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20 Best Lotions That Help Clear Up Acne Scars (And Moisturize Skin) – YourTango

By daniellenierenberg

No more feeling self-conscious about your scarring.

But there are other ingredients that aren't as harsh on the skin.

Salicylic acid is a fabulous way to combat acne in all skin types and can be found in a wash or in a lotion. If you tend to get small acne bumps known as comedonal acne, try OTC Differin lotion which is a retinoid. In general, those are strong enough to cause the skin to purge out those small bumps (which means it will be a little worse before getting better), and then prevent them from recurring, adds Dr. Mariwalla.

Contrary to what some people may think, having acne still means you need to moisturize. However, there are some precautions to consider. According to Dr. Mariwalla,Be sure not to use a heavy cream. Try a moisturizing gel or even a serum. A hyaluronic acid serum is ideal for acne=prone skin because it wont typically make you break out.

RELATED:20 Best Home Remedies For Acne Scars

Anti BacAcne Clearing Lotion is clinically proven to target pores to help clear existing acne, minimize excess oil production, and eliminate blackheads. Using an ultra-fine delivery system, benzoyl peroxide is delivered via a microscopic particle to affected areas, without over-drying.

(Sephora, $42)

Vichy Normaderm Beautifying Anti-Acne Treatment is an acne treatment moisturizer for adults with acne-prone skin. Thisnew formula with Air Licium and Phe resorcinoltechnology acts on the appearance of pores and shine. With salicylic acid to treat, blemishes disappear, leaving your skin looking radiant and beautiful.

(Check prices and reviews on Amazon)

Created by Beverly Hills plastic surgeons Dr. John Layke and Dr. Payman Danielpour, Beverly Hills MDAdvanced Scar Therapy contains advanced botanical ingredients that soothe and nourish damaged skinto dramatically diminish the appearance of stubborn scars. It contains an infusion of oxygen and antioxidants, for healthy-looking complexion and fewer visible imperfections.

(Beverly Hills MD, $80)

The Elina Organics Omega Serumcontains wild cod collagen, an antioxidant powerhouse that acts as a filler for scars. The serum promotes collagen regeneration and helps to firm, calm, and rejuvenate. Layer it with your nightly moisturizerfollowing exfoliation, and it helps your skin maintain its elasticity, increases hyaluronic acid production, and enhances skin hydration.

(ElinaOrganics, $52)

A powerful plant-based stem cell formulation decreases the appearance of fine lines, and softens and rejuvenates the skin. Stem cells help to support the longevity of aging skin by encouraging the regeneration of new skin cells, which stimulates the production of collagen in the skin.

(Knockout Beauty, $160)

Mela-Even Cream contains the lipid forms of the antioxidant vitamin C and E, which help to reclaim the appearance of healthy-looking, luminous skin. Not only does it help reduce scars, but it also helps to improve the appearance of uneven skin tone and fine lines, and assists in maintaining a healthy skin appearancewhile supporting its natural sun defence against the harmful effects of UV rays.

(Environ Skincare, $86)

This is a powerful skin lightening treatment gel featuring hydroquinone that rapidly reduces post-acne skin discoloration and helps combat breakouts. Willow bark and tea tree leaf extract help treat blemishes and reduce irritation as AHAs exfoliate to restore clarity and tone. This works best with normal, oily and combination skin types.

(Check prices and reviews on Amazon)

This treatment fights the main causes of acne by regulating skin cell turnover and reducing inflammation deep in the skin to clear and prevent pimples, blackheads and clogged pores. Differin contains the first OTC Rx-strength acne-fighting retinoid. Its gentler on your skin, while still effective, giving you the clearskin you want.

(Check prices and reviews on Amazon)

Neutrogena Rapid Tone Repair Dark Spot Corrector instantly brightens skin, with a high-potency fast absorbing formula that delivers the highest concentration of Vitamin C. With highly concentrated Accelerated Retinol SA, this advanced corrector works to renew the look of skin, brightening tone and helping fade stubborn dark spots and discoloration.

(Check prices and reviews on Amazon)

RELATED:How To Get Clear Skin Fast: 15 Tips For A Smooth, Acne-Free Complexion

Formulated with state-of-the-art UV filters, this high protection moisturizing sunscreen helps prevent UV induced collagen breakdown and UV-induced dark spots. It protectsskin from UVA and UVB rays, is easily absorbed into the skin, and comes in a lightweight formula.

(Check prices and reviews on Amazon)

Nia 24 Rapid D Tone Correcting Serum visibly diminishes the appearance of dark spots and discoloration to significantly improve brightness, clarity and tone. Vitamin C normalizes pigment production while increasing collagen and providing antioxidant protection. Willowbark extract exfoliates dull, dead skin cells while betaine smoothes the skin.

(Check prices and reviews on Amazon)

These powerful, easy-to-use pre-soaked pads are formulated with glycolic, lactic, citric, hyaluronic and salicylic acids, plus Pro-Vitamin B5 and Niacinamide that reduce pore size, fine lines, and wrinkles, and improve skin tone, texture and luminosity. Purslane Extract acts as a strong soother, itch reliever and antioxidant, and also promotes collagen production and cell turnover.

(Knockout Beauty, $79)

This pro-level retinol night treatment is formulated with 4.5 percent retinol in the patent-pending SB-100 delivery system, arguably one of the highest concentration in any over-the-counter retinol product. Retinol is the gold standard in treating acne scars by stimulating cell regeneration for brighter, more even skin. Clinical results show that 90 percent of subjects noticed an improvement in skin texture.

(Sephora, $105)

A medicated formula that exfoliates and reduces excess oil that can lead to breakouts. It unclogs pores and controls excess shine. Ingredients salicylic acid and acetyl glucosamine help clear dead skin cells that can contribute to clogged pores.Lamincaria Sacharina extract helps reduce shine and addresses future breakouts.

(Sephora, $17)

A unique and highly effective oil-free, non-comedogenic, lightweight moisturizer for combination to oily skin. Using clay that is mined in Umbria, Italy, it helps regulate sebum production, absorb impurities from blocked pores, calm flare-ups, and neutralize excess acidity on the skin which purifies and brightens the skin. This lightweight lotion gently hydrates, tones, and balances the complexion.

(Sephora, $38)

This is a redness-reducing lotion to help correct and prevent future blemishes. Ithelps to correct and prevent future blemishes, while reducing the appearance of dullness and rough texture. Formulated with acne-clearing salicylic acid and pine bark extract, this lotion calms and soothes redness and evens skin tone for a clearer complexion.

(Sephora, $48)

A gentle, oil-free exfoliating lotion for dry or combination skin. Developed by Clinique's dermatologists, the smoothing formula whisks away flakes and refines pores to reveal a clearer complexion. The cool, refreshing formula removes dead cells from the surface of the skin helping moisturizer and makeup to apply evenly.

(Sephora, $17)

This lightweight, oil-free moisturizer helps reduce shine and refine the appearance of pores for smoother skin texture without causing blemishes. Retinol supports natural cell turnover to help keep pores clear while hyaluronic acid and honey extract hydrate. Allantoin and arnica soothe, smooth, and condition skin.

(Sephora, $42)

This moisturizing treatment helps surround skin in an age-defending protective bubble. Silver tip white tea and revitalizing trehalose serve up an extra helping of hydration. It leaves skin soft and prepared for treatments to follow.

(Sephora, $27)

Fast-acting benzoyl peroxide attacks acne-causing bacteria to treat blackheads, blemishes and clogged pores at the source, and helps to control excess oil that can become trapped in pores and cause new breakouts. Botanical brighteners battle redness from existing and past blemishes, helping to fade the appearance of acne marks and reducing irritation from active breakouts. Antioxidants defend against the effects of free radical damage.

(Check prices and reviews on Amazon)

RELATED:21 Best Creams That Help Clear Up Scars

AlyWalanskyisa NY-basedlifestyles writer who focuses on health, wellness, and relationships. Her work appears in dozens of digital and print publications regularly.Visit her on Twitteroremail her.

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International Collaboration on Brink of Resurrecting Northern White… – Labiotech.eu

By daniellenierenberg

An international collaboration called BioRescue has taken a step forward in bringing back the Northern White Rhino with the creation of three embryos, which it hopes to bring to term in a surrogate in the coming months.

The BioRescue team, including researchers based at the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Germany, extracted egg cells from the ovaries of the last two remaining northern white rhino females. They then artificially fertilized the eggs using sperm taken from now-deceased male rhinos and stored the embryos in liquid nitrogen. The team managed to create two embryos in September 2019 and has recently created a third.

Before the BioRescue team came, no one had ever created an embryo from a northern white rhino except for the rhino itself, Steven Seet, Head Public Relations & International Affairs at the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, told me. This species is functionally extinct. Nevertheless, we have achieved the production of a third embryo now. This is incredible.

As the last two females are unable to become pregnant, the plan now is to implant the embryos into surrogate female southern white rhinos, a distinct subspecies, in the coming months. Every additional embryo increases the probability of getting a pregnancy The more, the better! Seet said.

