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Multiple Myeloma Experts, Patients, Advocates and Caregivers Team Up to Hike Through Patagonia – BioSpace

By daniellenierenberg

Since MM4MM began with its first climb in 2016, the program has raised over $2.7 million. All the funds raised go directly to the MMRF to accelerate new treatment options for patients with multiple myeloma.

As a patient founded organization, the MMRF stands together with those who are battling multiple myeloma patients, families, physicians, researchers, and our pharmaceutical partners. This team represents a microcosm of that myeloma community and demonstrates that together, we can collaborate with ever increasing momentum towards a cure, said Paul Giusti, CEO of the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation. We are thrilled to enter the fifth year of this inspiring program and to have Celgene join us in this effort to raise awareness and critical funds to continue our mission.

The MM4MM team will include four patients living with multiple myeloma:

We are so honored to be a part of yet another hike with the MMRF and Celgene, said Mike Hennessy Jr., president and CEO of MJH Life Sciences, parent company of CURE magazine. This initiative organized by Moving Mountains for Multiple Myeloma not only raises awareness and research funding for multiple myeloma but has brought together the myeloma community to take action and fight for a cure for myeloma patients.

The team will embark on a five-day trek of a lifetime through Patagonia and take on the rewarding and beautiful landscape that includes glaciers, deep valleys and challenging peaks. During this trek, the team will travel through El Chaltn and acclimatize while they experience the mighty range of peaks dominated by Monte Fitz Roy, an 11,020-foot tower with a sheer face of more than 6,000 feet. Next, the team will reach Lago San Martin, where they will traverse the terrain in daily treks, exploring a 10-mile peninsula, climbing to a condor rookery and reaching remote Andean lakes.

Celgene, Cure and the MMRF share an unwavering commitment to improving the lives of patients with multiple myeloma and we are very proud to continue our role in the Moving Mountains for Multiple Myeloma initiative, said Chad Saward, senior director, patient advocacy at Celgene Corp. We are amazed and inspired by all who are participating in this unique awareness program.

To learn more about MM4MM and to donate to multiple myeloma research, click here.

About Moving Mountains for Multiple Myeloma

Moving Mountains for Multiple Myeloma (MM4MM) is a collaboration between CURE Media Group and the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation (MMRF) to raise awareness and funds for myeloma research. This year, Celgene Corporation and GSK join the effort as sponsors. In addition to Patagonia, the program also led hikes up Mt. Washington and through Iceland in 2019. To date, MM4MM has raised over $2.7 million for myeloma research and included 51 patients with multiple myeloma on 7 climbs. Funds raised go directly to research, supporting the MMRF mission. For more information, visit https://www.themmrf.org/events/.

About Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer of the plasma cell. It is the second most common blood cancer. An estimated 32,110 adults (18,130 men and 13,980 women) in the United States will be diagnosed with MM in 2019 and an estimated 12,960 people are predicted to die from the disease. The five-year survival rate for MM is approximately 50.7%, versus 31% in 1999.

About the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation

A pioneer in precision medicine, the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation (MMRF) seeks to find a cure for all multiple myeloma patients by relentlessly pursuing innovations that accelerate the development of precision treatments for cancer. Founded in 1998 by Kathy Giusti, a multiple myeloma patient, and her twin sister Karen Andrews as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, the MMRF has created the business model around cancerfrom data to analytics to the clinic. The MMRF identifies barriers and then finds the solutions to overcome them, bringing in the best partners and aligning incentives in the industry to drive better outcomes for patients. Since its inception, the organization has collected thousands of samples and tissues, opened nearly 100 trials, helped bring 10 FDA-approved therapies to market, and built CoMMpass, the single largest genomic dataset for any cancer. Today, the MMRF is building on its legacy in genomics and is expanding into immune-oncology, as the combination of these two fields will be critical to making precision medicine possible for all patients. The MMRF has raised nearly $500 million and directs nearly 90% of the total funds to research and related programs. To learn more, visit http://www.themmrf.org.

About CURE Media Group

CURE Media Group is the leading resource for cancer updates, research and education. It combines a full suite of media products, including its industry-leading website, CUREtoday.com; innovative video programs, such as CURE Connections; a series of widely attended live events; and CURE magazine, which reaches over 1 million readers, as well as the dynamic website for oncology nurses, OncNursingNews.com, and its companion publication, Oncology Nursing News. CURE Media Group is a brand of MJH Life Sciences, the largest privately held, independent, full-service medical media company in the U.S. dedicated to delivering trusted health care news across multiple channels.

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20191022006008/en/

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Turmeric: Uses and benefits of the spice that you must know – Republic World – Republic World

By daniellenierenberg

Turmeric has numerous uses when it comes to health benefits. They are being used in Indian households for a long time.These include several health benefits and medicinal uses. Turmeric is one of the most powerful spices. It has a unique taste with a mix of citrusy bitterness. It is also associated with Ayurvedic practices.

Also read:Indian Food: What Are The Uses Of Turmeric In Indian Dishes?

Turmeric also has some benefits to enhance your beauty. Its anti-inflammatory properties help in removing dead skin cells. It can also be used to wash your fash or apply once in a while. There are several benefits you can receive from turmeric. These are some of the imperative ones.

Also read:Basil Benefits: Top Benefits Of Basil For Your Skin

The anti-inflammatory properties that are found in turmeric are used to soothe osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. These collectively work in your favour. The antioxidant destroys the free radicals in the body that damage the cells. These can help alleviate and relax your mild joint pains. It cannot be used as a substitute for medication.

There is a compound in turmeric that has not been studied as much as the other compounds like curcumin - aromatic turmerone or ar-turmerone. This compound has reportedly been repairing brain stem cells. It also helps in the recovery from neurodegenerative diseases like stroke and Alzheimer's.

A substance in turmeric Lipopolysaccharide has anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral agents. This also helps to stimulate the immune system. Make sure you consume only a teaspoon in warm water.

Also read:Jackfruit: Delicious Recipes To Make With The Diabetic Friendly Fruit

The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of curcumin help to reduce the onset of Type 2 diabetes. It helps to moderate insulin levels and boosts the effect of medications that treat diabetes. But always remember not to use it as a source of medication.

Turmeric increases the production of vital enzymes that detoxify our blood in the liver by breaking down and reducing the toxins. It also helps with the circulation of blood. Overall, it is known to improve liver health.

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Seriously Cool Halloween Makeup Ideas That Will Overshadow a Basic Costume – Yahoo Lifestyle

By daniellenierenberg

Exactly when did Halloween get to be so high pressure? Back in the day, cooking up a scary monster or pretty fairy princess costume was all about having fun. But somewhere along the way, all of it got stressful. The hair, the clothing, the Halloween makeup ideasits all expected to look super pro. Its enough to give you flashbacks to how you felt before that super hard biology final the last semester of freshman year. At least, thats how we feel. And thats all on top of trying to figure out a cool costume in the first place.

But rather than spend a bajillion dollars on a costume that someone else will inevitably be wearing, why not let your face be the...

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Creatine powers fight against cancer, improves efficacy of immunotherapies – News-Medical.net

By daniellenierenberg

The immune system functions as the bodys defense against pathogens and harmful substances, including cancer cells. They protect the body against potential harm. In cases of cancer, though the body tries to fight the tumor cells, they may become too aggressive for the immune system to eradicate.

Creatine is a popular organic acid that is widely used as a supplement by bodybuilders and athletes. A new study has found that creatine is a potent molecular battery that powers the immune cells to better fight cancer.

Creatine powder - Image Credit: Pavlo Lys/ Shutterstock

In a new study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, creatine uptake is vial to the anti-tumor activities of CD8 T cells, also called killer T cells. These immune cells find and destroy infected cells that have been turned into virus-making factories.

The researchers at the University of California Los Angeles Health Services conducted the study on mice showing taking creating supplements can make current immunotherapies more effective.

"Because oral creatine supplements have been broadly utilized by bodybuilders and athletes for the past three decades, existing data suggest they are likely safe when taken at appropriate doses. This could provide a clear and expedient path forward for the use of creatine supplementation to enhance existing cancer immunotherapies, Lili Yang, a member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, said.

T cells, to fight cancer cells effectively, need massive energy. The metabolic regulators that control anti-tumor T cell immunity have just begun to be revealed. The researchers observed a rise of the CrT (Slc6a8) gene expression, which works by encoding a surface transporter that controls the uptake of creatine into a cell.

The team demonstrated that creatine uptake deficiency has affected and altered anti-tumor T cell immunity. On the other hand, when they gave creatine supplements to mice, there had been tumor suppression efficacy. Further, the researchers have found that creatine served as a molecular battery, wherein it stored and distributed energy to power the bodys fight against cancer.

"As biologists, we are always asking 'why? We could see that these tumor-battling T cells had increased their capacity to take in creatine, likely for a good reason, so we designed experiments to determine what happens when they can't get it, Yang said.

To validate their theory, they gave non-engineered mice models creatine daily, which is similar to the safe recommended dose for bodybuilders and athletes. The boost of creatine, which was administered through an injection while in some mice, they received it through oral supplementation, gave the two groups of mice the ability to suppress both colon and skin cancer growth.

The findings of the study show that killer T cells need creatine to be able to fight cancer cells. Without creatine, they appear underpowered and cant perform their roles effectively.

In the next series of experiments, the team will try to repeat the tests on special mouse models that contain human tumor grafts and human immune cells. This way, they can determine the proper dose and proper timing of creatine supplementation. Also, they want to see if the same mechanism is true in humans. The team expects the findings could also apply to a variety of cancers, further improving current immunotherapies.

Creatine is a natural compound produced in the body from amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. Creatine comes from many sources, such as animal proteins and dietary supplements. It has many health benefits, including help muscles, produces energy, improves high-intensity exercise performance, fights neurological diseases, lowers blood sugar levels, and supports muscular function.

The researchers recommend that people should consult a doctor before taking new supplements, such as creatine. Supplements can carry risks of drug interactions with other medicines and other potentially harmful side effects.

Journal reference:

Biase, S., Ma, X., Wang, X., Yu, Wang, Y.C., Smith, D., Zhou, Y., Li, Z., Kim, J., Clarke, N., To, A. and Yang, Li. (2019). Creatine uptake regulates CD8 T cell antitumor immunity. Journal of Experimental Medicine. http://jem.rupress.org/content/early/2019/10/17/jem.20182044

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Creatine powers fight against cancer, improves efficacy of immunotherapies - News-Medical.net

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Archie & Cheryls Costumes On The Halloween Episode Of Riverdale Are So On-Brand – Yahoo Lifestyle

By daniellenierenberg

Season 4 ofRiverdalewill feature the series first-ever Halloween episode finally! That means fans get to see Archie, Cheryl and the rest of the gang all dressed up in their finest ~spooky~ gear. The episode doesnt air until October 30, but you can get a sneak peek at the costumes in these Riverdale season 4 Halloween episode photos. Maybe youll find some inspo for your own Halloween costume?

Season 4 Episode 4 of Riverdale is aptly titled, Halloween. You know this series loves its outlandish costumes, so its about time that they devoted an episode to the holiday! The CW released a batch of stills from the episode, and they reveal exactly what Archie, Mad Dog, Cheryl, and Toni dressed up as.

The characters went with a superhero theme. Archie dressed up as his own superhero...

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Stem cell therapy is for animals too – SciTech Europa

By daniellenierenberg

Stem cell therapy for animals has seen breakthroughs

Stem cell therapy is increasingly becoming a more mainstream form of medicine. Usually applied to humans, the use of this regenerative treatment is now also being extended to animals including cats and dogs. Regenerative medicine, particularly stem cell treatment has seen many advancements in recent years with some groundbreaking studies coming to light.

Taking the cells from bone marrow, umbilical cords, blood or fat, stem cells can grow to become any kind of cell and the treatment has seen many successes in animals. The regenerative therapy has been useful particularly for treatment of spinal cord and bone injuries as well as problems with tendons, ligaments and joints.

Expanded Potential Stem Cells (EPSCs) have been obtained from pig embryos for the first time. The cells offer groundbreaking potential for studying embryonic development and producing transnational research in genomics and regenerative medicine, biotechnology and agriculture.

