tissue perfusion coupled to physiological or pharmacological stimuli,44,45 to activate different vasodilator pathways resulting in increased microvascular conductance. The most commonly used provocations are the administration of endothelial-dependent vasodilators by transdermal iontophoresis,4648 thermal hyperemia49,50 and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia.5153 In this context, the cutaneous microcirculation is now considered as an accessible and representative vascular bed for the assessment of systemic microcirculatory reactivity.45,5456 A reduced vasodilation response to these different stimuli is indicative of microvascular endothelial dysfunction and is also considered to be predictive for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and clinical prognosis.5760

In patients with established cardiovascular disease, the reduction of microvascular endothelial-dependent vasodilation (ie, endothelial dysfunction) is associated with increasing BMI, even after adjustment for treated diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking.61 In that study, BMI was classified in three different intervals: <25, 25-to 30 and >30 kg/m2.61 Moreover, Csipo et al showed that weight loss (reduction of BMI from 31.8 to 27.5 kg/m2, accompanied by a reduction of serum cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and increased HDL) after a low-carbohydrate, low-calorie diet, resulted in improvement of microvascular endothelial function in geriatric obese (class 1) patients,62 assessed by laser speckle contrast imaging in the skin, after post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. Additionally, endothelial function of resistance arterioles of the gluteal subcutaneous tissue is impaired in non-diabetic subjects with moderate levels of obesity (BMI 34.7 4.0 kg/m2), in association with systemic inflammation. In women, BMI was significantly associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.63

Regarding mechanisms of microvascular dysfunction, using a new methodology of microdialysis in the skeletal muscle, La Favor et al showed a significant increase in superoxide anions, as well as in NADPH oxidase subunit expression, associated with microvascular endothelial dysfunction in obese subjects relative to lean and overweight/mildly obese subjects.64 Interestingly, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training resulted in decreased H2O2 levels and improved microvascular endothelial function in the muscle tissue of obese subjects.64 The study therefore linked NADPH oxidase, as a source of reactive oxygen species, to microvascular endothelial dysfunction in obese individuals, with amelioration induced by aerobic exercise.

Microvascular dysfunction has been considered to be a pathophysiological link between overweight/obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, including arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance.43,6569 Acknowledged mechanisms include changes in the secretion of adipokines, leading to increased levels of free fatty acids and inflammatory mediators, and decreased levels of adiponectin, all of which may impair endothelial insulin signaling.7073 It is also of note that there are changes at the level of the microvascular network in obesity, involving a reduction in the number of arterioles or capillaries within vascular beds of various tissues (such as the skeletal muscle and skin), which is defined as vascular (capillary) rarefaction.7477 In fact, obese individuals have both structural and functional alterations in skin microcirculation that are proportional to the increase in the degree of global and central obesity, arterial pressure levels and with the degree of insulin resistance.42 In non-diabetic, untreated hypertensive patients, reduced capillary density has also been related to obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors.78 In addition, in adults and also in prepubertal children, visceral adiposity measured with magnetic resonance imaging is inversely associated with endothelial-dependent skin capillary recruitment, and is accompanied by increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers.79

Impaired left ventricular diastolic function and higher risk of heart failure in obese individuals has been suggested to be associated with myocardial microvascular dysfunction.80 In obese patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, coronary microvascular density is significantly lower, compared to non-obese patients, and accompanied by increased body mass index and percent body fat together with increased left ventricular filling pressures.80 Moreover, in patients with suspected coronary artery disease, increasing body mass index is associated with reduced microvascular endothelial function, even after adjustment for treated diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking.61 Interestingly, the study evaluated microvascular endothelial function three different technologies, including peripheral arterial tonometry, laser Doppler flowmetry and digital thermal monitoring.61

Reduced skeletal muscle capillary density and microvascular reactivity in obese subjects improved after 4 weeks of either sprint interval training, or moderateintensity continuous training, together with increased endothelial eNOS content.81