There are many technical challenges remaining before the team can save the Northern White Rhino from extinction. First of all, it will need a lot more than three embryos to rebuild a healthy population. To meet this challenge, the team is developing technology to transform stem cells from northern white rhino skin tissue into egg and sperm cells. Our Japanese cooperation partner succeeded in doing so in a mouse model, Seet said. We are adapting this to the rhinos.

A second challenge may lie in implanting a northern white rhino embryo into a surrogate southern white rhino mother, which might have compatibility issues.

It might be that there are epigenetic components involved as the biological system of the southern rhinos might differ from the northern, Seet told me. A possible assessment of this could be conducted when we have the first calves on the ground. This is further research then.

Also involved in the BioRescue project was the German big pharma Merck KGaA, which donated a specialized incubator where the egg cells could be fertilized with monitoring by HD cameras.

Merck has donated access to its innovative fertility technologies to Project BioRescue to give this challenge the best possible chance of success and protect the Northern White Rhino from extinction, Jan Kirsten, Mercks Head of Global Business Franchise for Fertility, told me. While there is a long way to go on this journey, we hope these steps will pave the way for this technique to potentially be used in other species.

According to Kirsten and Seet, the biotechnology industry will likely play a strong role in the conservation of endangered species in the coming years. However, argued Seet, reproductive medicine and stem cell technology should remain a last resort to save a species.

It would be better to react much earlier to avoid using the BioRescue technology, he said. Humans must learn from this best practice project and evaluate biodiversity and conserve it.

Images from Shutterstock

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US scientists build first robot made of living cells – The Nation

By daniellenierenberg

WASHINGTON - Scientists in the United States created the first living robots using stem cells, which can move toward a target and heal themselves after being cut. A study published on Monday in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences described the living, programmable organism, a completely new biological machine designed from ground up. Scientists at the University of Vermont ran an evolutionary algorithm on a supercomputer to screen out a design to be composed of single frog skin and heart cells.

Then, scientists at Tufts University transferred the in silico design into life with stem cells harvested from embryos of African frogs. They used tiny forceps and electrode to assemble the single cells into a close approximation of the computer designs.

They found that the skin cells formed a more passive architecture, while the once-random contractions of heart muscle cells were put to work creating ordered forward motion, allowing the robots to move on their own.

Those millimeter-wide reconfigurable organisms were shown to be able to move and explore their watery environment for days or weeks, according to the study.

They could move around in circles, collectively pushing pellets into a central location. Its a step toward using computer-designed organisms for intelligent drug delivery, said Joshua Bongard, a computer scientists at the University of Vermont.

We can imagine many useful applications of these living robots that other machines cant do, said Michael Levin at Tufts University, like searching out nasty compounds or radioactive contamination, gathering microplastic in the oceans, traveling in arteries to scrape out plaque.

In another test, the scientists cut the living robots and watched what happened. We sliced the robot almost in half and it stitches itself back up and keeps going, said Bongard.

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Why stem cells could be the medical innovation of the century – World Economic Forum

By daniellenierenberg

Right now, your bodys stem cells are working hard replacing your skin every two weeks, creating new red and white blood cells and completing thousands of other tasks essential to life. They are your own personalized fountain of youth.

Scientists generally agree that a stem cell should be able to do both of the following:

One theory of ageing suggests that between the ages of 30 and 50, our stem cells reach a turning point and start to decline in number and function. This results in the typical features associated with ageing.

There does not seem to be a single discoverer of stem cells. Accounts date back to the 1800s and even further, but the first successful medical procedure was a bone marrow transfusion in 1939. Advances in immunology led to donor matching, initially via siblings and close relatives. Unrelated donor matching flourished in the 1970s, alongside donor registries.

In the 1980s, scientists identified embryonic stem cells in mice, leading to the 1997 cloning of Dolly the Sheep. This created immense interest for human and medical applications and a backlash in the US as federal R&D funding was essentially halted in 2001.

In 2012, a Nobel Prize was awarded for the earlier discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Essentially, they return potency and self-renewal properties to mature non-stem cells, essentially making them act like stem cells again.

In the decade between 2010 and 2019, the first wave of stem cell start-ups emerged, alongside R&D programmes at many large pharmaceutical companies, leading to innovation and the first human clinical trials for iPS and other related therapies.

According to Q3 2019 data from the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine, there are 959 regenerative medicine companies worldwide sponsoring 1,052 active clinical trials; 525 of these companies are in North America, 233 in Europe and Israel, and 166 in Asia. In aggregate, $7.4 billion has been invested in regenerative medicine companies in 2019; $5.6 billion of which has been dedicated to gene and gene-modified cell therapy, $3.3 billion in cell therapy, and $114 million in tissue engineering.

Overview of the cancer stem cells market

Perhaps most excitingly, curative therapies are hitting the market and the results are astonishing: 60% of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia patients taking Novartis Kymirah showed a complete response (no traces of cancer) and were declared in full remission. Meanwhile, 75% of patients with Transfusion-Dependent -Thalassaemia treated with bluebird bios Zynteglo achieved independence from transfusions. Perhaps most astonishingly, 93% of spinal muscular atrophy patients treated with Novartis Zolgensma were alive without permanent ventilation 24 months after treatment. We should expect more medical breakthroughs in the coming years.

New science, new start-ups: several companies in the sector have gone public or been acquired. These exits led to the recycling of talent and capital into new companies. Because the science and commercial systems have also advanced, the companies in the next wave are pursuing bigger challenges, driving innovation, with even greater resources.

Patients are eager: the current market for stem cell therapies is growing at 36% per year, though it will rapidly expand when a breakthrough occurs toward the treatment of a non-communicable disease (such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease) or a lifestyle factor (for example, growing hair in the correct places, expanding cognitive abilities or increasing healthy lifespan).

New R&D models: funding is flowing into the sector from large companies, VC funds, and institutions such as the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) and New York State Stem Cell Science programme (NYSTEM). Some of the leading university R&D platforms include the Center for the Commercialization of Regenerative Medicine in Toronto, the Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, the Oxford Stem Cell Institute, and most notably, the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI).

Founded in 2004, HSCI has established a phenomenal track record. It provided the first $200,000 in funding to Derrick Rossis lab, which inspired the largest biotech IPO to date. HSCI scientists were also co-founders or principals in the three most prominent gene-editing companies (CRISPR Tx, Intellia and Editas), the combined $1.55-billion True North/iPierian acquisitions and the recent $950-million acquisition of Semma Tx, Frequency Tx, Fate Tx, Epizyme Inc., and Magenta Tx.

For the casual investor, Evercore ISI is building a Regenerative Medicine Index, which may be the simplest way to build a portfolio. For institutions and those with deeper pockets, regenerative medicine funds are forming, including the Boston-centric Hexagon Regenerative Medicine Fund, which aims to create companies out of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute.

Caveat emptor. Though patients needs are immediate, those seeking treatments should think very carefully about the risks. There are many dubious clinics touting expensive stem cell treatments and some patients have experienced horrifying complications. Dr. Paul Knoepfler of UC-Davis has written a practical and scientifically accurate guide, a strongly recommended read if you or a family member are considering treatment or a clinical trial.

The leading causes of death in 1900 were mostly infectious/communicable diseases. While the prevalence of most causes has diminished, the largest increases include heart disease (+40%) and cancer (+300%). Granted, this is partly due to doubling life expectancy and a lack of death from other causes. However, given time and resources, scientists and physicians may cure these challenging diseases.

Total disease burden by disease or injury

Today, six of the seven leading causes of death are non-communicable diseases (heart disease, stroke, lung diseases, cancer, Alzheimers disease and diabetes). Based on the early promise mentioned above, regenerative medicine may be our best hope to solve the great non-communicable diseases of our time, and perhaps the single most transformative medical innovation in a century.

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The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the World Economic Forum.

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World’s first living robots created using frog stem cells – The Hill

By daniellenierenberg

Scientists have created the worlds first living robots out of frog stem cells, according to new research. These tiny new lifeforms can be programmed to move around or carry and deliver miniature payloads that could one day be medicines inside a patients body, the Guardian reports.

The scientists knit skin and heart cells scraped from the embryos of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) into 3D shapes designed by artificial intelligence to accomplish certain tasks.

These are entirely new lifeforms. They have never before existed on Earth, study co-author Michael Levin told the Guardian. They are living, programmable organisms.

The living robots, called xenobots after the clawed frogs Latin name, measure 0.04 inches and have enough energy inside them to keep moving for seven to 10 days before calling it quits.

The squishy robots dont have the strength and durability of plastic or metal machines, but biology affords them some unique advantages. They can heal themselves if wounded, and when their biological engines run out of fuel the xenobots simply fall apart and decay. This last part is crucial when it comes to potential medical or environmental applications in which leaving behind shards of plastic or metal presents obvious problems.

The researchers said we cant know for sure what applications await the soft-bodied bots, but imagined uses including cleaning up microplastics in the ocean, digesting toxic materials at polluted sites or scooping plaque from inside human arteries. Apart from scooting around in petri dishes, the researchers also say tinkering with these living machines could help scientists better understand the software of life.

The first generation of xenobots are tiny, but the scientists say the plan is to scale up perhaps even to living robots with blood vessels and nervous systems that can live on dry land.