The cells have been efficiently derived from pig preimplantation embryos and a new culture medium developed in Hong Kong and Cambridge enabled researchers from the FLI to establish permanent embryonic stem cell lines. The cells have been discovered in a collaboration between research groups from the Institute of Farm Animal Genetics at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI) in Mariensee, Germany, the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridge, UK and the University of Hong Kong, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, School of Biomedical Sciences.

Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are derived from the inner cells of very early embryos, the so-called blastocysts. Embryonic stem cells are all-rounders and can develop into various cell types of the body in the culture dish. This characteristic is called pluripotency. Previous attempts to establish pluripotent embryonic stem cell lines from farm animals such as pigs or cattle have resulted in cell lines that have not really fulfilled all properties of pluripotency and were therefore called ES-like.

Dr Monika Nowak-Imialek of the FLI said: Our porcine EPSCs isolated from pig embryos are the first well-characterized cell lines worldwide. EPSCs great potential to develop into any type of cell provides important implications for developmental biology, regenerative medicine, organ transplantation, disease modelling and screening for drugs.

The stem cells can renew themselves meaning they can be kept in culture indefinitely, and also show the typical morphology and gene expression patterns of embryonic stem cells. Somatic cells have a limited lifespan, so these new stem cells are much better suited for long selection processes. It has been shown that these porcine stem cell lines can easily be modified with new genome editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas, which is particularly interesting for the generation of porcine disease models.

The EPSCs have a high capacity to develop not only into numerous cell types of the organism, but also into extraembryonic tissue, the trophoblasts, making them very unique and lending them their name. This capacity could prove valuable for the future promising organoid technology, where organ-like small cell aggregations are grown in 3D aggregates that can be used for research into early embryo development, various disease models and testing of new drugs in petri dishes. In addition, the authors were able to show that trophoblast stem cells can be generated from their porcine stem cells, offering a unique possibility to investigate functions or diseases of the placenta in vitro.

A major hurdle to using neural stem cells derived from genetically different donors to replace damaged or destroyed tissues, such as in a spinal cord injury, has been the persistent rejection of the introduced material (cells), necessitating the use of complex drugs and techniques to suppress the hosts immune response.

Earlier this year, an international team led by scientists at University of California San Diego School of Medicine successfully grafted induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural precursor cells back into the spinal cords of genetically identical adult pigs with no immunosuppression efforts. The grafted cells survived long-term, displayed differentiated functionality and caused no tumours.

The researchers also demonstrated that the same cells showed similar long-term survival in adult pigs with different genetic backgrounds after only short course use of immunosuppressive treatment once injected into injured spinal cord.

Senior author of the paper Martin Marsala, MD, professor in the Department of Anesthesiology at UC San Diego School of Medicine said: The promise of iPSCs is huge, but so too have been the challenges. In this study, weve demonstrated an alternate approach.

We took skin cells from an adult pig, an animal species with strong similarities to humans in spinal cord and central nervous system anatomy and function, reprogrammed them back to stem cells, then induced them to become neural precursor cells (NPCs), destined to become nerve cells. Because they are syngeneic genetically identical with the cell-graft recipient pig they are immunologically compatible. They grow and differentiate with no immunosuppression required.

Co-author Samuel Pfaff, PhD, professor and Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator at Salk Institute for Biological Studies, said: Using RNA sequencing and innovative bioinformatic methods to deconvolute the RNAs species-of-origin, the research team demonstrated that pig iPSC-derived neural precursors safely acquire the genetic characteristics of mature CNS tissue even after transplantation into rat brains.

NPCs were grafted into the spinal cords of syngeneic non-injured pigs with no immunosuppression finding that the cells survived and differentiated into neurons and supporting glial cells at all observed time points. The grafted neurons were detected functioning seven months after transplantation.

Then researchers grafted NPCs into genetically dissimilar pigs with chronic spinal cord injuries, followed by a transient four-week regimen of immunosuppression drugs again finding long-term cell survival and maturation.

Marsala continued: Our current experiments are focusing on generation and testing of clinical grade human iPSCs, which is the ultimate source of cells to be used in future clinical trials for treatment of spinal cord and central nervous system injuries in a syngeneic or allogeneic setting.

Because long-term post-grafting periods between one and two years are required to achieve a full grafted cells-induced treatment effect, the elimination of immunosuppressive treatment will substantially increase our chances in achieving more robust functional improvement in spinal trauma patients receiving iPSC-derived NPCs.

In our current clinical cell-replacement trials, immunosuppression is required to achieve the survival of allogeneic cell grafts. The elimination of immunosuppression requirement by using syngeneic cell grafts would represent a major step forward said co-author Joseph Ciacci, MD, a neurosurgeon at UC San Diego Health and professor of surgery at UC San Diego School of Medicine.

Other recent advancements include the advancement toward having a long-lasting repair caulk for blood vessels. A new method has been for generating endothelial cells, which make up the lining of blood vessels, from human induced pluripotent stem cells. When endothelial cells are surrounded by a supportive gel and implanted into mice with damaged blood vessels, they become part of the animals blood vessels, surviving for more than 10 months.

The research was carried out by stem cell researchers at Emory University School of Medicine and could form the basis of a treatment for peripheral artery disease, derived from a patients own cells.

Young-sup Yoon, MD, PhD, who led the team, said: We tried several different gels before finding the best one. This is the part that is my dream come true: the endothelial cells are really contributing to endogenous vessels.

When cells are implanted on their own, many of them die quickly, and the main therapeutic benefits are from growth factors they secrete. When these endothelial cells are delivered in a gel, they are protected. It takes several weeks for most of them to migrate to vessels and incorporate into them.

Other groups had done this type of thing before, but the main point is that all of the culture components we used would be compatible with clinical applications.

This research is particularly successful as previous attempts to achieve the same effect elsewhere had implanted cells lasting only a few days to weeks, using mostly adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells. The scientists also designed a gel to mimic the supportive effects of the extracellular matrix. When encapsulated by the gel, cells could survive oxidative stress inflicted by hydrogen peroxide that killed unprotected cells. The gel is biodegradable, disappearing over the course of several weeks.

The scientists tested the effects of the encapsulated cells by injecting them into mice with hindlimb ischemia (restricted blood flow in the leg), a model of peripheral artery disease.

After 4 weeks, the density of blood vessels was highest in mice implanted with gel-encapsulated endothelial cells. The mice were nude, meaning genetically immunodeficient, facilitating acceptance of human cells.

The scientists found that implanted cells produce pro-angiogenic and vasculogenic growth factors. In addition, protection by the gel augmented and prolonged the cells ability to contribute directly to blood vessels. To visualise the implanted cells, they were labelled beforehand with a red dye, while functioning blood vessels were labelled by infusing a green dye into living animals. Implanted cells incorporated into vessels, with the highest degree of incorporation occurring at 10 months.

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We Have Celeb Facialists on Speed DialThese Are the Retinol Serums They Love – Yahoo Lifestyle

By daniellenierenberg

Confession time: As a beauty editor who chats with industry-leading derms and celebrity estheticians more often than I talk to my parents (sorry, Mom and Dad!), I'm still confused about retinol. How does retinol differ from Retin-A? How and when it should be applied? Who should or shouldn't use it? Is this how Nancy Wheeler felt when she she stepped into the Upside Down for the first time? (I mean, we've all heard retinoid-related horror stories involving irritation, peeling, and the like.)

That said, at 26, I'm the exact age experts say to start using retinol, and considering my complexion is often bogged down with annoying congestion and dullness, adding the ingredient into my nightly lineup has been on my to-do list for a while now. There are tons of amazing formulas out there, and some of the best come in the form of easy-to-use serums. And since I'm lucky enough to have some of the best skin experts in the industry on speed dial, it only made sense to reach out for guidance.

From the basics on retinol to the exact serums the pros use on themselves, we have you covered. Keep scrolling for everything you ever wanted to know about retinol serums, plus the most important shopping picks to get you started.

According to celebrity esthetician Vanessa Hernandez, who has her own skincare practice in Brentwood, California, retinol is a derivative of vitamin A, and is a softer, more gentle version of Retin-A. As for its *many* benefits, it naturally exfoliates the top layer of skin, which in turn exposes a clear, glowing, more youthful complexion.

Oh, and we're not done: She tells us the buzzy ingredient can also help minimize the appearance of pores, soften fine lines, kill acne-causing bacteria, and promote cell turnover, plus it has been clinically proven to be one of the most effective products in the role of anti-aging.

As for how retinol serums are different than other retinoid-containing formulas, they don't require a prescription and are typically more gentle since they're paired with other ingredients to soothe and nourish the skin. They're also approved for daily use since they're less intense.

"Retinol serums are a great option if you are prone to congestion and breakouts since they won't have oils and will likely feel lighter on the skin in comparison to a retinol-containing cream," says Vanessa Lee, RN, founder of L.A. beauty concept bar The Things We Do.

"If you're dry and want something that feels richer on the skin and contains some kind of moisturizing ingredient, a retinol cream (versus a serum) may be a better choice for you," Lee adds. "They both aim for the same result, but the two different carriers of the retinol are suitable for different skin types. It's great to have choices!"

Biossance Squalane + Phyto-Retinol Serum ($72)

"Retinol serums should be used at night after you cleanse and before you moisturize," confirms celebrity esthetician Shani Darden. Since our skin is in repair mode overnight, that's the most beneficial time to use a retinol serum. Plus, retinol can make your skin more sensitive to the sun, so it's best to leave it for nighttime only and make sure you're wearing sunscreen during the day.

If you have extra-sensitive skin, however, heed Lee's advice and apply your retinol OVER your moisturer of choice. "I usually educate patients on putting on treatment serums directly after washing the face, but vitamin A is a strong ingredient, and it can actually penetrate through your moisturizer," she tells us. "If you're extra sensitive, you can also use your favorite facial oil a few minutes after you place your retinol on."

That said, Lee also points out that women who are pregnant or breastfeeding are advised to skip retinol, since what we put on our skin can enter our bloodstreamand, in turn, baby's. But for the most part (and as long as you tread carefully with high-quality formulas!), anyone can use retinol serums.

"Even clients with sensitive skin can benefit from retinol if used less frequently and in lower doses," she explains. "You have the control, so it's all about getting started slowly, and graduating in frequency and/or strength as you continue. I recommend my patients to start using a gentle retinol serum once to twice a week for a few weeks, and using it up to three to four times a week as tolerated."

For best results, it's also imperative to keep an eye on your skin and how it's reacting to your retinol application. They're designed to be exfoliating (that's where the glowy magic comes from!), so if you get slightly dry or irritated while the dead skin cells are being shed from the retinol use, make sure to use a soothing serum or moisturizer, or even hydrocortisone 1% as a spot treatment.

Lee assures us that this is all par for the course when using retinolwith the right T.L.C., you'll still be able to reap all the amazing benefits. Oh, and make sure to wear a good sunscreen every single day! That's non-negotiable.

"I always look to see if retinol is within the first five to seven ingredients listed, which will ensure that retinol's a priority ingredient for the product," Lee advises. "However, because retinolcan go by so many names (retinyl acetate, propionic acid, retinol, etc.), and percentage or retinol disclosure isn't required for OTC products by the FDA, it can be a bit confusing on what to look out for in the ingredients."

Lee recommends choosing a retinol serum from a company you already love and trust, and have experience with as far as products go. Since most trustworthy skincare brands have some kind of retinol formula, she recommends starting your research there, and also discussing your options with a dermatologist or esthetician.

Below, Lee, Hernandez, and Darden share the best retinol serums they use or recommend to their clients. Keep scrolling!

The Things We Do Do Over Advanced Retinol Serum 2.5% ($72)

"This is a botanical retinol serum suitable for all skin tones, and it's 98% natural," Lee shares. "Women of color are more prone to PIH, and most efficacious retinol formulas cause a bit of dryness and irritation before the pretty results of regular use set in. This retinol is strong enough to guarantee results, but is strategically paired with nourishing ingredients like hyaluronic acid, organic jojoba, vitamin E, and gotu kola for gentle delivery and lowered risk of PIH."