It has also been shown that bariatric surgery improves microvascular dysfunction in obese patients who were free of metabolic syndrome after surgery, in association with postoperative increases in HDL-cholesterol levels and decreases in oxidized LDL levels.82

Another clinical study investigated microvascular endothelial function using flow-mediated dilation in arterioles isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue in young women presenting with obesity (age: 33 2 years, body mass index: 33.0 0.6 kg/m2).83 The results showed that a 6-week low-carbohydrate diet, associated or not with caloric restriction, improve endothelial-dependent microvascular function through increases in nitric oxide bioavailability.83 On the other hand, this nutritional intervention did not affect macrovascular endothelial function, evaluated using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation.83

Regarding putative pathophysiological mechanisms, a study by Dimassi et al84 in young individuals with obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2, n = 69), compared with controls with normal weight, suggested that the expression of circulating microparticles containing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is significantly reduced in obesity individuals with endothelial-dependent microvascular dysfunction characterized using cutaneous laser Doppler flowmetry.84

Low-grade inflammation is the common feature that encompasses all the high-risk patients for developing severe COVID-19. Obesity is associated with a fivefold increased risk of developing SARS in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals, and the well-documented increased susceptibility of obese patients to develop severe forms of COVID-19 may be linked to the elevated systemic metabolic inflammation in these patients.19 Metabolic alterations seen in obese and in diabetic patients are related to an inflammatory response,85,86 and several studies report elevated levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-, IL-1 and IL-6 in obese patients.87 Furthermore, visceral fat shows significant univariate association with the need for intensive care in COVID-19 patients,15 and deregulated expression of adipokines, such as leptin and resistin, increases the expression of vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) that contribute to increased vascular leukocyte adhesiveness and additional oxidative stress.88 To further complicate the scenario, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASCs), a specialized cell population in adipose tissue, are functionally compromised in obesity and changes its regulatory protective activity to a pro-inflammatory profile increasing its ability to secrete TNF-, IL-8, IL-6 and MCP-1.89,90 Therefore, ASCs from obese patients may not be able to modulate the immune response and tissue repair in SARS-CoV-2 infection contributing to more severe tissue injury.10

SARS-CoV-2 uses its viral spike (S) protein to invade target cells, such as epithelial cells, through binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) after proteolytic activation by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPSS2).91 Others enzymes like furin, trypsin and elastase may also activate the S protein and facilitate cellular entry by the virus.9294 Interestingly, adipose tissue highly expresses ACE2 and the expression is even higher in visceral adipose tissue.95 Of relevance, ACE2 expression is upregulated in obesity.96 Also, another suggested receptor for SARS-CoV-2, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), is expressed in adipose tissue and is upregulated in obesity.97,98 Finally, CD147, the alternative receptor for SARS-CoV-2, is positively correlated with an increase in body mass index.99 Taken together, the evidence of high expression of different SARS-CoV-2 receptors in adipose tissue may be the basis for increased severity of COVID-19 in obese patients involving at least two different possibilities: First, infection of adipocytes with SARS-CoV-2 may exacerbate the innate immune response through pathogen recognition receptors in an already inflammation-primed tissue, increasing the magnitude of the response. Second, adipocytes may function as a reservoir for the SARS-CoV-2 and therefore may fuel the inflammatory response in adipose tissue and elsewhere in the organism by releasing viral NA and antigens that, by reaching the circulation generate ripple inflammatory effects across the organism. Importantly, these two possibilities are not mutually exclusive and may well combine their pathophysiological potential towards a deregulate systemic inflammatory response with widespread tissue injury and consequent organ dysfunction. It is important to add that as the pandemic evolves, new mechanistic interactions may unravel. For instance, new virus variants with mutations at the receptor-binding domain of the S protein may change the infectivity of the virus by changing its interactions with cellular receptors. In Brazil, a variant designated as P1, with multiple mutations in the S protein, was recently identified and is seemingly more infective than previous lineages of the virus.100 How this variant may interact with adipocytes increasing infectivity to these cells or potentiating the formation of an adipocyte reservoir of the virus causing a more severe disease in obese individuals is yet unknown. What is known is that a second wave caused by this new P1 variant is promoting devastating effects in Brazil with apparently higher mortality and a faster progression of the disease.