If the voice of Jeff Goldblums character from Jurassic Park is beginning to echo in the back of your mind, youre not alone: When youre creating life, you dont have a good sense of what direction its going to take, Nita Farahany, who studies the ethics of new technologies and was not involved in the study, told Smithsonian. Any time we try to harness life [we should] recognize its potential to go really poorly.

For their part, the creators of the xenobots acknowledged the potential ethical implications, but say its up to society and policymakers to decide what those might be.

I think theyd acquire moral significance only if they included neural tissue that enabled some kind of mental life, such as the ability to experience pain, ethicist Thomas Douglas told the Guardian. But some are more liberal about moral status. They think that all living creatures have interests that should be given some moral consideration. For these people, difficult questions could arise about whether these xenobots should be classified as living creatures or machines.

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World’s First ‘Living Machine’ Created Using Frog Cells and Artificial Intelligence – Livescience.com

By daniellenierenberg

What happens when you take cells from frog embryos and grow them into new organisms that were "evolved" by algorithms? You get something that researchers are calling the world's first "living machine."

Though the original stem cells came from frogs the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis these so-called xenobots don't resemble any known amphibians. The tiny blobs measure only 0.04 inches (1 millimeter) wide and are made of living tissue that biologists assembled into bodies designed by computer models, according to a new study.

These mobile organisms can move independently and collectively, can self-heal wounds and survive for weeks at a time, and could potentially be used to transport medicines inside a patient's body, scientists recently reported.

Related: The 6 Strangest Robots Ever Created

"They're neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal," study co-author Joshua Bongard, a computer scientist and robotics expert at the University of Vermont, said in a statement. "It's a new class of artifact: a living, programmable organism."

Algorithms shaped the evolution of the xenobots. They grew from skin and heart stem cells into tissue clumps of several hundred cells that moved in pulses generated by heart muscle tissue, said lead study author Sam Kriegman, a doctoral candidate studying evolutionary robotics in the University of Vermont's Department of Computer Science, in Burlington.

"There's no external control from a remote control or bioelectricity. This is an autonomous agent it's almost like a wind-up toy," Kriegman told Live Science.

Biologists fed a computer constraints for the autonomous xenobots, such as the maximum muscle power of their tissues, and how they might move through a watery environment. Then, the algorithm produced generations of the tiny organisms. The best-performing bots would "reproduce" inside the algorithm. And just as evolution works in the natural world, the least successful forms would be deleted by the computer program.

"Eventually, it was able to give us designs that actually were transferable to real cells. That was a breakthrough," Kriegman said.

The study authors then brought these designs to life, piecing stem cells together to form self-powered 3D shapes designed by the evolution algorithm. Skin cells held the xenobots together, and the beating of heart tissue in specific parts of their "bodies" propelled the 'bots through water in a petri dish for days, and even weeks at a stretch, without needing additional nutrients, according to the study. The 'bots were even able to repair significant damage, said Kriegman.

"We cut the living robot almost in half, and its cells automatically zippered its body back up," he said.

"We can imagine many useful applications of these living robots that other machines can't do," said study co-author Michael Levin, director of theCenter for Regenerative and Developmental Biologyat Tufts University in Massachusetts. These might include targeting toxic spills or radioactive contamination, collecting marine microplastics or even excavating plaque from human arteries, Levin said in a statement.

Creations that blur the line between robots and living organisms are popular subjects in science fiction; think of the killer machines in the "Terminator" movies or the replicants from the world of "Blade Runner." The prospect of so-called living robots and using technology to create living organisms understandably raises concerns for some, said Levin.

"That fear is not unreasonable," Levin said. "When we start to mess around with complex systems that we don't understand, we're going to get unintended consequences."

Nevertheless, building on simple organic forms like the xenobots could also lead to beneficial discoveries, he added.

"If humanity is going to survive into the future, we need to better understand how complex properties, somehow, emerge from simple rules," Levin said.

The findings were published online Jan. 13 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Originally published on Live Science.

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What Does Cancer Metastasis Have to Do with Wound Healing? More than You Might Think – On Cancer – Memorial Sloan Kettering

By daniellenierenberg

Summary

Scientists at the Sloan Kettering Institute have discovered that the ability of cancers to metastasize to other organs is dependent upon their ability to coopt natural wound-healing pathways. The findings provide a new way of looking at metastasis and its possible treatment.

Metastasis the spreading of cancer to other regions in the body is responsible for 90% of cancer deaths. Yet not much is known about what makes cancer cells capable of metastasizing. Now a major study from investigators at the Sloan Kettering Institute concludes that metastasis-initiating cells employ a devilish trick to spread: They co-opt the bodys natural wound-healing abilities.

The new findings, published January 13 in the inaugural issue of the journal Nature Cancer, provide a novel framework for thinking about metastasis and how to treat it.

We now understand metastasis as the regeneration of the wrong tissue the tumor in the wrong place distant vital organs, says Joan Massagu, Director of the Sloan Kettering Institute and the corresponding author on the paper. This is not just a metaphor. It is literally true in molecular and physiological terms.

There were previously clues that cancers might make use of wound-healing pathways to support their growth. Back in the 1980s, researcher Harold Dvorak dubbed tumors wounds that do not heal. But the new findings present the first detailed picture of how this process works on the level of cells and molecules and there are plenty of surprises.

This is not just a metaphor. It is literally true in molecular and physiological terms.

Though metastasis is deadly, its not something that cancer cells can do easily. To spread, cancer cells must successfully detach from their neighbors, break through tissue layers separating them from the circulation, swim or crawl to a new location in the body through blood or lymph fluid, exit these vessels, then take root and start growing in the new location.

At each step in this process, the majority of loose cancer cells die off. Fewer than 1% of all cancer cells shed from a tumor will ultimately form measurable metastases. But those that do will have proven themselves to be unusually hearty.

Once cancer cells learn how to survive the stress of living in a foreign environment, theyre very difficult to get rid of, says Karuna Ganesh, a physician-scientist in the Molecular Pharmacology Program at SKI and the papers first author. They are a completely different entity from the tumor that they started off in. But not, it seems, because they have different mutations.

Dr. Ganesh and her colleagues wanted to understand what enables some cells to survive this stressful journey. They homed in on a molecule called L1CAM, which previous studies from the Massagu lab had shown is necessary for numerous types of cancer cells to successfully metastasize to organs. Normal healthy tissues do not typically make L1CAM, but advanced cancers often do. Exactly what triggers the expression of L1CAM has so far been a mystery.

From looking at human tumor tissues under a microscope, it was clear to the researchers that dividing cells with L1CAM were more common in areas where an epithelial layer was disrupted that is, wounded. This led the scientists to wonder whether L1CAM is required for normal wound repair, such as occurs in the intestine following colitis. Using a mouse model of colitis, they found that indeed this was the case.

Next, they wanted to know exactly what it is about the wounding process that causes cells to switch on L1CAM. To find out, they turned to a recently developed technology called tissue organoids. These three-dimensional structures are grown from human cells and in many ways resemble human organs. Working with MSK colorectal cancer surgeon Julio Garcia-Aguilar, Dr. Ganesh was able to obtain fresh samples of metastatic colorectal tumors, which she then grew in jelly until they formed three-dimensional tumor organoids.

Using these tumor organoids, she and her colleagues were able to show that simply separating cells from their neighbors was enough to trigger L1CAM production. Whats more, the organoids enabled the researchers to work out in detail the molecular signals that switch on L1CAM.

Why would metastasis-initiating cells share a marker of wound healing? Fundamentally, wounds are a breach in the integrity of the epithelial layer of our skin: Cells that are normally linked tightly to each other to form a protective barrier are suddenly separated from their neighbors. Similarly, in metastasis, cells detach from their neighbors and adopt a migratory behavior to reach new locations. The researchers suspect that the wound repair program equips both types of cells to survive this anchorless state. In the first case, it allows cells to move into the breach and make new tissues, which is a good thing; in the second, it enables metastatic cells to detach and colonize new destinations, which is very bad.

Metastasis is wound healing gone wrong, Dr. Ganesh says.

What Is Metastatic Cancer? Answers to Six Common Questions

Learn about MSKs approach to treating cancer that has spread from the original tumor to other parts of the body.

Since previous researchers had linked cancer growth to wound healing, the SKI scientists asked whether cells that produce L1CAM are necessary to initiate the growth of a primary tumor. Using a mouse model, they found somewhat surprisingly that they were not; tumors formed fine without it. However, these L1CAM-making cells were necessary for tumors to metastasize. This led the researchers to conclude that the stem cells that form primary tumors are different from the ones that form metastases.

Scientists are increasingly interested in cancer stem cells the subset of cells within a tumor than can regrow a tumor. A crucial lesson from these findings is that cancer models that rely on the growth of primary tumors are not adequate for understanding metastasis or for testing medicines that might treat it. Thats because the stem cells that generate primary tumors are fundamentally different from those that generate metastases.

The SKI scientists think that this newly identified connection between metastasis-initiating cells and wound healing will open up promising avenues of research. They are currently looking for drugs that might block L1CAM and thereby rob cancer cells of their ability to metastasize. They plan to continue collaborating with MSK colleagues to bring these insights to the patients in the clinic.