Shani Darden Retinol Reform ($95)

"This is a great retinol that combines with fan-favorite, lactic acid, for major brightening and is stabilized at a low PH for even deeper exfoliation," Lee says. "Lactic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid that helps with brightening the skin as well as preventing acne, so pairing this with retinol is a winning combo."

"Retinol Reform was the first product I ever released," Darden notes. "I created Retinol Reform to provide all of the benefits of a prescription retinol without any of the drawbacks. It features lactic acid to provide immediate brightening benefits and retinol for more long-term results."

Sunday Riley A+ High-Dose Retinol Serum ($85)

"This is retinol serum has a combination of CoQ10, which helps UV exposed skin, and Hawaiian white honey, which is rich in phytonutrients to help protect the skin while exfoliating," Lee tells us.

Chantecaille Retinol Intense+ ($140)

"This retinol serum is a luxe option that combines pure retinol with magnolia bark, vitamin C, and coffee for extra firming and brightening," says Lee. "Chantecaille is known for its pure, botanical-based ingredients in skincare and makeup, and this retinol is not to be skipped."

Naturopathica Retinol Renewal Concentrate ($38)

"This serum is an option for a gentle retinol that yields the power of argan plant stem cells to aid repair in the skin while retinol is hard at work at increasing cell turnover," Lee notes. "This retinol is encapsulated and is suitable for sensitive skintypes."

Shani Darden Texture Reform Gentle Resurfacing Serum ($95)

"I created Texture Reform for those with more sensitive skin," says Darden. "It features retinyl palmitate to boost cellular turnover, which will improve skin texture, and it works gradually, making it safe for sensitive skin. It also has lactic acid to gently exfoliate, aloe to soothe the skin, and niacinamide to improve skin tone."

Environ Youth Essentia Vita Peptide Eye Gel ($92)

"This eye gel has retinyl palmitate along with vitamins C and E to minimize the appearance of fine lines and boost hydration," Darden explains.

SkinMedica Age Defense Retinol Complex .25 ($62)

"MY FAV BY FAR," Hernandez raves. "This retinol is encapsulated in spheres of hyaluronic acid, making it gentle yet hydrating. It's formulated to time-release over eight hours, meaning it's penetrating more evenly into the skin, thus giving better results."

SkinCeuticals .50 Retinol ($76)

"This retinol is the next step up for someone who's been using a gentle retinol .25 or less and is ready to up their anti-aging game," says Hernandez.

Dr. Frances Prenna Jones Night Work ($175)

"Dr. Jones developedthis serum, and it's referred to as magic in a bottle," Hernandez shares. "It contains retinoic acid, vitamins, antioxidantsit's an essential all-in-one."

Tata Harper Retinoic Nutrient Face Oil With Vitamin A ($48)

"This clean nourishing face oil has 18 highly concentrated performance botanicals, vitamins, and minerals," Hernandez tells us. "It's gentle and restorative."

Paula's Choice Resist Intensive Wrinkle-Repair Retinol Serum ($42)

"I love this retinol serum because it's extremely gentle and packed with antioxidants and vitamin C," Hernandez says.

Next: Retinol Is Truly a Multipurpose IngredientHere's How to Use It

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We Have Celeb Facialists on Speed DialThese Are the Retinol Serums They Love - Yahoo Lifestyle

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New universe of miniproteins is upending cell biology and genetics – Science Magazine

By daniellenierenberg

By Mitch LeslieOct. 17, 2019 , 2:00 PM

Mice put human runners to shame. Despite taking puny strides, the rodents can log 10 kilometers or more per night on an exercise wheel. But the mice that muscle biologist Eric Olson of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas and colleagues unveiled in 2015 stood out. On a treadmill, the mice could scurry up a steep 10% grade for about 90 minutes before faltering, 31% longer than other rodents. Those iron mice differed from counterparts in just one small waythe researchers had genetically altered the animals to lack one muscle protein. That was enough to unleash superior muscle performance. "It's like you've taken the brakes off," Olson says.

Just as startling was the nature of the crucial protein. Muscles house some gargantuan proteins. Dystrophin, a structural protein whose gene can carry mutations that cause muscular dystrophy, has more than 3600 amino acids. Titin, which acts like a spring to give muscles elasticity, is the biggest known protein, with more than 34,000 amino acids. The protein disabled in the mice has a paltry 46. Although researchers have probed how muscles work for more than 150 years, they had completely missed the huge impact this tiny protein, called myoregulin, has on muscle function.

Olson and his colleagues weren't the only ones to be blindsided by Lilliputian proteins. As scientists now realize, their initial rules for analyzing genomes discriminated against identifying those pint-size molecules. Now, broader criteria and better detection methods are uncovering minuscule proteins by the thousands, not just in mice, but in many other species, including humans. "For the first time, we are about to explore this universe of new proteins," says biochemist Jonathan Weissman of the University of California, San Francisco.

Biologists are just beginning to delve into the functions of those molecules, called microproteins, micropeptides, or miniproteins. But their small size seems to allow them to jam the intricate workings of larger proteins, inhibiting some cellular processes while unleashing others. Early findings suggest microproteins bolster the immune system, control destruction of faulty RNA molecules, protect bacteria from heat and cold, dictate when plants flower, and provide the toxic punch for many types of venom. "There's probably going to be small [proteins] involved in all biological processes. We just haven't looked for them before," says biochemist Alan Saghatelian of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California.

The venom of this predatory water bug has more than a dozen small proteins.

Small proteins also promise to revise the current understanding of the genome. Many appear to be encoded in stretches of DNAand RNAthat were not thought to help build proteins of any sort. Some researchers speculate that the short stretches of DNA could be newborn genes, on their way to evolving into larger genes that make full-size proteins. Thanks in part to small proteins, "We need to rethink what genes are," says microbiologist and molecular biologist Gisela Storz of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Bethesda, Maryland.

Despite the remaining mysteries, scientists are already testing potential uses for the molecules. One company sells insecticides derived from small proteins in the poison of an Australian funnel-web spider. And a clinical trial is evaluating an imaging agent based on another minute protein in scorpion venom, designed to highlight the borders of tumors so that surgeons can remove them more precisely. Many drug companies are now searching for small proteins with medical potential, says biochemist Glenn King of the University of Queensland in St. Lucia, Australia. "It's one of the most rapidly growing areas."

Other short amino acidchains, often called peptides or polypeptides, abound in cells, but they are pared-down remnants of bigger predecessors. Myoregulin and its diminutive brethren, in contrast, are born small. How tiny they can be remains unclear. Fruit flies rely on a microprotein with 11 amino acids to grow normal legs, and some microbes may crank out proteins less than 10 amino acids long, notes microbial genomicist Ami Bhatt of Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. But even the largest small proteins don't measure up to average-size proteins such as alpha amylase, a 496amino-acid enzyme in our saliva that breaks down starch.

Few small proteins came to light until recently because of a criterion for identifying genes set about 20 years ago. When scientists analyze an organism's genome, they often scan for open reading frames (ORFs), which are DNA sequences demarcated by signals that tell the cell's ribosomes, its proteinmaking assembly lines, where to start and stop. In part to avoid a data deluge, past researchers typically excluded any ORF that would yield a protein smaller than 100 amino acids in eukaryotes or 50 amino acids in bacteria. In yeast, for example, that cutoff limited the list of ORFs to about 6000.

Relaxing that criterion reveals that cells carry vastly more ORFs. Earlier this year, Stanford postdoc Hila Sberro Livnat, Bhatt, and colleagues trawled genome fragments from the microbes that inhabit four parts of the human body, including the gut and skin. By searching for small ORFs that could encode proteins between five and 50 amino acids long, the researchers identified about 4000 families of potential microproteins. Almost half resemble no known proteins, but the sequence for one small ORF suggested that a corresponding protein resides in ribosomesa hint that it could play some fundamental role. "It's not just genes with esoteric functions that have been missed" when scientists overlooked small ORFs, Bhatt says. "It's genes with core functions."

For the first time, we are about to explore this universe of new proteins.

Other cells also house huge numbers of short ORFsyeast could make more than 260,000 molecules with between two and 99 amino acids, for example. But cells almost certainly don't use all those ORFs, and some of the amino acid strings they produce may not be functional. In 2011, after finding more than 600,000 short ORFs in the fruit fly genome, developmental geneticist Juan Pablo Couso of the University of Sussex in Brighton, U.K., and colleagues tried to whittle down the number. They reasoned that if a particular ORF had an identical or near-identical copy in a related species, it was less likely to be genomic trash. After searching another fruit fly's genome and analyzing other evidence that the sequences were being translated, the group ended up with a more manageable figure of 401 short ORFs likely to yield microproteins. That would still represent a significant fraction of the insects' protein repertoirethey harbor about 22,000 full-size proteins.

Weissman and colleagues found microproteins a second way, through a method they invented to broadly determine which proteins cells are making. To fashion any protein, a cell first copies a gene into messenger RNA. Then ribosomes read the mRNA and string together amino acids in the order it specifies. By sequencing mRNAs attached to ribosomes, Weissman and his team pinpoint which ones cells are actually turning into proteins and where on the RNAs a ribosome starts to read. In a 2011Cellstudy, he and his team applied that ribosome profiling method, also called Ribo-seq, to mouse embryonic stem cells and discovered the cells were making thousands of unexpected proteins, including many that would fall below the 100amino-acid cutoff. "It was quite clear that the standard understanding had ignored a large universe of proteins, many of which were short," Weissman says.

Saghatelian and his colleagues adopted a third approach to discover a trove of microproteins in our own cells. The researchers used mass spectrometry, which involves breaking up proteins into pieces that are sorted by mass to produce a distinctive spectrum for each protein. Saghatelian, his then-postdoc Sarah Slavoff, and colleagues applied the method to protein mixtures from human cells and then subtracted the signatures of known proteins. That approach revealed spectra for 86 previously undiscovered tiny proteins, the smallest just 18 amino acids long, the researchers reported in 2013 inNature Chemical Biology.

Being small limitsa protein's capabilities. Larger proteins fold into complex shapes suited for a particular function, such as catalyzing chemical reactions. Proteins smaller than about 50 to 60 amino acids probably don't fold, says chemist Julio Camarero of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. So they probably aren't suited to be enzymes or structural proteins.

However, their diminutive size also opens up opportunities. "They are tiny enough to fit into nooks and crannies of larger proteins that function as channels and receptors," Olson says. Small proteins often share short stretches of amino acids with their larger partners and can therefore bind to and alter the activity of those proteins. Bound microproteins can also shepherd bigger molecules to new locationshelping them slip into cell membranes, for instance.

A microprotein in the poison of the deathstalker scorpion has been fused to a fluorescent dye to make tumors emit near-infrared light. (1) A tumor seen in visible light (2)Same tumor in visible and near-infrared light

Because of their attraction to larger proteins, small proteins may give cells a reversible way to switch larger proteins on or off. In a 2016 study inPLOS Genetics, plant developmental biologist Stephan Wenkel of the University of Copenhagen and colleagues genetically alteredArabidopsisplants to produce extra amounts of two small proteins. The plants normally burst into flower when the days are long enough, but when they overproduced the two microproteins, their flowering was postponed. The small proteins caused that delay by blocking a hefty protein called CONSTANS that triggers flowering. They tether CONSTANS to other inhibitory proteins that shut it down. "A cell uses things that help it survive. If a short protein does the job, that's fine," Saghatelian says.

Those jobs include other key tasks. In 2016, Slavoff, Saghatelian, and colleagues revealed that human cells manufacture a 68amino-acid protein they named NoBody that may help manage destruction of faulty or unneeded mRNA molecules. NoBody's name reflects its role in preventing formation of processing bodies (P-bodies), mysterious clusters in the cytoplasm where RNA breakdown may occur. When the protein is missing, more P-bodies form, thus boosting RNA destruction and altering the cell's internal structure. "It shows that small proteins can have massive effects in the cell," Slavoff says.

Muscles appear to depend on a variety of microproteins. During embryonic development, individual muscle cells merge into fibers that power contraction. The 84amino-acid protein myomixer teams up with a larger protein to bring the cells together, Olson's team reported in 2017 inScience. Without it, embryonic mice can't form muscles and are almost transparent.