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by a massive production of pro-inflammatory mediators, in special cytokines. Frequently, the term cytokine storm is called up to describe the massive production of cytokines that occurs in viral infections (including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV), in sepsis and more recently, in severe COVID-19.101 Increased levels of IL-6, TNF-, IP10 are commonly found in patients with severe COVID-19.102 It is reasonable to propose that obese patients who already have an underlying chronic inflammation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 are prone to develop a more intense and deregulated response, and in doing so, developing a severe presentation of the disease. In addition, dysfunctional metabolism, endothelium, and overall immune response would further contribute to an unfavorable evolution of the disease in the obese patients. The questions about the molecular mechanisms behind this disproportional response remain unanswered, but our knowledge about this disease is growing in an unprecedented velocity and we may soon have the answer. However, a few possibilities may be put forward (Figure 1).

As stated above, obesity is characterized by the induction of a low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and NF-B is described as a key factor in the low-grade inflammation state in atherosclerosis and hypertension.103,104 Also, the NF-B pathway is involved in insulin resistance, a condition frequently seen in obese patients, and in -cell dysfunction.105 In addition, free fatty acids can also promote inflammation and activate the NF-B and JNK1 pathways.106 All those pieces put together may point to NF-B being a key player in obese patients with COVID-19. Importantly, cell culture experiments combined with system biology approach showed that overexpression of Nsp1 during infection with SARS-CoV-2 strongly increases signaling through the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and increases cytokine production and immune-dependent pathogenesis. Both NF-B and NFAT pathways share common regulation signals, such as Foxp3 and Foxd1, and a similar mechanism of activation against infection.107

We must also consider that binding of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 leads to receptor internalization and high cytosolic levels of angiotensin II, which is a recognized activator of NLP3 inflammasome in the lung108 and other tissues. The NLRP3 inflammasome regulates pyroptosis through gasdermin D, along with the release of cytosolic contents into the extracellular spaces. The release of alarmins, ATP, ROS, cytokines, chemokines, LDH and viral particles elicits an immediate reaction from surrounding immune cells, inducing a pyroptotic triggered reaction further fueling inflammation. Interestingly, different studies have reported elevated levels of LDH, a cytosolic enzyme that is measured for monitoring pyroptosis in patients with the severe form of COVID-19.109 On the other hand, diet-induced alterations in the gut leading to increased gut permeability to bacterial endotoxins are known to promote activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). This event is followed by the accumulation of IL-1 family cytokines, which modulate insulin production by pancreatic beta cells.110 Importantly and at the same time, a decrease in endogenous protective mechanisms occurs.111 NLRP3 inflammasome activation is involved in endothelial lysosome membrane permeabilization, cathepsin B release, and impaired glycocalyx thickness,112 thus further contributing to the endothelial cell dysfunction, enhanced susceptibility to cardiovascular injury and thrombotic events, a common complication in severe COVID-19 patients.

In fact, thrombotic events are now recognized as a common feature in COVID-19 patients, and COVID-19 has recently been suggested to be a thrombotic viral fever.113 Obese patients are prone to thrombotic events for many different reasons,113 and COVID-19 may contribute even further to this complication. The imbalance of the ACE/ACE2 system caused by internalization of ACE2 after binding to virus S protein causes a switch towards pro-thrombotic activity by decreasing Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis (antithrombotic) and increasing angiotensin II (prothrombotic). This mechanism may be of central pathogenic relevance explaining the poor outcome of obese patients with COVID-19.113

In summary, there are many different ways by which low-grade inflammation caused by metabolic changes in obesity may contribute to the worse prognosis of obese patients infected by SARS-CoV-2, in a combination of factors and mechanisms leading to a subversion of the defensive responses of the organism against the virus.

The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

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