There is such astrong translational environment at MSK, Dr. Ganesh adds. Everybody is eager to collaborate on work that might improve outcomes for patients with metastatic cancer.

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Team Builds the First Living Robots – Newswise

By daniellenierenberg

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SCIENCE

Newswise A book is made of wood. But it is not a tree. The dead cells have been repurposed to serve another need.

Now a team of scientists has repurposed living cells--scraped from frog embryos--and assembled them into entirely new life-forms. These millimeter-wide "xenobots" can move toward a target, perhaps pick up a payload (like a medicine that needs to be carried to a specific place inside a patient)--and heal themselves after being cut.

"These are novel living machines," saysJoshua Bongard, a computer scientist and robotics expert at the University of Vermont who co-led the new research. "They're neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal. It's a new class of artifact: a living, programmable organism."

The new creatures were designed on a supercomputer at UVM--and then assembled and tested by biologists at Tufts University. "We can imagine many useful applications of these living robots that other machines can't do," says co-leader Michael Levin who directs theCenter for Regenerative and Developmental Biologyat Tufts, "like searching out nasty compounds or radioactive contamination, gathering microplastic in the oceans, traveling in arteries to scrape out plaque."

The results of the new research were published January 13 in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

BESPOKE LIVING SYSTEMS

People have been manipulating organisms for human benefit since at least the dawn of agriculture, genetic editing is becoming widespread, and a few artificial organisms have been manually assembled in the past few years--copying the body forms of known animals.

But this research, for the first time ever, "designs completely biological machines from the ground up," the team writes in their new study.

With months of processing time on the Deep Green supercomputer cluster at UVM'sVermont Advanced Computing Core, the team--including lead author and doctoral student Sam Kriegman--used an evolutionary algorithm to create thousands of candidate designs for the new life-forms. Attempting to achieve a task assigned by the scientists--like locomotion in one direction--the computer would, over and over, reassemble a few hundred simulated cells into myriad forms and body shapes. As the programs ran--driven by basic rules about the biophysics of what single frog skin and cardiac cells can do--the more successful simulated organisms were kept and refined, while failed designs were tossed out. After a hundred independent runs of the algorithm, the most promising designs were selected for testing.

Then the team at Tufts, led by Levin and with key work by microsurgeon Douglas Blackiston--transferred the in silico designs into life. First they gathered stem cells, harvested from the embryos of African frogs, the speciesXenopus laevis. (Hence the name "xenobots.") These were separated into single cells and left to incubate. Then, using tiny forceps and an even tinier electrode, the cells were cut and joined under a microscope into a close approximation of the designs specified by the computer.

Assembled into body forms never seen in nature, the cells began to work together. The skin cells formed a more passive architecture, while the once-random contractions of heart muscle cells were put to work creating ordered forward motion as guided by the computer's design, and aided by spontaneous self-organizing patterns--allowing the robots to move on their own.

These reconfigurable organisms were shown to be able move in a coherent fashion--and explore their watery environment for days or weeks, powered by embryonic energy stores. Turned over, however, they failed, like beetles flipped on their backs.

Later tests showed that groups of xenobots would move around in circles, pushing pellets into a central location--spontaneously and collectively. Others were built with a hole through the center to reduce drag. In simulated versions of these, the scientists were able to repurpose this hole as a pouch to successfully carry an object. "It's a step toward using computer-designed organisms for intelligent drug delivery," says Bongard, a professor in UVM'sDepartment of Computer ScienceandComplex Systems Center.

LIVING TECHNOLOGIES

Many technologies are made of steel, concrete or plastic. That can make them strong or flexible. But they also can create ecological and human health problems, like the growing scourge of plastic pollution in the oceans and the toxicity of many synthetic materials and electronics. "The downside of living tissue is that it's weak and it degrades," say Bongard. "That's why we use steel. But organisms have 4.5 billion years of practice at regenerating themselves and going on for decades." And when they stop working--death--they usually fall apart harmlessly. "These xenobots are fully biodegradable," say Bongard, "when they're done with their job after seven days, they're just dead skin cells."

Your laptop is a powerful technology. But try cutting it in half. Doesn't work so well. In the new experiments, the scientists cut the xenobots and watched what happened. "We sliced the robot almost in half and it stitches itself back up and keeps going," says Bongard. "And this is something you can't do with typical machines."

CRACKING THE CODE

Both Levin and Bongard say the potential of what they've been learning about how cells communicate and connect extends deep into both computational science and our understanding of life. "The big question in biology is to understand the algorithms that determine form and function," says Levin. "The genome encodes proteins, but transformative applications await our discovery of how that hardware enables cells to cooperate toward making functional anatomies under very different conditions."

To make an organism develop and function, there is a lot of information sharing and cooperation--organic computation--going on in and between cells all the time, not just within neurons. These emergent and geometric properties are shaped by bioelectric, biochemical, and biomechanical processes, "that run on DNA-specified hardware," Levin says, "and these processes are reconfigurable, enabling novel living forms."

The scientists see the work presented in their newPNASstudy--"A scalable pipeline for designing reconfigurable organisms,"--as one step in applying insights about this bioelectric code to both biology and computer science. "What actually determines the anatomy towards which cells cooperate?" Levin asks. "You look at the cells we've been building our xenobots with, and, genomically, they're frogs. It's 100% frog DNA--but these are not frogs. Then you ask, well, what else are these cells capable of building?"

"As we've shown, these frog cells can be coaxed to make interesting living forms that are completely different from what their default anatomy would be," says Levin. He and the other scientists in the UVM and Tufts team--with support from DARPA's Lifelong Learning Machines program and the National Science Foundation-- believe that building the xenobots is a small step toward cracking what he calls the "morphogenetic code," providing a deeper view of the overall way organisms are organized--and how they compute and store information based on their histories and environment.

FUTURE SHOCKS

Many people worry about the implications of rapid technological change and complex biological manipulations. "That fear is not unreasonable," Levin says. "When we start to mess around with complex systems that we don't understand, we're going to get unintended consequences." A lot of complex systems, like an ant colony, begin with a simple unit--an ant--from which it would be impossible to predict the shape of their colony or how they can build bridges over water with their interlinked bodies.

"If humanity is going to survive into the future, we need to better understand how complex properties, somehow, emerge from simple rules," says Levin. Much of science is focused on "controlling the low-level rules. We also need to understand the high-level rules," he says. "If you wanted an anthill with two chimneys instead of one, how do you modify the ants? We'd have no idea."

"I think it's an absolute necessity for society going forward to get a better handle on systems where the outcome is very complex," Levin says. "A first step towards doing that is to explore: how do living systems decide what an overall behavior should be and how do we manipulate the pieces to get the behaviors we want?"

In other words, "this study is a direct contribution to getting a handle on what people are afraid of, which is unintended consequences," Levin says--whether in the rapid arrival of self-driving cars, changing gene drives to wipe out whole lineages of viruses, or the many other complex and autonomous systems that will increasingly shape the human experience.

"There's all of this innate creativity in life," says UVM's Josh Bongard. "We want to understand that more deeply--and how we can direct and push it toward new forms."

###

SEE ORIGINAL STUDY

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Celgene exec jumps to head bluebird bio ops in Europe, where its $1.8M gene therapy Zynteglo is now available – Endpoints News

By daniellenierenberg

Days after shaking hands with German regulators over the launch and coverage of its beta-thalassemia gene therapy, bluebird bio has wooed a Celgene exec to lead its European operations.

Nicola Heffron, a biopharma vet with stints across Eli Lilly, GSK and Shire, jumps from a brief tenure overseeing marketing for Celgenes myeloid portfolio in Summit, NJ. She will now be based in Zug, Switzerland.

Shes replacing Andrew Obenshain as he joins CEO Nick Leschly and the leadership team in Boston, according to Bloomberg, which first reported the news. Obenshains new title is chief of wings.

On Monday bluebird announced that Germany will be the first country to commercially offer Zynteglo, their procedure encoding A-T87Q-globin gene in CD34+ cells extracted from patients. Under their value-based payment scheme, the $1.8 million price is divided into five installments. After an initial payment is made at the time of infusion, the payers wait and see and only pay if the patients continue to be transfusion-free.

Multiple statutory health insurances have signed onto the plan, bluebird said, and University Hospital of Heidelberg will host the first qualified treatment center.

The biotech has been busy sorting out manufacturing specs and talking to individual countries since the EU issued an historic OK last June. Its sanctioned for a specific group of beta-thalassemia patients those who are 12 years and older, transfusion dependent, do not have a 0/0 genotype and for whom hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is appropriate but a donor is not available.

For patients with TDT, lifelong chronic blood transfusions are required in order to survive, bluebird chief commercial officer Alison Finger emphasized in a statement. Their one-time infusion promises to do away with the transfusions for good.

A rolling BLA submission to the FDA has begun, bluebird added.

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What Are Poblano Peppers? Nutrition, Benefits, and Uses – Healthline

By daniellenierenberg

Poblano peppers (Capsicum annuum) are a type of chili pepper native to Mexico that can add zing to your meals.