Later in life, myoregulin steps in to help regulate muscle activity. When a muscle receives a stimulus, cellular storage depots spill calcium, triggering the fibers to contract and generate force. An ion pump called SERCA then starts to return the calcium to storage, allowing the muscle fibers to relax. Myoregulin binds to and inhibits SERCA, Olson's team found. The effect limits how often a mouse's muscles can contractperhaps ensuring that the animal has muscle power in reserve for an emergency, such as escaping a predator. Another small protein, DWORF, has the opposite effect, unleashing SERCA and enabling the muscle to contract repeatedly.

Even extensively studied organisms such as the intestinal bacteriumEscherichia coliharbor unexpected small proteins that have important functions. Storz and her team reported in 2012 that a previously undiscovered 49amino-acid protein called AcrZ helps the microbe survive some antibiotics by stimulating a pump that expels the drugs.

And the venom produced by a variety of organismsincluding spiders, centipedes, scorpions, and poisonous mollusksteems with tiny proteins. Many venom components disable or kill by blocking the channels for sodium or other ions that are necessary for transmission of nerve impulses. Small proteins "hit these ion channels with amazing specificity and potency," King says. "They are the major components of venoms and are responsible for most of the pharmacological and biological effects."

Australia's giant fish-killing water bug, for instance, doesn't just rely on sharp claws and lancelike mouthparts to subdue prey. It injects its victims with a brew of more than 130 proteins, 15 of which have fewer than 100 amino acids, King and colleagues reported last year.

Unlike hulking proteinssuch as antibodies, microproteins delivered by pill or injection may be able to slip into cells and alter their functions. Captopril, the first of a class of drugs for high blood pressure known as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was developed from a small protein in the venom of a Brazilian pit viper. But the drug, which the Food and Drug Administration approved for sale in the United States in 1981, was discovered by chance, before scientists recognized small proteins as a distinct group. So far, only a few microproteins have reached the market or clinical trials.

Cancer researchers are trying to capitalize on a microprotein in the poison of the deathstalker scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) of Africa and the Middle East. The molecule has a mysterious attraction to tumors. By fusing it to a fluorescent dye, scientists hope to illuminate the borders of brain tumors so that surgeons can safely cut out the cancerous tissue. "It lights up the tumor. You can see the margins and if there are any metastases," King says. A clinical trial is now evaluating whether the dual molecule can help surgeons remove brain tumors in children.

How important small proteins will be for medicine is still unknown, but they have already upended several biological assumptions. Geneticist Norbert Hbner of the Max Delbrck Center for Molecular Medicine in Berlin and colleagues found dozens of new microproteins in human heart cells. The group traced them to an unexpected source: short sequences within long noncoding RNAs, a variety that was thought not to produce proteins. After identifying 169 long noncoding RNAs that were probably being read by ribosomes, Hbner and his team used a type of mass spectrometry to confirm that more than half of them yielded microproteins in heart cells, a result reported earlier this year inCell.

Bacteria such as Escherichia coli also churn out many microproteins, although their functions remain unclear in many cases.

The DNA sequences for other tiny proteins also occur in unconventional locations. For example, some lie near the ORFs for bigger proteins. Researchers previously thought those sequences helped manage the production of the larger proteins, but rarely gave rise to proteins themselves. Some coding sequences for recently discovered microproteins are even nested within sequences that encode other, longer proteins.

Those genomic surprises could illuminate how new genes arise, says evolutionary systems biologist Anne-Ruxandra Carvunis of the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. Researchers had thought most new genes emerge when existing genes duplicate or fuse, or when species swap DNA. But to Carvunis, microproteins suggest protogenes can form when mutations create new start and stop signals in a noncoding portion of the genome. If the resulting ORF produces a beneficial protein, the novel sequences would remain in the genome and undergo natural selection, eventually evolving into larger genes that code for more complex proteins.

In a 2012 study, Carvunis, who was then a postdoc in the lab of Marc Vidal at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, and colleagues found that yeast translate more than 1000 short ORFs into proteins, implying that these sequences are protogenes. In a new study, Carvunis and her team tested whether young ORFs can be advantageous for cells. They genetically altered yeast to boost output of 285 recently evolved ORFs, most of which code for molecules that are smaller than the standard protein cutoff or just over it. For almost 10% of the proteins, increasing their levels enhanced cell growth in at least one environment. The results, posted on the preprint server bioRxiv, suggest these sequences could be on their way to becoming full-fledged genes, Carvunis says.

Slavoff still recalls being astonished when, during her interview for a postdoc position with Saghatelian, he asked whether she would be willing to go hunting for small proteins. "I had never thought that there could be this whole size of proteins that was dark to us until then."

But the bet paid offshe now runs her own lab that is searching for microproteins. Recently, she unleashed some of her postdocs and graduate students on one of the most studied organisms, the K12 strain ofE. coli.The team soon uncovered five new microproteins. "We are probably only scratching the surface," she says.

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Artificial embryo without sperm or egg forms live fetus – ZME Science

By daniellenierenberg

For the very first time, scientists have made artificial embryos from scratch, without sperm or egg, and implanted them into female mice. The embryos developed into live fetuses, but these exhibited major malformations.

The team at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center used extended pluripotent stem cells, which are cells that have the potential, like an embryo, to develop into any type of tissue in the body. These master cells are able to form all three major types of cell groups (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm). Unlike simple pluripotent stem cells, the extended variety can develop into tissues that support the embryo, such as the placenta.Without this type of stem cells, embryos cannot develop and grow properly.

The researchers coaxed stem cells to form into all the cells required for the development of an embryo by bathing them into a solution made of nutrients, growth stimulants, and signaling molecules. The cells assembled into embryo-like structures, including placental tissue.

Next, the artificial embryos were implanted into the uteruses of female mice. Only 7% of the implants were successful but those embryos that did work actually started developing early fetal structures. There were major malformations, however, as the tissue structure and organization did not closely resemble that of a normal embryo.

Previously, other research groups had managed to grow artificial embryos but this was the first time that they were successfully implanted and developed placental cells.

In the future, the University of Texas researchers plan on refining their method in order to grow fetuses that are indistinguishable from normal ones. The goal is to replace real embryos and make artificial ones at scale. These embryo models could then be grown in dishes to study early mammalian development and accelerate drug development.

Some of the cells that the researchers used to grow into embryos originally came from the ear of a mouse. Theoretically, the same should be possible for human embryos, but why would we? Besides testing drugs, artificial embryos could be grown from the skin cells of an infertile person. Then, in the lab, these embryos could be studied in order to identify potential genetic defects that might cause infertility.

Even if such stem cell-derived embryos do not completely mimic normal embryo growth, there is still a lot we can learn about mammalian development. But, as is always the case with research that breaks the frontiers of what was once thought possible, our policies havent yet kept up with advances. There are serious ethical considerations to possibly making a person from a synthetic embryo. Although such a prospect is still science fiction, rapid developments such as the present study suggest that it is not impossible and we better prepare.

The findings were reported in the journal Cell.

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UCLA opens CAR T-cell trial focused on the most common types of lymphoma, leukemia – The Cancer Letter Publications

By daniellenierenberg

publication date: Oct. 18, 2019

The UCLA Jonsson Comprehensine Cancer Center has launched a CAR T-cell immunotherapy trialthat will attack cancer cells by simultaneously recognizing two targetsCD19 and CD20that are expressed on B-cell lymphoma and leukemia.

By launching a bilateral attack instead of using the conventional single-target approach, researchers are hoping to minimize resistance and increase the life expectancy for people diagnosed with these cancers.

One of the reasons CAR T cell therapy can stop working in patients is because the cancer cells escape from therapy by losing the antigen CD19, which is what the CAR T cells are engineered to target, Sarah Larson, a health sciences clinical instructor in hematology/oncology at UCLA Health and the principal investigator on the trial, said in a statement One way to keep the CAR T cells working is to have more than one antigen to target. So, by using both CD19 and CD20, the thought is that it will be more effective and prevent the loss of the antigen, which is known as antigen escape, one of the common mechanisms of resistance.

Up to two-thirds of the patients who experience relapse after being treated with the FDA-approved CD19 CAR T-cell therapy develop tumors that have lost CD19 expression. UCLA researchers are identifying and testing new strategies like this one so many more patients can benefit from the therapy.

In preclinical studiesled byYvonne Chen, an associate professor of microbiology, immunology, and molecular genetics at UCLA and the sponsor of the trial, the team was able to show that by simultaneously attacking two targets, the engineered T cells developed in her lab could achieve a much more robust defense compared to conventional, single-target CAR T cells against tumors in mice.

Chens team designed the CARs based on the molecular understanding of the CARs architecture, the antigen structure and the CAR/antigen binding interaction to achieve optimal T cell function. This design helps the T cells have dual-antigen recognition to help prevent antigen escape.

Based on these results, were quite optimistic that the bispecific CAR can achieve therapeutic improvement over the single-input CD19 CAR thats currently available, said Chen, who is also the co-director of the Jonsson Cancer Centers Tumor Immunology Program and a member of the UCLA Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research.

This first-in-humans study will evaluate the therapy in patients with non-Hodgkins B-cell lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia that has come back or has not responded to treatment. The goal is to determine a safe therapeutic dose.

Patients enrolled in the trial will have their white blood cells (T cells) collected intravenously then reengineered in the laboratory so the T cells can produce tumor-specific receptors (CARs), which allow the T cells to recognize and attack the CD19 and CD20 proteins on the surface of tumor cells. The new smarter and stronger T cells are then infused back into the patient and primed to recognize and kill cancer cells.

The trial is currently only offered at UCLA.

Results from STELLAR trial in MPM published in The Lancet Oncology

Novocure said the results from the STELLAR trial were published inThe Lancet Oncology.

The STELLAR trial was a prospective, single-arm trial including 80 patients that studied the use of Tumor Treating Fields, delivered via the NovoTTF-100L System, in combination with pemetrexed plus cisplatin/carboplatin as a first-line treatment for patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Data showed a median overall survival of 18.2 months (95 percent CI, 12.1 months-25.8 months) for patients treated with NovoTTF-100L and pemetrexed plus cisplatin or carboplatin. One- and two-year survival rates were 62.2 percent (95 percent CI, 50.3 percent-72.0 percent) and 41.9 percent (95 percent CI, 28.0 percent-55.2 percent), respectively. No serious systemic adverse events were considered to be related to the use of NovoTTF-100L. The most common mild to moderate adverse event was skin irritation beneath the transducer arrays.

The STELLAR trial demonstrated encouraging overall survival results with no increase in systemic toxicity observed in MPM patients treated with Tumor Treating Fields and standard chemotherapy, Giovanni Luca Ceresoli, head of pulmonary oncology at the Humanitas Gavazzeni Hospital in Bergamo, Italy, and principal investigator in the STELLAR trial, said in a statement. The median overall survival of 18.2 months is impressive given that MPM is a tumor with a dismal prognosis and few effective therapeutic options.

Median progression free survival was 7.6 months (95 percent CI, 6.7 percent-8.6 percent) for patients treated with NovoTTF-100L and pemetrexed plus cisplatin or carboplatin. There was a 97 percent disease control rate in patients with at least one follow-up CT scan performed (n=72). 40 percent of patients had a partial response, 57 percent had stable disease and 3 percent had progressive disease.

IASLC invites comments on Multidisciplinary Recommendations for Pathologic Assessment of Lung Cancer Resection Specimens Following Neoadjuvant Therapy

The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer announced an open comment period for the IASLC Multidisciplinary Recommendations for Pathologic Assessment of Lung Cancer Resection Specimens Following Neoadjuvant Therapy paper.

The paper has been made available hereto provide an opportunity for public review of new draft recommendations. The open comment period runs from Oct. 14 to Nov. 7.

With the recent growing number of neoadjuvant therapy clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer, there is a great need for standardization of specimen processing since major pathologic response has consistently been shown to be an important prognostic indicator.

The purpose of the paper is to outline detailed recommendations on how to process lung cancer resection specimens and to define pathologic complete response including major pathologic response and pathologic complete response following neoadjuvant therapy.

Currently there is no established guidance on how to process and evaluate resected lung cancer specimens following neoadjuvant therapy in the setting of clinical trials and clinical practice, Giorgio Scagliotti, past president of the IASLC and co-author of the paper, said in a statement. There is also a lack of precise definitions on the degree of pathologic response, including MPR or pCR.