Theyre green and resemble other varieties of peppers, but they tend to be larger than jalapeos and smaller than bell peppers.

Fresh poblanos have a mild, slightly sweet flavor, although if they are left to ripen until theyre red, they taste much hotter.

Dried poblano peppers that are fully ripe and deep red are known as ancho chiles, a popular ingredient in mole sauces and other Mexican dishes.

This article provides a complete overview of poblano peppers, including their possible benefits and uses.

Poblanos are low in calories and rich in fiber and several micronutrients.

In fact, 1 cup (118 grams) of chopped raw poblano peppers provides (1):

Poblanos are particularly rich in vitamins A and C. These two nutrients act as antioxidants in your body and help fight underlying damage from free radicals, which may lead to disease (2).

Dried poblano peppers, or ancho chiles, have higher amounts of vitamins A and B2 and other nutrients, compared with fresh poblanos (3).

Poblano peppers are rich in fiber, vitamins A and C, and several other nutrients.

Due to their high amounts of nutrients and beneficial plant compounds, poblano peppers may provide health benefits.

However, there is no substantial research on the health effects of eating poblanos in particular.

Poblanos and other peppers in the Capsicum annuum family are rich in antioxidants, such as vitamin C, capsaicin, and carotenoids, some of which turn into vitamin A in your body (4).

Antioxidants help fight oxidative stress caused by excess free radicals.

Free radicals are reactive molecules that lead to underlying cell damage, which in turn may increase your risk of heart disease, cancer, dementia, and other chronic conditions (5).

Therefore, eating antioxidant-rich poblanos may help prevent illness related to oxidative stress (6, 7).

Capsaicin, a compound in poblanos and other peppers that imparts a spicy taste, may exert anticancer effects.

Specifically, capsaicin may influence genes involved in the spread of cancer and promote cancer cell death, though its role in this process is not fully understood (8).

Test-tube studies suggest that capsaicin may exert anticancer activity against human lung and colorectal cancer cells (9, 10).

However, a review of 10 observational studies in humans found that low capsaicin intake was associated with protection against stomach cancer, while medium-high intake may increase the risk of this disease (11).

More research is needed to fully understand whether eating poblano peppers and other foods with capsaicin has anticancer effects.

Capsaicin may also fight inflammation and help alleviate pain.

Some studies suggest that it binds to nerve cell receptors and, in turn, decreases inflammation and pain (12, 13).

There is limited research on the effects of dietary capsaicin, especially from poblano peppers, on pain. Still, studies in humans and rats suggest that capsaicin supplements may fight inflammation (14, 15).

One study in 376 adults with inflammatory bowel diseases and other gastrointestinal issues found that capsaicin supplements prevented stomach damage (14).

Still, be sure to consult your healthcare provider before taking capsaicin supplements to treat a medical condition.

Poblano peppers are loaded with vitamin C, a water-soluble nutrient thats vital to immune function. Not getting enough vitamin C can lead to an increased risk of developing an infection (16).

Whats more, the capsaicin in poblano peppers has been linked to optimal immune function.

Several animal studies have shown that capsaicin may influence genes involved in the immune response and help protect against autoimmune conditions (17, 18).

While theres no substantial research on the health effects of eating poblanos specifically, studies on the compounds in these peppers suggest that they may have anticancer effects, help fight inflammation, and even boost immunity.

Poblano peppers can be used in a variety of ways.

They can be enjoyed raw in salsas and other dips, as well as added to chilis, taco meat, or sauces.

To prepare a poblano pepper for these dishes, halve the pepper lengthwise, remove the stem and seeds, and then dice it into pieces.

You can also roast poblano peppers whole and then remove the skin, stem, and seeds.

One of the most popular ways to enjoy poblanos is stuffed with ground meat, beans, rice, spices, corn, and tomatoes.

To make stuffed poblanos, halve the peppers, remove the seeds, and roast them in the oven at 350F (177C) for 1015 minutes.

Stuff each pepper half with filling and sprinkle cheese on top, then put them back in the oven for a few more minutes.

You can enjoy poblano peppers in salsas and tacos, or make stuffed poblanos by filling them with meat, beans, tomatoes, corn, and cheese and baking them in the oven.

Poblano peppers are a mild variety of chili peppers that are highly nutritious and equally delicious.

Theyre rich in vitamins A and C, carotenoids, capsaicin, and other compounds that may act as antioxidants, have anticancer activity, and fight inflammation.

Poblano peppers can be added to soups, tacos, or salsas, or stuffed with meat, beans, rice, and cheese.

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There is a new player in adult bone healing – Baylor College of Medicine News

By daniellenierenberg

Adult bone repair relies on the activation of bone stem cells, which still remain poorly characterized. Bone stem cells have been found both in the bone marrow and in the outer layer of tissue, called periosteum, that envelopes the bone. Of the two, periosteal stem cells are the least understood.

Having a better understanding of how adult bones heal could reveal new ways of repair fractures faster and help find novel treatments for osteoporosis. Dr. Dongsu Park and his colleagues at Baylor College of Medicine investigate adult bone healing and recently uncovered a new mechanism that has potential therapeutic applications.

Previous studies have shown that bone marrow and periosteal stem cells, although they share many characteristics, also have unique functions and specific regulatory mechanisms, said Park, who is assistant professor of molecular and human genetics and of pathology and immunology at Baylor.

It is known that these two types of bone stem cells comprise a heterogeneous population that can contribute to bone thickness, shaping and fracture repair, but scientists had not been able to distinguish between different subtypes of bone stem cells and study how their different functions are regulated.

In the current study, Park and his colleagues developed a method to identify different subpopulations of periosteal stem cells, define their contribution to bone fracture repair in live mouse models and identify specific factors that regulate their migration and proliferation under physiological conditions.

The researchers discovered specific markers for periosteal stem cells in mice. The markers identified a distinct subset of stem cells that showed to be a part of life-long adult bone regeneration.

We also found that periosteal stem cells respond to mechanical injury by engaging in bone healing, Park said. They are important for healing bone fractures in the adult mice and, interestingly, they contribute more to bone regeneration than bone marrow stem cells do.

In addition, the researchers found that periosteal stem cells also respond to inflammatory molecules called chemokines, which are usually produced during bone injury. In particular, they responded to chemokine CCL5.

Periosteal stem cells have receptors molecules on their cell surface called CCR5 that bind to CCL5, which sends a signal to the cells to migrate toward the injured bone and repair it. Deleting the CCL5 or the CCR5 gene in mouse models resulted in marked defects or delayed healing. When the researchers supplied CCL5 to CCL5-deficient mice, bone healing was accelerated.

The findings suggested potential therapeutic applications. For instance, in individuals with diabetes or osteoporosis in which bone healing is slow and may lead to other complications resulting from limited mobility, accelerating bone healing may reduce hospital stay and improve prognosis.

Our findings contribute to a better understanding of how adult bones heal. We think this is one of the first studies to show that bone stem cells are heterogeneous, and that different subtypes have unique properties regulated by specific mechanisms, Park said. We have identified markers that enable us to tell bone stem cell subtypes apart and study what each subtype contributes to bone health. Understanding how bone stem cell functions are regulated offers the possibility to develop novel therapeutic strategies to treat adult bone injuries.

Find all the details of this study in the journal journal Cell Stem Cell.

Other contributors to this work include Laura C. Ortinau, Hamilton Wang, Kevin Lei, Lorenzo Deveza, Youngjae Jeong, Yannis Hara, Ingo Grafe, Scott Rosenfeld, Dongjun Lee, Brendan Lee and David T. Scadden. The authors are affiliated with one of the following institutions: Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Childrens Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Harvard University.

This study was supported by the Bone Disease Program of Texas Award and The CarolineWiess Law Fund Award, the NIAMS of the National Institutes of Health under award numbers 1K01AR061434 and 1R01AR072018 and U54 AR068069 and the NIDDK of the NIH.

By Ana Mara Rodrguez, Ph.D.

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These Are the First Living Robots: Machines Made from Frog Stem Cells – Popular Mechanics

By daniellenierenberg

What happens when you cross stem cells from a frog heart and frog skin? Not muchthat is, until you program those cells to move. In that case, you've created a xenobot, a new type of organism that's part robot, part living thing.

And we've never seen anything like it before.

Researchers from Tufts University, the University of Vermont, and Harvard University have created the first xenobots from frog embryos after designing them with computer algorithms and physically shaping them with surgical precision. The skin-heart embryos are just one millimeter in size, but can accomplish some remarkable things for what they are, like physically squirming toward targets.

"These are novel living machines," Joshua Bongard, a computer scientist and robotics expert at the University of Vermont who co-led the new research, said in a press statement. "They're neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal. It's a new class of artifact: a living, programmable organism."

By studying these curious organisms, researchers hope to learn more about the mysterious world of cellular communication. Plus, these kinds of robo-organisms could possibly be the key to drug delivery in the body or greener environmental cleanup techniques.

"Most technologies are made from steel, concrete, chemicals, and plastics, which degrade over time and can produce harmful ecological and health side effects," the authors note in a research paper published in the scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "It would thus be useful to build technologies using self-renewing and biocompatible materials, of which the ideal candidates are living systems themselves."

Xenobots borrow their name from Xenopus laevis, the scientific name for the African clawed frog from which the researchers harvested the stem cells. To create the little organisms, which scoot around a petri dish a bit like water bearsthose tiny microorganisms that are pretty much impossible to killthe researchers scraped living stem cells from frog embryos. These were separated into single cells and left to incubate.

They differentiated the stem cells into two different kinds: heart and skin cells. The heart cells are capable of expanding and contracting, which ultimately aids the xenobot in locomotion, and the skin cells provide structure. Next, using tiny forceps and an even smaller electrode, the scientists cut the cells and joined them together under a microscope in designs that were specified by a computer algorithm.

Interestingly, the two different kinds of cells did merge together well and created xenobots that could explore their watery environment for days or weeks. When flipped like a turtle on its shell, though, they could no longer move.

Other tests showed whole groups of xenobots are capable of moving in circles and pushing small items to a central location all on their own, without intervention. Some were built with holes in the center to reduce drag and the researchers even tried using the hole as a pouch to let the xenobots carry objects. Bongard said it's a step in the right direction for computer-designed organisms that can intelligently deliver drugs in the body.

Sam Kriegman, UVM

While these xenobots are capable of some spontaneous movement, they can't accomplish any coordinated efforts without the help of computers. Really, xenobots couldn't fundamentally exist without designs created through evolutionary algorithms.

Just as natural selection dictates which members of a species live and which die offbased on certain favorable or unfavorable attributes and ultimately influencing the species' characteristicsevolutionary algorithms can help find beneficial structures for the xenobots.

A team of computer scientists created a virtual world for the xenobots and then ran evolutionary algorithms to see which potential designs for the xenobots could help them move or accomplish some other goal. The algorithm looked for xenobots that performed well at those particular tasks while in a given configuration, and then bred those microorganisms with other xenobots that were considered "fit" enough to survive this simulated natural selection.

In the video above, for example, you can see a simulated version of the xenobot, which is capable of forward movement. The final organism takes on a similar shape to this design and is capable of (slowly) getting around. The red and green squares at the bottom of the structure are active cells, in this case the heart stem cells, while the blueish squares represent the passive skin stem cells.

All of this design work was completed over the course of a few months on the Deep Green supercomputer cluster at the University of Vermont. After a few hundred runs of the evolutionary algorithm, the researchers filtered out the most promising designs. Then, biologists at Tufts University assembled the real xenobots in vitro.

Anything dealing with stem cells is bound to meet at least some flack because detractors take issue with the entire premise of using stem cells, which are harvested from developing embryos.

That's compounded with other practical ethics questions, especially relating to safety and testing. For instance, should the organisms have protections similar to animals or humans when we experiment on them? Could we, ourselves, eventually require protection from the artificially produced creatures?

"When youre creating life, you dont have a good sense of what direction its going to take," Nita Farahany, who studies the ethical ramifications of new technologies at Duke University and was not involved in the study, told Smithsonian Magazine. "Any time we try to harness life [we should] recognize its potential to go really poorly."

Michael Levin, a biophysicist and co-author of the study from Tufts University, said that fear of the unknown in this case is not reasonable:

At its heart, the study is a "direct contribution to getting a handle on what people are afraid of, which is unintended consequences," Levin said.

Source: The University of Vermont

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Stem Cell Assay Market Global Competitive Analytics and Insights 2024 – Voice of Reports

By daniellenierenberg

Regenerative medicine has emerged as new paradigm in human health. It has the potential to resolve unmet medical needs. Rapid growth in the interdisciplinary field of regenerative medicine is altering the health care domain by converting fundamental science into a variety of regenerative technologies. Stem cell is an undifferentiated mass of cell that has the ability to divide indefinite times. It can be further differentiated into specialized cells such as blood cells, skin cells, neurons, heart cells, chondrocytes, and osteocytes under specific conditions. Unspecialized nature, self-renewal capability, and dedifferentiation are the unique features of stem cells. Thus, these cells are useful in different applications in pharmaceutical research and medical fields.

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https://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/stem-cell-assay-market.html

Stem cell research has grown significantly since 1978, when stem cells were discovered in human cord blood. Incidence of cancer is increasing across the globe due to the rise in aging population and changing lifestyle habits. This, in turn, is boosting the demand for anticancer drugs and therapies. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 14.1 million new cancer cases were diagnosed around the globe in 2012 and around 19.3 million new cancer cases are expected to be diagnosed each year by 2025. Rise in incidences of chronic diseases is boosting the demand for research, making stem cells a highly preferred system for drug discovery due to its self-renewal capability and unspecialized nature.

Over the last decade, the application of cell-based assays has increased at a rapid pace among research institutes and pharmaceutical industries. This was primarily ascribed to the ethical issues associated with the use of animals for clinical trials. Furthermore, rise in approvals of clinical trials for stem cells based therapy, increase in funds from government organizations, and technological advancements are some of the factors driving the stem cell assay market.

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But, human embryonic stem cells, which are derived from inner cell mass of blastocyst are currently high on the political issues ethical concerns in many countries hampering the growth of the market. Additionally, lack of required infrastructure in developing countries and high cost associated with products are some of the factors restraining the stem cell assay market. Evolution of new therapies and low regulatory frameworks in emerging regions are expected to provide opportunities for market growth during the forecast period.

The global stem cell assay market has been segmented based on product, assay type, application, end-user, and region. In terms of product, the market for stem cell assay has been divided into human embryonic stem cell kits and adult stem cell kits. The adult stem cell kits segment is further divided into induced pluripotent stem cells kits, hematopoietic stem cell kits, mesenchymal stem cell kits, umbilical cord stem cell kits, and others.

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The adult stem cell kits segment is expected to account for the prominent share of the global stem cell assay market during the forecast period, led by the rise in product innovation activities and increasing focus on drug screening by biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. Based on assay, the global stem cell assay market has been segregated into viability or cytotoxicity assay, cell identification assay, proliferation assay, differentiation assay, apoptosis assay, isolation & purification assay, and functional assay. Among these, the viability or cytotoxicity assay segment is anticipated to constitute key share of the global stem cell assay market during the forecast period, as cytotoxicity is an unavoidable stage during research.

In terms of application, the global stem cell assay market has been segmented into drug discovery & development, regenerative medicine & therapy development, and clinical research. The regenerative medicine & therapy development segment is anticipated to expand at a rapid pace during the forecast period due to the rise in incidence of Parkinsons, Alzheimers, diabetes, and cancer diseases. This is anticipated to augment the focus on the development of new therapies and innovative drugs. Evolution of new therapies is estimated to provide new opportunities for the growth of the stem cell assay market during the forecast period.

Based in end-user, the global stem cell assay market has been segregated into government research institutes, private research institutes, and industry research. The industry research segment is projected to account for the major share of the global stem cell assay market during the forecast period. Growth in adoption of stem cell assays for drug screening process and testing is likely to drive the segment in the near future.

In terms of geography, the global stem cell assay market has been divided into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to dominate the global stem cell assay market during the forecast period. Governmental initiatives for stem cell based research in North America are anticipated to boost the stem cell assay market in the region. The stem cell assay market in Asia Pacific is estimated to expand at a rapid pace; it is projected to overtake Europe in the near future. Development in the clinical research field and rise in patient pool are projected to augment the adoption of stem cell assay in Asia Pacific.

Key players operating in the stem cell assay market are Thermo Fisher Scientific,Merck KGaA, Promega Corporation, STEMCELL Technologies Inc., Bio-Techne Corporation, GE Healthcare, Cellular Dynamics International Inc., Hemogenix, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., and Cell Biolabs Inc.

I am Sheila Shipman and I have over 16 years experience in the financial services industry giving me a vast understanding of how news affects the financial markets.

I am an active day trader spending the majority of my time analyzing earnings reports and watching commodities and derivatives. I have a Masters Degree in Economics from Westminster University with previous roles counting Investment Banking.

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Experts from the Mayo clinic: Spots on the skin can indicate cancer of the blood – The Times Hub

By daniellenierenberg

Experts from the Mayo clinic warned that spots on the skin may signal a blood cancer. In connection with what experts suggest as soon as possible to go to the doctor when the symptom of.

Leukemia is a cancer primarily occurs in the bone marrow as a result of mutations in blood stem cell. The consequence is the loss of the descendants of the mutated cells ability to differentiate to Mature blood cells. The danger of the disease is that the symptoms are not specific, often among the signs unexplained weight loss, fever and chills. The experts considered it important to warn you that spots on the skin can indicate cancer of the blood that allows an early identification is a deadly health hazard. Among the other important symptoms of blood cancer: swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen, frequent nosebleeds, excessive sweating, especially at night, bone pain, constant fatigue, recurrent infections.

With regard to treatment, the experts from Mayo clinic said: chemotherapy is the main form of treatment. Biological therapy works by using methods that help the immune system to recognize cancer cells and attack them. Among the methods of struggle with a deadly disease and radiation therapy, which destroys leukemia cells and stop their growth. Among the solutions and stem cell transplantation is bone marrow transplantation. The essence of the procedure is that the blood stream is filled with healthy blood cells, which often helps to restore normal functioning of the hematopoietic system.