IASLC is making an effort to collect such data from existing and future clinical trials. These recommendations are intended as guidance for clinical trials, although it is hoped they can be viewed as suggestions for good clinical practice outside of clinical trials, to improve consistency of pathologic assessment of treatment response.

The recommendations were developed by the IASLC Pathology Committee in collaboration with an international multidisciplinary group of experts in medical oncology, thoracic surgery and radiology.

We are crossing an exciting period of preclinical and clinical research around thoracic oncology. Targeted therapies and immunotherapy have greatly improved survival expectations in advanced disease and we believe they can equally generate benefit in the systemic therapy of earlier stages of the disease, Scagliotti said in a statement. Our initiative aims to use rigorous experimental conditions to analyze tissue specimens, collected in the context of already performed or ongoing neoadjuvant studies with targeted therapies and immunotherapy, to generate a diagnostic algorithm to be used in all subsequent studies in order to accelerate the scientific information about the clinical benefit produced by the neoadjuvant approach.

Expert second opinion improves reliability of melanoma diagnoses

Getting a reliable diagnosis of melanoma can be a significant challenge for pathologists.The diagnosis relies on a pathologists visual assessment of biopsy material on microscopic slides, which can often be subjective.

Of all pathology fields, analyzing biopsies for skin lesions and cancers has one of the highest rates of diagnostic errors, which can affect millions of people each year.

Now, a study led by UCLA researchers, has found that obtaining a second opinion from pathologists who are board certified or have fellowship training in dermatopathology can help improve the accuracy and reliability of diagnosing melanoma, one of the deadliest and most aggressive forms of skin cancer.

A diagnosis is the building block on which all other medical treatment is based,Joann Elmore, a professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and researcher at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, said in a statement.All patients deserve an accurate diagnosis. Unfortunately the evaluation and diagnosis of skin biopsy specimens is challenging with a lot of variability among physicians.

In the study, led by Elmore and colleagues, the value of a second opinion by general pathologists and dermatopathologists were evaluated to see if it helped improve thecorrect diagnostic classification.

To evaluate the impact of obtaining second opinions, the team used samples from the Melanoma Pathology Study, which comprises of 240 skin biopsy lesion samples. Among the 187 pathologists who examined the cases, 113 were general pathologists and 74 were dermatopathologists.

The team studied misclassification rates, which is how often the diagnoses of practicing US pathologists disagreed with a consensus reference diagnosis of three pathologists who had extensive experience in evaluating melanocytic lesions. The team found that the misclassification of these lesions yielded the lowest rates when first, second and third reviewers were sub-specialty trained dermatopathologists. Misclassification was the highest when reviewers were all general pathologists who lacked the subspecialty training.

Our results show having a second opinion by an expert with subspecialty training provides value in improving theaccuracy of thediagnosis, which is imperative to helpguide patients to the most effective treatments, said Elmore, whois also the director of the UCLA National Clinician Scholars Program.

Elmore is now studying the potential impact of computer machine learning as a tool to improve diagnostic accuracy. She is partnering with computer scientists who specialize in computer visualization of complex image information, as well as leading pathologists around the globe to develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based diagnostic system.

Michael Piepkorn of the University of Washington School of Medicine is the studys first author. Raymond Barnhill of the Institut Curie is the co-senior author.

The study was published in JAMA Network Open and supported by NCI.

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The Best Fruit-Based Skincare Products You Need This Season – Men’s Journal

By daniellenierenberg

All-natural grooming product labels are starting to read like grocery shopping lists. Thats because fruit is more than a healthy snack. Many of them possess skin-saving properties that eliminate the need for lab-made chemicals. Heres what were slathering on.

(1) Brandless Avocado Basil Hand Cream ($4) rejuvenates dry paws with a blend of avocado (yes, its a fruit) and almond oils, plus shea butter.

(2) Citrus is a natural stimulant, so a swipe of Way of Will 02 Lime + Black Spruce Deodorant ($13) perks you up, while geranium extract nixes body odor.

(3) For city dwellers, Malin+Goetz Advanced Renewal Moisturizer ($76) uses antioxidant-rich apple stem cells to protect the face from urban grime.

(4) Cold-pressed oils from apricot kernels, sunflower seeds, sage leaves, and more in Caldera Labs The Good Serum ($97) are so moisturizing that a few drops can sub in for face lotion. Use twice daily to help with fine lines, too.

(5) Nondrying Ye Ol Goat Soap Lemon + Verbena ($14) mixes olive oil and goat milkfor skin elasticitywith antibacterial citrus extract.

(6) Lucky Bastard Co. Premium Lip Balm ($8) combines fruit oils (coconut, avocado, raspberry seed) with beeswax to create a hydrating seal. And the flat slider container wont bulk up your front pocket.

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Incyte Announces that the REACH2 Pivotal Trial of Ruxolitinib (Jakafi) Meets Primary Endpoint in Patients with Steroid-Refractory Acute…

By daniellenierenberg

WILMINGTON, Del.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Incyte Corporation (Nasdaq:INCY) today announced positive results from the Novartis-sponsored pivotal Phase 3 REACH2 study evaluating ruxolitinib (Jakafi) in patients with steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The study met its primary endpoint of improving overall response rate (ORR) at Day 28 with ruxolitinib treatment compared to best available therapy. No new safety signals were observed, and the ruxolitinib safety profile in REACH2 was consistent with that seen in previously reported studies in steroid-refractory acute GVHD.

Further analysis of the safety and efficacy data is ongoing. Novartis expects to initiate discussions with ex-U.S. regulatory authorities in 2020, and to submit REACH2 results for presentation at an upcoming scientific meeting.

GVHD is a challenging and serious disease, and physicians around the world need access to therapies that can improve outcomes for patients, said Peter Langmuir, M.D., Group Vice President, Targeted Therapies, Incyte. This positive result of the REACH2 study is excellent news for patients as it further reinforces the potential of ruxolitinib as a treatment option that can provide meaningful results for patients with steroid-refractory acute GVHD.

GVHD is a condition that can occur after an allogeneic transplant (the transfer of stem cells from a donor) where the donated cells initiate an immune response and attack the transplant recipients organs, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. There are two major forms of GVHD, acute and chronic, that can affect multiple organ systems including the skin, gastrointestinal (digestive) tract and liver.

Earlier this year, Jakafi was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of steroid-refractory acute GVHD in adult and pediatric patients 12 years and older based on results of the REACH1 trial. Jakafi is marketed by Incyte in the U.S.; ruxolitinib (Jakavi) is licensed to Novartis ex-U.S.

In addition, the pivotal REACH3 trial evaluating ruxolitinib in patients with steroid-refractory chronic GVHD is ongoing. A recent interim efficacy and safety analysis conducted by an Independent Data Monitoring Committee has recommended that REACH3, which is co-sponsored by Incyte and Novartis, should continue without modification. The results of the REACH3 trial are expected to be available in 2020.

About REACH2

REACH2 (NCT02913261) is a randomized, open-label, multicenter Phase 3 study sponsored by Novartis, evaluating safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib compared with best available therapy in patients with steroid-refractory acute GVHD.

The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) at Day 28, defined as the proportion of patients demonstrating a best overall response (complete response or partial response). Secondary endpoints include durable ORR at Day 56, ORR at Day 14, duration of response, overall survival and event-free survival, among others. For more information about the study, please visit https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02913261.

About REACH

The REACH clinical trial program is evaluating Jakafi in patients with steroid-refractory GVHD and includes the collaborative Novartis-sponsored randomized pivotal Phase 3 trials: REACH2 and REACH3. The ongoing REACH3 trial is evaluating patients with steroid-refractory chronic GVHD with results expected next year. For more information about the REACH3 study, please visit https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03112603.

The REACH program was initiated with the Incyte-sponsored REACH1 trial, a prospective, open-label, single-cohort, multicenter, pivotal Phase 2 trial (NCT02953678) evaluating Jakafi in combination with corticosteroids in patients with steroid-refractory grade II-IV acute GVHD. For more information about the study, including trial results, please visit https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02953678.

About Jakafi (ruxolitinib)

Jakafi is a first-in-class JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor approved by the U.S. FDA for treatment of steroid-refractory acute GVHD in adult and pediatric patients 12 years and older.

Jakafi is also indicated for treatment of polycythemia vera (PV) in adults who have had an inadequate response to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea as well as adults with intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis (MF), including primary MF, post-polycythemia vera MF and post-essential thrombocythemia MF.

Jakafi is marketed by Incyte in the United States and by Novartis as Jakavi (ruxolitinib) outside the United States. Jakafi is a registered trademark of Incyte Corporation. Jakavi is a registered trademark of Novartis AG in countries outside the United States.

Important Safety Information

Jakafi can cause serious side effects, including:

Low blood counts: Jakafi (ruxolitinib) may cause your platelet, red blood cell, or white blood cell counts to be lowered. If you develop bleeding, stop taking Jakafi and call your healthcare provider. Your healthcare provider will perform blood tests to check your blood counts before you start Jakafi and regularly during your treatment. Your healthcare provider may change your dose of Jakafi or stop your treatment based on the results of your blood tests. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you develop or have worsening symptoms such as unusual bleeding, bruising, tiredness, shortness of breath, or a fever.

Infection: You may be at risk for developing a serious infection during treatment with Jakafi. Tell your healthcare provider if you develop any of the following symptoms of infection: chills, nausea, vomiting, aches, weakness, fever, painful skin rash or blisters.

Skin cancers: Some people who take Jakafi have developed certain types of non-melanoma skin cancers. Tell your healthcare provider if you develop any new or changing skin lesions.

Increases in cholesterol: You may have changes in your blood cholesterol levels. Your healthcare provider will do blood tests to check your cholesterol levels during your treatment with Jakafi.

The most common side effects of Jakafi include: for certain types of MF and PV - low platelet count, low red blood cell count, bruising, dizziness, and headache; and for acute GVHD low red blood cell counts, low platelet counts, low white blood cell counts, infections and fluid retention.

These are not all the possible side effects of Jakafi. Ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for more information. Tell your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.

Before taking Jakafi, tell your healthcare provider about: all the medications, vitamins, and herbal supplements you are taking and all your medical conditions, including if you have an infection, have or had tuberculosis (TB), or have been in close contact with someone who has TB, have or had hepatitis B, have or had liver or kidney problems, are on dialysis, have a high level of fat in your blood (high blood cholesterol or triglycerides), had skin cancer or have any other medical condition. Take Jakafi exactly as your healthcare provider tells you. Do not change or stop taking Jakafi without first talking to your healthcare provider.

Women should not take Jakafi while pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Do not breast-feed during treatment with Jakafi and for 2 weeks after the final dose.

Full Prescribing Information, which includes a more complete discussion of the risks associated with Jakafi, is available at http://www.jakafi.com.

About Incyte

Incyte Corporation is a Wilmington, Delaware-based biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of proprietary therapeutics. For additional information on Incyte, please visit the Companys website at http://www.incyte.com.

Follow @Incyte on Twitter at https://twitter.com/Incyte.

Forward Looking Statements

Except for the historical information set forth herein, the matters set forth in this press release, including statements regarding whether and when the REACH2 data will be presented, when results from the REACH3 study will be available, and the effect of the REACH2 results on patients with GVHD, contain predictions, estimates and other forward-looking statements.

These forward-looking statements are based on the Companys current expectations and subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially, including unanticipated developments in and risks related to: unanticipated delays; further research and development and the results of clinical trials possibly being unsuccessful or insufficient to meet applicable regulatory standards or warrant continued development; the ability to enroll sufficient numbers of subjects in clinical trials; determinations made by the FDA; the Companys dependence on its relationships with its collaboration partners; the efficacy or safety of the Companys products and the products of the Companys collaboration partners; the acceptance of the Companys products and the products of the Companys collaboration partners in the marketplace; market competition; sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution requirements; greater than expected expenses; expenses relating to litigation or strategic activities; and other risks detailed from time to time in the Companys reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including its Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2019. The Company disclaims any intent or obligation to update these forward-looking statements.