Natasha Kumar is a general assignment reporter at the Times Hub. She has covered sports, entertainment and many other beats in her journalism career, and has lived in Manhattan for more than 8 years. Natasha has appeared periodically on national television shows and has been published in (among others) Hindustan Times.? Times of India

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Cosmetic Skin Care Market Competitive Insights, Trends and Demand Growth 2019 to 2026 – Food & Beverage Herald

By daniellenierenberg

This Cosmetic Skin Care market report endows with a far-reaching survey of key players in the market which is based on a range of objectives of an organization such as profiling, the product outline, the quantity of production, required raw material, and the financial health of the organization. One of the sections in the report covers the evaluation of probabilities of the new investment projects and overall research conclusions are offered. Thus, the transparent, truthful and extensive market information and data included in this global industry report will definitely help develop business and improve return on investment (ROI).

Global cosmetic skin care market is set to witness a substantial CAGR of 5.5% in the forecast period of 2019- 2026. The report contains data of the base year 2018 and historic year 2017. Increasing self-consciousness among population and rising demand for anti- aging skin care products are the factor for the market growth.

Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market By Product (Anti-Aging Cosmetic Products, Skin Whitening Cosmetic Products, Sensitive Skin Care Products, Anti-Acne Products, Dry Skin Care Products, Warts Removal Products, Infant Skin Care Products, Anti-Scars Solution Products, Mole Removal Products, Multi Utility Products), Application (Flakiness Reduction, Stem Cells Protection against UV, Rehydrate the skins surface, Minimize wrinkles, Increase the viscosity of Aqueous, Others), Gender (Men, Women), Distribution Channel (Online, Departmental Stores and Convenience Stores, Pharmacies, Supermarket, Others), Geography (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Industry Trends and Forecast to 2026 ;

Complete report on Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market Research Report 2019-2026 spread across 350 Pages, profiling Top companies and supports with tables and figures

Market Definition: Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market

Cosmetic skin care is a variety of products which are used to improve the skins appearance and alleviate skin conditions. It consists different products such as anti- aging cosmetic products, sensitive skin care products, anti- scar solution products, warts removal products, infant skin care products and other. They contain various ingredients which are beneficial for the skin such as phytochemicals, vitamins, essential oils, and other. Their main function is to make the skin healthy and repair the skin damages.

Key Questions Answered in Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market Report:-Our Report offers:-

Top Key Players:

Market Drivers:

Market Restraints:

Key Developments in the Market:

Customize report of Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market as per customers requirement also available.Market Segmentations:Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market is segmented on the basis of

Market Segmentations in Details:By Product

By Application

By Gender

By Distribution Channel

By GeographyNorth America

Europe

Asia-Pacific

South America

Middle East & Africa

Competitive Analysis: Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market

Global cosmetic skin care market is highly fragmented and the major players have used various strategies such as new product launches, expansions, agreements, joint ventures, partnerships, acquisitions, and others to increase their footprints in this market. The report includes market shares of cosmetic skin care market for Global, Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific, South America and Middle East & Africa.

About Data Bridge Market Research:Data Bridge Market Researchset forth itself as an unconventional and neoteric Market research and consulting firm with unparalleled level of resilience and integrated approaches. We are determined to unearth the best market opportunities and foster efficient information for your business to thrive in the market. Data Bridge endeavors to provide appropriate solutions to the complex business challenges and initiates an effortless decision-making process.

Contact:Data Bridge Market ResearchTel: +1-888-387-2818Email:[emailprotected]

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"I tried four natural face masks in one week. Here’s exactly what they did for my skin." – Mamamia

By daniellenierenberg

Also, I think we're all trying to be kinder to the environment with our lifestyle choices, and unlike most sheet masks on the market, it's made with100 per cent natural cotton fibres that will biodegrade six months after use. The packaging itself is recyclable too.

If you've ever watched one of those videos of a baby smiling with glee after they try chocolate for the first time, that was me with chemical exfoliation. Unlike scrubs which use psychical exfoliation to buff away at dead skin, chemical exfoliants like AHAs, glycolic acid and lactic acid dissolve dead skin and sebum which can cause breakouts and dull skin.

And when it comes to products which do just that, this cult-favouritemask is one of my personal picks.

Not only does it kind of smell, and look, like theinside of a pumpkin pie, the wonderful combo of glycolic acid, fruit stem cells, Vitamin C, Manuka honey andantioxidant-rich pumpkin puree works to give you the deliciously radiant skin you crave.

In terms of tingliness, there was less sensation than the CannaCell Glow Mask but the results were equally as impressive. My pores appeared tighter, and the texture of my skin felt smoother, brighter and just... better.

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I chased lemurs around Madagascar to help stave off their extinction – Massive Science

By daniellenierenberg

In 2019, Massive Science covered some ground. We wrote about climate change killing off biodiversity, galaxies eating one another, parakeet mate selection, and on and on. We polled the Massive staff for their favorite stories of the year, both in what we worked on and in the outside world. But first, our top five most popular articles of the year:

#5

After another devastating intergovernmental report on wildlife loss, Cassie Freund wrote this urgent call for action. It's the very real end of the world, why isn't anyone acting?

#4

Neuroscience is Massive's bread-and-butter, so Claudia Lopez-Lloreda's story on fish giving up and the brain cells responsible checked a lot of boxes. Next time you quit on something, you'll know who's at fault.

#3

"Unexpected science" is another angle our writers have gotten serious mileage out of, and Darcy Shapiro's article on gorilla teeth, snacks, and how that changes human history is a classic of the genre.

#2

Definitely another "unexpected science" entry, Molly Sargen's story combined math, bridge building, and breakfast food. Now we know our audience likes that and more breakfast food science will be coming in 2020.

#1

It's got it all: space and a vague sex angle. What more could you want? You might say that Mackenzie Thornbury's article went viral. We won't though.

Sometimes though, what we think is cool and what you all think is cool doesn't match up. We're not mad about though, we know disagreement is natural. Not mad at all. Here are our personal faves that we think you should give a second shot. No pressure though!

Or, as it was more affectionately known in the Slack channel: Babies...in...SPAAAAAAACE.

Another Cassie Freund work on the actual human effort to get around conservation efforts that other humans are employing to save the planet.

"Connecting brains" is a sub-genre of our normal neuroscience work and Jordan Harrod wrote one of the best ones we've ever seen.

Yeah, the science is cool, the writing is great, but you know what really spiced up Luyi Cheng's debut article? The gifs.

We love all Our Science Heroes equally, but there's something about du Chtelet. If a man had had her adventurous, influential life that included standing on Newton's shoulders and having Voltaire as a kept man, there'd be movies made about that man's life. This is our pitch for a du Chtelet biopic. Hollywood, please call us.

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From stylish clothes to indoor gardening, 9 tips and trends to try this winter – Commercial Appeal

By daniellenierenberg

Jean Chen Smith, Correspondent for Memphis Commercial Appeal Published 6:00 a.m. CT Jan. 10, 2020

During the first part of winter, the holidays can be all-consuming from shopping to stressing to spending time with friends and family.But there's so much more to the season than that.

Here are nine tips and trends to keep things fresh this winter:

With shorter days and busy schedules, it becomes more difficult to eat delicious and nutritious meals. Heres where Fresh n Lean comes in. This healthy and convenient service was conceptualized by founder Laureen Asseo while preparing meals for friends and family during a time when her father was facing serious health concerns. The meal delivery service provides specialized categories such as Keto, Paleo and Vegan using the highest quality organic ingredients without preservatives or added sugar.The cost is as low as $11 a meal, and menu choices include dishes such as Coconut Chicken Curry with Mixed Vegetables and Chile Lime Salmon with Broccoli.The dishes are never frozen and can be heated up in less than 3 minutes.

Details: freshnlean.com

Bring the outdoors inside with the AeroGarden Harvest Elite Slim.(Photo: AeroGarden)

With the AeroGarden Harvest Elite ($125), you can grow an indoor garden of gourmet herbs, heirloom salad greens, red heirloom cherry tomatoes or cascading petunias. Easy to use and sleek with a premium brushed stainless-steel finish, the AeroGarden requires minimal care and can be set on vacation mode, all the while dressing up the kitchen countertop.

Details: aerogarden.com/harvest-elite-slim.html

... Or maybe it never left. When more is required of you than the Casual Friday outfit, men will find the Treffort Contemporary Fit Signature Oxford Shirt ($165) is a wardrobe essential for any office.The mens shirts are made with premium 100% Egyptian and Turkish cotton, using organic colorants that boast unique patterns to create soft comfort with minimal creasing. The company strives for eco-friendly production without sacrificing quality.

Details: treffortshirts.com

The SOUVENIR Toulouse Top is inspired by world travel.(Photo: SOUVENIR)

The silk Moroccan-inspired Toulouse Top ($300) bySOUVENIR is a beautiful novelty printed silk top that is super versatile.It can be worn with a structured woven jacket for a business lunch, free flowing out to dinner or as a pullover on vacation.Based in Los Angeles, the brand is inspired by travel and world culture, with a focus on bright colors and fun prints.