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Dr. Raj & Stem Cell Therapy Innovation – LATF USA

By daniellenierenberg

For anyone who has had hip replacement surgery, Im sure they will agree that it is better to get hit by a bus than to undergo another one. Last year after several years of suffering, I decided to take the leap and go for the hip replacement that my specialist recommended. I was told that it was a common surgery and that it was the best solution for me. Between us; it was probably the most painful thing I have ever gone through. So much so, that at the time, I just wanted to die. Not only did the pain persist for several weeks after the operation, but I was on painkillers for days, which eventually added to my suffering. I had to use a walker for the first 2 weeks and then depended on a cane for over 2 months before I could walk on my own.

My entire demeanor changed, as well as the way I dealt with what once were minor things in life. I feared slipping in the shower, going down the stairs or walking my dogs. No one had prepared me for this. Ive had my share of surgeries including a double mastectomy when I was diagnosed with breast cancer but pain wise; this one was by far the worse. I was hoping after a very long recovery that I would never have to face this situation again. Unfortunately, a year later, I am starting to feel pain on the other side and dread the re-experience of my nightmare.

Although, I heard about Stem Cell, I did not know much about it. So I started to investigate for myself, speak to people, enquire about the procedure and look for a doctor in my area who specialized in Stem Cell. I was willing to do just about anything before considering another hip replacement. After extensive research, I came across Dr. Raj, a Double-Board Certified Orthopedic doctor in Beverly Hills, CA. Going to his website; I learned that he has been in private practice for 10 years. He has been named as one of Americas Top Orthopedists, been featured on the Best of LA and has received numerous other accolades and awards as one of the Top Orthopedic doctors. Providing the ultimate in state-of-the-art orthopedic care, Dr. Rajs practice is always on the cutting-edge of surgical and nonsurgical technologies, such as PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma) injections, stem cell injections for tendinitis and arthritis, minimally invasive surgery and more.

He is Board Certified as a Medical Legal Specialist in America, as well as, Canada and Dubai (Trial, Testimony, Deposition, IME) with a Subspecialty in Hip and Knee Surgery in Los Angeles, including Sports Surgeries.

He is also an Undergraduate from Dalhousie University in Halifax and Canada. He pursued his medical education at Memorial University PGME, before doing his internship and residency in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery. Now that I had found Dr. Raj, all I needed was to get myself educated. So lets start by what are stem cells? This is what I read: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), commonly called stem cells, are precursor cells that havent decided yet what they are going to be in the body. They can differentiate into multiple forms including bone, cartilage, fat and other connective tissues. They play a significant role in the reparative processes throughout the human body.

Where do we find stem cells?

They may be harnessed from fat tissue, bone marrow, synovial tissue or umbilical cord tissue. While stem cell therapy is a promising technology, there is much we are still learning about the causes and pathways that lead to symptomatic osteoarthritis. We have not optimized the factors found in stem cell therapies. To be sure, only the good cells and growth factors are injected into a specific joint. And that is why further research is necessary before being approved by the FDA.

My next move would be to consult with Dr. Raj who would tell me the medical truth, beginning with this question:

What is the current state of Stem Cells and its success rate?

It's relatively new. It's been popular for about 20 years, internationally. In areas like Germany and Korea, it was utilized a lot more. It became popular here when athletes like Kobe Bryant started going to Germany for modified versions of PRP, which led on to regenerative technologies. We have a stigma correlating stem cells with abortions and issues like that. This in itself is completely different. We are not utilizing amniotic stem cells or placenta stem cells. We're utilizing your own stem cells. For issues such as a hip replacement, the most powerful stem cells are the ones in your body. Bone marrow stem cells work well on joints. Joints have zero blood supply. So, if God or the higher power created us where we had blood supply going through our joints, like a cut in our skin - we would constantly replenish or repair. A break in our bone would repair. If you get stem cells and you're in decent enough shape, you will heal no matter what because these stem cells will deposit. Will you heal straight? Probably not - that's where we come into play.

The reason why joints; hips, knees and shoulders degenerate is because there is no blood supply. So, if you have a cut or a loss of cartilage, it stays like that and accumulates overtime. The only way you can control it is externally. You get stronger, you lose weight and you increase your range of motion. But you can't control anything internally.

So regenerative technology is basically utilizing these cells to regenerate cartilage and repair. These are the same cells that flow through our body - and upon signal of an injury will heal skin to skin, bone to bone, tendon to tendon, muscle to muscle. Our joints are just an alcove of joint fluid and no blood supply. The whole concept is - throughout the years, we did steroid injections - they're like band aids. Basically they mask pain. What does masking pain do? It propagates injury. Because we put the band aid on, we don't feel it and we do more. We take this little cut or loss of cartilage and we make it even more over time.

Why is it that specialists do not recommend seeing a surgeon at a certain stage?

There are a lot of people who think one way and everyone is entitled to their own opinions. You can't change opinions.

Are people afraid of stem cells?

Some people are afraid because of stem cells causing cancer. But that's embryonic stem cells.

What is the process?

Bone marrow stem cells are the best because there is a higher chance of live stem cells. Less manipulation, meaning that - in a Mayo Clinic study 4 or 5 years ago, which has a two year follow through on people who are ready to get replacements for joint or knee - they had an 80% success rate where they didn't need it. I do replacements and I do stem cells.

How do you determine what's better for the patient?

My knowledge and years of experience. Also, my knowledge with fitness and being athletic myself. Understanding at a certain point, someone is mechanically compromised. Bone on bone is a term that's been used for years. There are a lot of people who think they are 'bone on bone." Coming from Canada, the US is notorious for doing unnecessary surgeries and replacements. It's the highest rate of replacements in the world. I do not like the term 'bone on bone' because a surgeon will look at an x-ray and say you're bone on bone because that's all they do: replacements. They become a 7-11 or 99 Cents store, lining up 21 people a day. That's not the right way to do things. You don't want to be one of those 21 people getting a replacement because you're not getting that surgeon's full attention. The reality is - you have a PA or an old plastic surgeon who's doing most of your surgery and there is more likelihood of issues. Amongst every specialty there is a lot of ignorance. The whole concept is - you preserve what you have for as long as you can. You have beauty on the outside; you need beauty on the inside too. What's beauty on the inside? Feeling good, you're less inflamed and your joints are healthy.

How does it work with a stem cell procedure?

I extract bone marrow from your pelvis. Take approximately 6 ccs. Under slight sedation, it takes about 5 minutes to take it. Then we separate it via an FDA approved technique. Per FDA, we cannot add anything to it, nor would I want to. We cannot harvest it because the longer it's outside of the body, the better it is. Basically, we then inject those pure cells right away into the joint. It's a four month process for an 80% of regeneration. So, it's not just reduction of inflammation, it's regeneration. It will be a year for a 100% effect. I've had probably about 20% of patients who have taken 6 months+. I've had over a 95% success rate with this technology.

Are you one of the only doctors doing this in LA?

I'm one of them. There are some family and pain management doctors who are doing it. I'm the only Orthopedic surgeon doing it. I'm sure different practitioners are starting to.

Dr. Raj and patient Paula Abdul

How often do you do the stem cell procedure?

You do it one time. It's a powerful injection and there are people Ihave 6 years out who are doing well.

Does it hurt after the fact?

No, not at all. You can walk and move. For example, with your hip - I would combine it with physical therapy to increase your range of motion. Once you have the anti-inflammatory effect, you have to take advantage of it. If you don't increase your range of motion - what happens is - you're walking on one nail vs. 100 nails. You want to dissipate the force over a greater area so that there's a higher chance of external success. Then you strengthen the muscles.

Are there people who are not good candidates for it?

Yes, when it's too far gone. Like I said, people are told they're bone on bone when they're not. They show you different views. It's a marketing gimmick. That person is lined up and ready to sell. Age is relative. There's physiologic age. It really depends on the person. Hypothetically, if you're an inflamed mess, a drinker and abusive to your body, then nothing is going to work. If you take care of yourself and you're motivated with the right protoplasm, then it's going to work.

What about the skeptics or the ones who think it's bad for you?

Don't get me wrong; amniotic stem cells are good for certain situations. Embryonic is bad. It means that it's too far gone. You want live stem cells in an area that does not have blood supply. The data is out there. How can you argue against a Mayo Clinic study with an 80% success rate? How can you argue against the hospitals for special surgery in New York that's doing it, or the Steadman Hawkins Clinic, I'm doing it. Top facilities in the world are doing it and a number of top athletes who are getting it done with success rates. Who's ignorant? Is it that one surgeon or everyone else?

Does insurance cover it?

No, not yet. Insurances are very backwards in terms of their understanding. They would rather cover a replacement.

Is it expensive?

If you break it down par and par and avoid a replacement, not really. On average, you're talking about $7,000, versus hospital, surgeon, facility fees+++,which can be about $25,000.

You're very progressive.

There are a lot of things that I do to try and reduce pain significantly.When I use screws, I use screws that are made out of calcium so they dissolve in your body. Some of my colleagues use tourniquet, I don't use one. I control bleeding and do it in less than an hour. The whole concept is, you don't have atourniquetsqueezing your leg and toxins causing significant pain.

And there you have it. Everything is a risk in life, we do not know if we will wake up tomorrow or if you will get hit by a car and so on so why not try this procedure. I believe that I am lucky enough to have met Dr. Raj. I have taken the decision to undergo the stem cells therapy FDA approved or not, anything before going under the knife one more time. Stay tuned, I will give you a report on the progress.

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Racial Disparities In NIH R01 Funding May Be Partly Caused By Topic Choice : Shots – Health News – NPR

By daniellenierenberg

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Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market 2019: Industry Analysis and Detailed Profiles of Top Industry Players LOral, Unilever, New Avon Company, Este Lauder…

By daniellenierenberg

Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global market and includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in the market. It intends to supply an entire 360-degree perspective of this market concerning cutting edge technology, key advancement, drivers and restraints and prospective trends with impact analysis. This study also analyzes the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risk and entry barriers. This Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market report presents the market competitive landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the major vendor/key players in the market.

Global cosmetic skin care market is set to witness a substantial CAGR of 5.5% in the forecast period of 2019- 2026. The report contains data of the base year 2018 and historic year 2017. Increasing self-consciousness among population and rising demand for anti- aging skin care products are the factor for the market growth.

Key Market Competitors:

Few of the major competitors currently working in the global cosmetic skin care market are LOral, Unilever, New Avon Company, Este Lauder Companies, Espa, Kao Corporation, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Procter & Gamble, Beiersdorf, THE BODY SHOP INTERNATIONAL LIMITED, Shiseido Co.,Ltd., Coty Inc., Bo International, A One Cosmetics Products, Lancme, Clinique Laboratories, llc., Galderma Laboratories, L.P., AVON Beauty Products India Pvt Ltd, Nutriglow Cosmetics Pvt. Ltd, Shree Cosmetics Ltd among others.

Market Definition:

Cosmetic skin care is a variety of products which are used to improve the skins appearance and alleviate skin conditions. It consists different products such as anti- aging cosmetic products, sensitive skin care products, anti- scar solution products, warts removal products, infant skin care products and other. They contain various ingredients which are beneficial for the skin such as phytochemicals, vitamins, essential oils, and other. Their main function is to make the skin healthy and repair the skin damages.

Segmentation:Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market

Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market By Product (Anti-Aging Cosmetic Products, Skin Whitening Cosmetic Products, Sensitive Skin Care Products, Anti-Acne Products, Dry Skin Care Products, Warts Removal Products, Infant Skin Care Products, Anti-Scars Solution Products, Mole Removal Products, Multi Utility Products), Application (Flakiness Reduction, Stem Cells Protection against UV, Rehydrate the skins surface, Minimize wrinkles, Increase the viscosity of Aqueous, Others), Gender (Men, Women), Distribution Channel (Online, Departmental Stores and Convenience Stores, Pharmacies, Supermarket, Others), Geography (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Industry Trends and Forecast to 2026

Competitive Analysis:

Global cosmetic skin care market is highly fragmented and the major players have used various strategies such as new product launches, expansions, agreements, joint ventures, partnerships, acquisitions, and others to increase their footprints in this market. The report includes market shares of cosmetic skin care market for Global, Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific, South America and Middle East & Africa.

Table Of Content: Cosmetic Skin Care Market

Part 01: Executive SummaryPart 02: Scope Of The ReportPart 03: Cosmetic Skin CarePart 04: Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market SizingPart 05: Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market Segmentation By ProductPart 06: Five Forces AnalysisPart 07: Customer LandscapePart 08: Geographic LandscapePart 09: Decision FrameworkPart 10: Drivers And ChallengesPart 11: Market TrendsPart 12: Vendor LandscapePart 13: Vendor Analysis

Continue. .

For Detailed TOC @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-cosmetic-skin-care-market

Market Drivers:

Market Restraints:

Key Developments in the Market:

Key Insights in the report:

The report provides insights on the following points:

About Data Bridge Market Research:

Data Bridge Market Research set forth itself as an unconventional and neoteric Market research and consulting firm with unparalleled level of resilience and integrated approaches. We are determined to unearth the best market opportunities and foster efficient information for your business to thrive in the market. Data Bridge endeavors to provide appropriate solutions to the complex business challenges and initiates an effortless decision-making process.

Contact:

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Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market 2019: Industry Analysis and Detailed Profiles of Top Industry Players LOral, Unilever, New Avon Company, Este Lauder...

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Top 5 stories on cosmetic formulation and science – CosmeticsDesign-Asia.com

By daniellenierenberg

1 VIDEO: Alternative animal testing device may soon be available to the cosmetics industry

The team behind an alternative animal testing device, skin-on-a-chip, is forming new start-up to commercialise the product and offer its services to the cosmetic industry.

At this years Society of Comstics Scientists (SCSS) Suppliers Day, we sat down with Dr. Massimo Alberti, from Polaris Science to learn more about the innovation, which is backed by The Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech).

Alberti and his colleagues successfully reconstructed human skin on a compact, microfluidic device which can reduce or eventually replace animal testing.

The device is a system where you can stimulate blood flow, recreate the microenvironment in which the skin or the tissue you want to study is absolutely close to the physiological condition, said Alberti, who believes will be a game-changer for the industry.

[The cosmetic industry] is constantly struggling with the cost of R&D and need to bring products on the market as fast as they can. At the same time, the whole supply chain is affected because the ingredient providers and research organisations that have to follow those needs and also be able to provide those kinds of service rapidly and reliably, he said.

2 Dior collaborates with leading Japanese lab to study the mechanism of skin metabolism

The research arm of LVMH is collaborating with the Centre for iPS Cell Research and Application of Kyoto University (CiRA) to study the mechanism of skin metabolism for Parfums Christian Dior.

The aim of the joint project is to explore how oxidative metabolism affects skin keratinocyte self-renewal or differentiation capabilities.

The effects of age on mitochondrial status, skin regeneration and differentiation will be investigated with the hope of contributing to major therapeutic discoveries in the skin and cutaneous rejuvenation, said CiRA in a press statement.

Under the direction of Nobel Prize laureate Shinya Yamanaka, CiRA is a leading centre for induced pluripotent stem cell research.

According to CiRA, iPS cells are cells generated by introducing a small number of factors into body cells such as skin cells and blood cells.

3 Super hydrator: Kao develops new formulation that targets rough and dry skin

Kao Corporation has developed a novel formulation which it claims can smooth away roughness caused by dry skin.

Developed by the Japanese firms Skin Care Laboratory, Material Science Laboratory, and Analytical Science Laboratory, the formulation is a combination of large water-content alpha-gel and an OXP-SI polymer.

The combined formula was found to be absorbed into regions with micro-scaling. According to Kao, micro-scaling is a condition in which the horny layer skin is thinly exfoliated in pieces.

According to a survey conducted by Kao, an increasingly large number of Japanese women now suffer from dry skin. Among them, more than 90% were found to have micro-scaling on the skin surface.

4 Moisture-retaining membrane: Kao develops new formula with fine fibre tech to reduce moisture-loss on skin

Further research on Kaos fine fibre technology has revealed its effects on protein expression in the stratum corneum and potential to improve skin condition with what the firm claims is a unique formula.

Kao Corporation first announced the development of its fine fibre technology in 2018. The technology creates a barely-visible film on the skins surface, creating an ultra-thin membrane on looks and feels natural.

Since then, the companys Skincare Research Laboratory and Analytical Science Laboratory have developed a novel formula based on fine fibre tech which claims to control water evaporation on the surface of skin.

Futher research found that controling the moisture premaebility affects the expression of the proteins that were linked to healthy skin conditions.

5 Base notes with benefits: Down Under expands wood oils portfolio to meet APAC consumer demands

Australian ingredient provider Down Under Enterprises has launched a collection of native Aussie wood oils to cater to the increasingly complex demands of APAC beauty consumers.

The collection consists of locally-scoured Australian blue cypress oil, Australian buddha wood oil, Australian sandalwood oil, Indian sandalwood oil and Australian white cypress wood oil.

Phil Prather, head of marketing and operations at Down Under Enterprises, told CosmeticsDesign-Asia that the firm believed there was a need for more variety of oils that offer functional benefits.

For instance, Prather elaborated, buddha wood oil and blue cypress oil have anti-inflammatory properties while white cypress oil has demonstrated skin brightening properties.

What we want formulators to understand is that these oils are more than just a base note. These oils can provide functional properties for their formulations. Properties that are based on clear science that has been published in clinical papers, he said.

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9 Iconic Anti-Aging Eye Creams, and Their More Affordable Dupes – Yahoo Lifestyle

By daniellenierenberg

We know we're not alone when we say that we could easily spend a large chunk of our salaries on skincare. Between the constant new launches and those OG holy grails, there are just too many opportunities to shop. As beauty editors, we're lucky enough to have access to the most luxurious products on the market, but we're well aware that it's not always feasible to shell out so much money on lotions and potionsespecially on a polarizing product like eye cream.

Some folks swear by the stuff for refining fine lines and keeping puffiness at bay, while others just don't see the point. We happen to identify with the former and as such are quite looped into the formulas that perform best. On the other hand, we're committed to bringing you the affordable options that still get the job done. Luckily, there are plenty of lower-costproducts that can help mitigate the effects that aging has on the delicate orbital skin.

Here, find nine iconic eye creams beauty insiders swear by and the similar, more affordable dupes that will help you leave tired eyes in 2019. Just because there are bags under your eyes doesn't mean you have to pay designer prices to get rid of them. (Unless you want to, in which case, you also have our blessing.)

MZ Skin Soothe & Smooth Collagen Activating Eye Complex ($149)

Beautycounter Countertime Ultra Renewal Eye Cream ($69)

Savings: $80

How they're similar:The hero ingredient in both of these potent eye treatments is albizia bark, otherwise known as Persian silk tree. This extract can help eliminate toxic collagen inhibitors likeglycogens. On top of reducing the appearance of crow's-feet and other fine lines, you can also expect either of these products to de-puff and brighten the eye area.

IS Clinical Youth Eye Complex ($98)

Image Skincare Ageless Total Eye Lift Crme ($48)

Savings: $50

How they're similar:You can thank a number of exfoliating and hydrating acids and highly efficacious stabilized vitamin C for the lifting and plumping effects you'll see when using these science-backed formulations. Both are highly respected among skincare professionals, so you really can't go wrong here.

Royal Fern Phytoactive Anti-Aging Eye Cream ($190)

Miracle Age Miracle Age Repair Eye Cream ($56)

Savings: $134

How they're similar:While the Royal Fern option is beloved for its ultra-clean approach to effective, result-oriented skincare, the price tag certainly says a lot about the barrier of entry for experiencing the products. While you're saving up, try the similarly natural select by Korean label Miracle Age, which boasts cooling aloe, moisturizing shea butter, and plumping ceramides.

Tata Harper Restorative Eye Creme ($105)

Youth to the People Superfood Peptide Eye Cream ($35)

Savings: $70

How they're similar:Aloe barbadensis leaf extract is at the forefront of both of these plant-based products. Each of their ingredient lists is densely populated with organic, botanical ingredients that deliveryouth-preserving results.

PCA Skin Ideal Complex Restorative Eye Cream ($88)

Boots No7 Protect Perfect Advanced Intense Eye Cream ($22)

Savings: $66

How they're similar: While the PCA Skin version is admittedly more advanced in its formulation (hello, orange stem cells!), each of these formulas contains wrinkle-reducing peptides as well as light-reflecting titanium dioxide.

Goop by Juice Beauty Perfecting Eye Cream ($90)

Mario Badescu Olive Eye Cream ($18)

Savings: $72

How they're similar: It's no surprise that the Goop option is cleaner than the Mario Badescu cream (and most others on the market, honestly), but oliveleaf drives the hydration factor in both formulas. You'll get a luxurious-feeling, deeply hydrating cream either way.

SkinCeuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex ($98)

Yes To Blueberries Age Refresh Eye Firming ($29)

Savings: $69

How they're similar:Powerful, yet natural, blueberry is the antioxidant that helps each of these creams reverse the signs of damage while also preventing new lines and wrinkles from setting in.

SkinMedica TNS Eye Repair ($102)

Olay Regenerist Retinol 24 Night Eye Cream ($39)

Savings: $63

How they're similar:Retinoids are at play here, with SkinMedica's use of vitamin A and Olay's implementation of retinol. In addition to smoothing out the delicate eye area, both formulas visibly firm and brighten while also working to even out the skin tone.

Dermalogica AGE Smart Age Reversal Eye Complex ($80)

First Aid Beauty Eye Duty Triple Remedy A.M. Gel Cream ($36)

Savings: $44

How they're similar:Both of these lightweight gel creams absorb quickly and offer skin-firming effects from tree barks and peptides. The Dermalogica utilizes retinol to encourage cell turnover, while red algae and seaweed help the First Aid Beauty select deliver similar results.

Up next,I have access to free beauty products, and I still choose these drugstore buys.

This article originally appeared on Who What Wear

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Lab-grown mini brains shed light on how humans split from great apes – The Conversation UK

By daniellenierenberg

Humans diverged from chimpanzees and other great apes roughly 6m years ago. But despite us being closely related, human brains are vastly different enabling us to engage in complex language, science, art, morality and much more. But what exactly was it that enabled our brains to reach such mindboggling heights?

We know that the human brain has dramatically expanded in size over the past 6m years. Humans are in fact the mammals with the largest brain relative to body size. But which specific evolutionary genetic changes enabled larger and more complex brains has long remained a bit of a mystery. Now a new study, published in Nature, offers clues.

One important reason why it has been so hard to study primate brain development is that, until relatively recently, scientists did not have access to living, developing brain tissue. This is what can ultimately allow us to functionally test theories of brain evolution as we can essentially watch how a brain develops over time in a dish and manipulate biological pathways to see what role they play in brain development.

But in the last few years, scientists have worked out how to make lab-grown models of developing brain tissue so-called brain organoids to begin to address these questions.

Organoids are clusters of cells that organise themselves into mini versions of our organs, such as the brain or the liver. Thats because they are made by culturing stem cells, which have the potential to develop into any tissue of the body. These stem cells can be generated directly from cells of adult origin, such as skin or blood cells. They are then grown in a gel that allows them to develop three dimensionally. And thats exactly what the researchers behind the new study did.

So what kind of genetic changes do we think contributed to human brain evolution? Only about 1.5% of our DNA actually consists of genes with instructions for making proteins. Proteins are the molecules that do most of the work in cells and determine the cells structure and function. It was once thought that the remaining 98.5% of DNA was junk with no clear purpose. However, it is now known that some of this DNA may play an important role in controlling which genes are expressed meaning determining how they are turned on and off.

The number of changes in protein-coding regions of DNA are far too few to explain the striking differences observed between humans and other primates. In fact, of the genetic regions that have changed the most since our divergence from chimpanzees, 92% do not overlap with protein-coding DNA.

It is predicted that at least a third of these regions play a role in controlling the expression of genes. It has long been hypothesised that the majority of differences observed between the brains of great apes and us are due to changes in the timing and expression of genes, rather than changes to the gene itself. The vast majority of our genes are therefore identical.

The main focus of the new study was to identify how genes are regulated differently in humans compared to other primates. The authors did this by generating brain organoids from human, chimpanzee and macaque stem cells and compared these at various points over the course of four months. This mimics how a brain forms in the womb, with organoids consisting of multiple growing buds of brain tissue that first consist largely of neural progenitor cells that in later stages begin to make neurons.

From the outside, brain organoids look more like small popcorn than a mini brain and do not reach sizes larger than around five or six millimetres due to a lack of blood supply.

The authors observed that human brain development occurs at a slower pace than the other two primates. This delayed maturation of the human brain makes sense as, given more time, the cells that generate neurons will have a longer period to expand their population, giving rise to more neurons and a bigger brain later on.

The researchers were also able to look at the expression of genes in individual cell types of the brain organoids. They measured the expression of a gene by looking at the levels of a messenger molecule that is made from reading DNA and is necessary to direct the formation of proteins. By comparing gene expression in cells that were developing to become the cerebral cortex which plays an important role in advanced cognitive processes such as awareness, thought, memory, language and consciousness they detected 98 genes that were differently expressed in humans.

Gene expression doesnt tell the whole story though. Its rate is ultimately controlled by a process called gene regulation. In order to identify potential regulatory mechanisms, the authors pinpointed regions of DNA that are accessible or open at the various stages in particular cells. These accessible regions of DNA have the potential to interact with proteins and can regulate gene expression.

By comparing organoids between human and chimpanzee, the researchers were able to identify regions of DNA that were differently accessible in humans potentially playing a regulatory role. Regulatory regions of DNA are more likely to be found in close proximity to the genes they are regulating the expression of. More than 60% of the genes that were expressed differently in humans were also in close proximity to differently accessible regions. This suggests that human-specific development and gene expression is a result of evolutionary changes in regions of DNA that are capable of regulating gene expression.

A significant proportion of the regions of DNA that we already know have changed the most since our divergence from chimps were found to overlap with those being different in terms of accessibility suggesting the team has indeed highlighted key regulatory processes responsible for making us humans.

This study takes the first steps in pinpointing interesting candidate genetic regions responsible for human brain complexity. The authors do not dive deeper into the mechanisms of what the altered expression of a specific gene actually means in terms of how the brain grows and functions. It does, however, provide an excellent resource and starting point to direct future research in this direction.

This research is not only important in understanding what makes us human, but also in working out how certain human disorders may arise. Several studies have found that mutations in regions of DNA with human-specific changes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

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Stem Cell Therapy Market By 2026 Industrial Analysis, Global Research With Geron Corporation, Vericel Corporation, Pluristem Therapeutics, Cytori…

By daniellenierenberg

This Stem Cell Therapy Market research report is a careful investigation of current scenario of the market and future estimations which spans several market dynamics such as websites, annual reports of the companies, journals, and others.

Stem Cell Therapy Market is expected to reach USD 15.63 billion by 2025, from USD 7.72 billion in 2017 growing at a CAGR of 9.2% during the forecast period of 2018 to 2025. The Stem Cell Therapy market report contains data for historic year 2016, the base year of calculation is 2017 and the forecast period is 2018 to 2025 (Updated values listed in sample report).

Get Sample of This Research Report:https://databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-stem-cell-therapy-market

Stem cell therapy is the therapy which uses stem cells for the treatment or prevention of a disease. Bone marrow transplant is the widely applicable therapy which is followed by umbilical cord blood. Research is going on to develop various sources (such as cord blood cells, bone marrow and skin) to use these cells for treatment of various disorders like neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and other conditions. Some of the major players operating in the global stem cell therapy market are

Others: ViaCyte, Inc, AbbVie, Mesoblast Ltd., Roslin Cells, Regeneus Ltd, ReNeuron Group plc,, International Stem Cell Corporation, Aastrom Biosciences, Inc., Advanced Cell Technology, Cryo Cell International, Cytori Therapeutics, Inc., Geron Corporation, and Invitrogen and others. The global stem cell therapy market is highly fragmented and the major players have used various strategies such as new product launches, expansions, agreements, joint ventures, partnerships, acquisitions, and others to increase their footprints in this market. The report includes market shares of the global stem cell therapy market for global, Europe, North America, Asia Pacific and South America.

Get TOC For Full Analysis Of Report:https://databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-stem-cell-therapy-market

Major Market Drivers and Restraints:

Drivers:

Restraints:

Segmentation:

The global stem cell therapy market is segmented based on

Type

Product

Application

End Users

Geographical Segments

On the basis of type, the market is segmented into

Allogeneic stem cell therapy

Autologous stem cell therapy

The allogeneic stem cell therapy segment is expected lead the market because of commercialization of allogeneic stem cell therapy products and wide application with easy scale up process.

Based on products, the market is segmented into

Adult stem cells

Human embryonic stem cells

Induced pluripotent stem cells and others

The adult stem cells accounts highest share in market due to ability to generate trillions of specialized cells which may lower the risks of rejection and repair tissue damage.

Based on application, the market is segmented into

Musculoskeletal disorders

Wounds and injuries

Cardiovascular diseases

Surgeries

Gastrointestinal diseases, and other applications

The musculoskeletal disorders segment leads the market due to availability of stem cell-based products for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and bone & joint diseases.

Based on end users, the market is segmented into

Therapeutic companies

Cell and tissues banks

Tools and reagent companies

Service companies

The growing number of stem cell donors, improved stem cell banking facilities and because of the research and development therapeutic companies held the largest share in stem cell therapy.

By Geography

North America (U.S., Canada, Mexico)

South America (Brazil, Argentina, Rest of South America)

Europe (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Russia, Turkey, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland, Rest of Europe)

Asia-Pacific ( Japan, China, South Korea, India, Australia, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Rest of Asia Pacific)

Middle East & Africa (South Africa, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Israel, Rest of Middle East & Africa)

The rest is here:
Stem Cell Therapy Market By 2026 Industrial Analysis, Global Research With Geron Corporation, Vericel Corporation, Pluristem Therapeutics, Cytori...

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Fit and healthy teacher dies 20 days after discovering he had leukaemia at 33 – The Sun

By daniellenierenberg

WHEN teacher Matt Meads started suffering with stomach pains, night sweats and tiredness - he quickly dismissed it as end of school year fatigue.

He was fit and healthy, and avoided drinking and smoking.

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But just three weeks after first falling ill, Matt died - aged just 33 - and after just three chemo sessions.

He and his wife Abi were devastated when they discovered his symptoms were actually a sign ofleukaemia.

Heartbroken Abi, 27, from Nottingham, is now sharing his story to raise awareness and to urge others to be vigilant for signs of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, a rare and aggressive form of blood cancer.

"I've got so many people around me offering help and support but I still feel really lonely because I've lost my best mate, my husband, my soulmate," Abi said.

It comes as blood cancer charity Bloodwise warns thousands of people are dying of the disease because it's diagnosed too late.

Matt and Abi first suspected something was wrong on July 6, when he began feeling more and more fatigued.

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And when he started vomiting to the point of being unable to keep ice cubes down, Abi urged him to go to the doctor.

At first he was told by his GP he had gastroenteritis or constipation but he soon returned to the hospital for a second time where they did a blood test.

Abi, who works as a teacher too, said: "Obviously I wish it was spotted sooner.

"I don't feel any anger towards to the hospital.

"I genuinely believe they did everything they could for him.

"He would say he was feeling sick."He would send a text saying he wasn't feeling well so was going to bed. I was out with some friends.

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"He said something about feeling hot as well, but we didn't put that down to anything because it was the middle of summer and everyone was feeling hot.

"He was sleeping a lot, particularly at weekends which he would spend mostly asleep.

"But we're both teachers, it was coming up to the end of the school year and we had both got a lot of work on.

"We put it down to the job, and just tried to keep going because we had five weeks off soon.

"We thought it was the usual fatigue that we feel at the end of the year.

"There were sickness bugs going around at both of our schools so it wasn't anything out of the ordinary.

"He was referred to A&E for the second time thinking it was gallstones.

I've got so many people around me offering help and support but I still feel really lonely because I've lost my best mate, my husband, my soulmate

"They did some blood tests on him, sent him for a CT scan. The doctor came back and basically said that it was leukaemia."

Despite the devastating diagnosis, Abi said her brave husband remained positive as he came to terms with what was really happening.

She added: "Matt was a really positive person and was always somebody who believed what would be would be, it is what it is and all that stuff.

"So when the doctor told him he was quite composed.

"He didn't really give anything away about what he was feeling.

"It was obviously a massive shock for him but he didn't really respond in the way I would have done. He was listening to the doctor.

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"The doctor actually stopped at one point because he was explaining what would happen next.

"He actually stopped at one point to ask him if he was okay, it was really big news and is he taking it all in?

"Matt's response was, 'yes, but there's nothing I can do about it. It is what it is'.

"He was definitely really brave."

And Abi says the diagnosis came as even more of a shock given how healthy he was.

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She was forced to watch her husband go from happy and sporty to intensive care within days, before he passed away from a pulmonary embolism after just three chemotherapy sessions.

She said: "We knew he was poorly, but maybe not quite how poorly he was.

"I certainly wasn't expecting a phone call from the hospital.

"I don't know how I am now. It's hard. I don't think I really started to grieve until after the funeral.

"It's hard to think ahead for anything. It's a case of taking everything one day at a time.

"Some days are better than others. Some days are horrific and I don't want to get out of bed.

What is Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia?

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a type of blood cancer that starts from young white blood cells called lymphocytes in the bone marrow.

Adults and children can get it but it is most often diagnosed in younger people.

It'svery rare, with around 650 people diagnosed with the condition each year in the UK.

Many symptoms of ALL are vague and non specific. It may feel like the flu as symptoms are caused by too many abnormal white blood cells and not enough normal white cells, red cells and platelets.

Symptoms can include:

Recently blood cancer charity Bloodwise warned thousands of patients in England could be unnecessarily dying from blood cancer because they are diagnosed too late.

Experts analysed NHSdata and found 28 per cent of patients are told they have the disease after needing emergency treatment for their symptoms.

Figures show there are around 40,000 cases of blood cancer - a group of diseases including leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma - each year in the UK.

Around 77 per cent of patients will survive for three years if they are diagnosed after visiting their GP, Bloodwise says.

In contrast, the same survival rate plummets to just 40 per cent for patients who are diagnosed as an emergency.

This is because symptoms develop over a few weeks and become more severe as the number of immature white blood cells increases.

"Matt was a really happy person. He was really positive.

"He was kind, caring, loving, wicked sense of humour. He would make a joke about anything and was very quick-witted.

"As a teacher he would have done anything for his students. He would have done anything for his family.

"He was just a really positive person who would have done anything for anybody.

"He loved his sport. He would go to the gym, he loved being outside and walking. He liked cycling. He was careful about what he ate.

"Everything the doctors warn you about, he didn't do. He didn't drink, he didn't smoke, he had a good diet, he exercised.

If you've got any of the symptoms which are lasting or you can't explain why you've got them, you need to go to the doctor and get checked out and be persistent in asking for a blood test

"He always put sun-cream on because he was paranoid he might catch skin cancer or something.

"He did everything he could to try and prevent anything from happening to him.

"As the doctors said there was nothing he could have done to prevent this."

Abi is now speaking out to urge others to get checked out and insist for a blood test if they have persistent symptoms of blood cancer.

She said: "If you've got any of the symptoms which are lasting or you can't explain why you've got them, you need to go to the doctor and get checked out and be persistent in asking for a blood test.

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"You know your own body. It's as simple as having a blood test.

"If you've got it for days and it's not getting any better, if you're in any doubt, get it checked.

"We didn't know what the symptoms were.

"The only one I knew was bruising, but Matt didn't have any bruises until he was in hospital. So the one thing I knew wasn't relevant.

"I didn't realise about the night sweats, fatigue or heavy breathing.

"We never expected it would be that.

"We had thought worst case scenario it was gallstones or an impacted bowel, so when he came and said leukaemia it was just unexpected.

"When you're poorly you have all these possibilities going through your head but you never think it's going to be that.

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"I had a really good chat with Matt's consultant where I questioned whether I should have done more, if I had spotted things sooner, whether if I had been more pushy in getting him to hospital.

"But the symptoms are vague and it can come on within days. It doesn't have to be something that has been happening for weeks or months."

You can donate on Abi's fundraising page in memory of Matt here.

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Fit and healthy teacher dies 20 days after discovering he had leukaemia at 33 - The Sun

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