Details: escapetosouvenir.com

Just because its cold outside and you need to bundle up doesnt mean you cant look good.For men, Obermeyers Down Snowshirt ($159) is the perfect remedy with itscasual, lightweight fabric and engineered quilting. Featuring certified 550 Fill Power Duck Down, snap placket, cuffs, chest and hand warmer pockets, it can be worn as a layering piece or as a casual top.

Details: obermeyer.com

Orvis men's flannel provides casual warmth.(Photo: Orvis)

Orvis Mens Flat Creek Tech Flannel ($98) is comfortable and made from recycled oyster shells and PET polyester (think plastic bottles) to create an eco-blend that is then brushed to a soft hand.

Details: http://www.orvis.com

Available for both men and women, Gobi Heats outerwear such as the Victoria Heated Puffer Coat and Sahara Mens Heated Jacket are wind- and water-resistant, keeping you warm and dry throughout the season.Stylish and comfortable, the jackets have an easy one-touch LED controller with three heat settings: low, medium and high.

Details: gobiheat.com

Frances Austen cashmere Is the ultimate staple for your winter wardrobe.(Photo: Frances Austen)

Cashmere is one of the most precious and sought-after fibers because of its soft, silken feel.Frances Austenmakes the same heirloom-quality luxury cashmere that your grandmother owned, but at a more reasonable price point. The company partners with Scotland-basedJohnstons of Elgin, sweater manufacturer to big European fashion houses, and only releases two collections a year.The companys best-seller, Raw Edge Crew Neck(prices vary), is spun in Italy and perfectly matches with a pair of dress pants or jeans. It's also available in a colorblock version.

Details: francesausten.com

Lascanas Quilt Panel Moto Jacket ($89) is not only stylish and reasonably priced, it looks like the real deal while it is faux leather. With chic rose gold zippers and a flattering fit, this is a great item for any size and shape.

Details: http://www.lascana.com

Cat lovers will rejoice at how easy it is to feed fresh, human-grade food to their furry friend with Smalls, which ships directly to your door. The company makes freeze-dried raw kibble and treats that are specifically tailored to fit your cats nutritional needs. You simply add warm water, mix and serve.Smalls believes in giving back and works with shelters and animal nonprofits across the United States to provide quality food to cats in need.With their Shelter Program, shelters can order Smalls in bulk at cost-pricing.

Details: smallsforsmalls.com

The new CannaCell line from Andalou Naturals is super-powered by antioxidants from hemp stem cells, which help to defend against free radicals and counteract premature aging due to oxidative damage, pollutionand UV sun exposure. Hemp stem cells and hemp seed oil provide the skin with nourishing proteins, nutrients and minerals so that the products penetrate the skin for optimal results.

Details: andalou.com

Check out Revos 1985 sunglasses collection, which pays homage to the '80s with sixclassic unisex frame styles that not only look great but are also functional. Heralded as the leader in polarized lens technology, the brand was created using technology developed by NASA as solar protection for satellites.

Details: http://www.revo.com

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What will be the biggest scientific breakthrough of 2020? – Stuff.co.nz

By daniellenierenberg

Cheap, re-purposed cancer drugs, negative carbon-emissions technology, calculating how fast the universe is expandingand huge leaps forward in quantum computing.

Will one of these be the biggest scientific breakthrough of 2020?

We asked a handful of New Zealand's top scientists what "Eureka!" moments might be on the cards next year but even with their formidable combined brain power and expertise, some found it hard to answer and hinted it was difficult to sheet home specific advances to any one year.

And, as one scientist says, 2020's most ground-breaking discovery may come as a total surprise, made accidentally by a student in a lab late one night.

READ MORE:*Scientists are baffled: What's up with the universe?*Medicine already in use may help cancer treatments*Roger Hanson: How you figure out the age of the universe*Doing my part not only to be carbon neutral but carbon negative

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2020's most ground-breaking discovery may come as a total surprise, made accidentally by a student in a lab late one night.

Wellington's Gillies McIndoe Research Institute is carrying out cutting-edge research into ways of treating cancer without radiotherapy, chemotherapy or surgery.

The institute's founder and executive director, Dr Swee Tan, believes significant steps will be made in 2020 towards "re-purposing" existing drugs for cancer treatment.

Tan, a plastic surgeon and medical researcher who has received international recognition for dealing with life-threatening and disfiguring conditions, saiddrugs licensed and marketed for a particular treatment often had other benefits.

"They can be re-purposed for another condition, for the treatment of cancer. This is usually with drugs that have been around for some time they are off-patent, so they become generic, which means they cost next to nothing.

"Another advantage is their safety profile is well understood."

Wellington's Gillies McIndoe Research Institute's founder and executive director, Dr Swee Tan, believes significant steps will be made in 2020 towards "re-purposing" existing drugs for cancer treatment.

Globally, 18 million new cancer cases are diagnosed each year, resulting in nearly 10 million deaths.

"In New Zealand alone, new cancer cases are about 25,000 a year, and on top of that there are 11,000 non-melanoma skin cancers.

"The incidence of cancer is predicted to increase by 50 per cent by 2035, which is just around the corner. We are completely unprepared for that."

The increased incidence of cancer largely bowel, breast, prostate and lung cancers, and melanoma is mostly because people are living longer and due to lifestyle and diet, Tan says.

"Part of the problem now is the expense of treatment. In New Zealand, we spend $1 billion a year to treat cancer, and that is just the fiscal cost, that doesn't count emotional or personal.

"The cost is escalating because of the novel cancer drugsand, at some point, we are not going to be able to afford treatment for cancer.

"This creates disparity in access to treatment because some of these drugs are not funded and, if you have the means, you can buy it, but I don't think that is a good way to run a society. I think a society should allow people to access healthcare, regardless of personal circumstance."

Royal Society Te Aprangi/VIMEO

New Zealand is as vulnerable as all countries to the global growth in antimicrobial resistance that is making some diseases untreatable. Dr Siouxsie Wiles, a microbiologist from the University of Auckland, a Royal Society Te Aprangi Councillor and an expert adviser on the report on antimicrobial resistance produced by Royal Society Te Aprangi explains why it is such a big issue for us.

The institute has been undertaking a clinical trial based on drug re-purposing to control cancer stem cells, the proposed origin of cancer.

"It consists of a combination of low-cost, off-patent, oral medications to control cancer stem cells. We believe this would be more effective than using a single drug.

"For the cost of the drug itself, it costs about $4000 a year a patient, compared with the average cancer treatment, which is about $50,000 per patient.

"You have to prove it is effective first. The big issue with drug re-purposing is 'big pharma' is not interested because there is no money in it. The only way that we can realise the potential is for philanthropy and government to support initiatives like this."

Propranolol, a beta-blocker, had been added to the treatment for melanoma and angiosarcoma.

During 2020, GMRI would also be working on treatments for disfiguring keloid scars.

"They can cause quite significant issues with quality of life. They affect about 2 per cent of the general population, but in dark-skinned races, especially from the African continent, incidence can be up to 16 per cent.

"Treatment is really quite unsatisfactory, hence the reason why we are researching a solution. If you do surgery to remove it, almost every single one returns. Sometimes surgery is followed by radiotherapy to prevent recurrence. Topical chemotherapy is also used.

"What we have found is stem cells as the underlying problem. We are doing further work, which may allow us to develop a simpler, more effective, low-cost treatment taken by mouth, or by applying to the keloid lesion directly."

University of Auckland molecular biologist Dr Hilary Sheppard, a specialist in developmental and stem-cell biology, thinks there will be more emphasis next year on the gene-editing of adult cells.

University of Auckland microbiologist,associate professor Siouxsie Wiles, a specialist in infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance, says there are "desperately" needed breakthroughs in her field next year and beyond, including:

- Rapid "bedside" diagnostic tests that are cheap and can tell the medical practitioner if the patient has a bacterial or viral infection "a bonus if it can tell, if bacterial, what antibiotics would kill the bacterium responsible".

- Effective vaccines for tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, Staphylococcus aureus, Group A and B Streptococci, giardia "I could go on and on".

- Drugs that can kill carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae "a very scary group of organisms that are becoming untreatable".

"The other breakthroughs we need aren't scientific, they are political," she says.

"[We need] a global agreement on tackling antimicrobial resistance, which would include incentives to bring the pharmaceutical industry back in to antimicrobial development.

"Failing that, nationalisation of pharmaceutical companies so that development of drugs isn't a for-profit initiative."

Phil Doyle/Stuff

University of Auckland microbiologist, associate professor Siouxsie Wiles, says a global agreement on tackling antimicrobial resistance is desperately needed.

University of Auckland molecular biologist Dr Hilary Sheppard, a specialist in developmental and stem-cell biology, thinks there will be more emphasis next year on the gene-editing of adult cells.

"We have seen some major breakthroughs this year, such as the versatile tool which allows for gene-editing with increased precision over existing tools so the technique is becoming more reliable and safer. Hopefully, next year, we will see these newer techniques being tested in clinically relevant cells.

"As part of that, I hope we will see a community-wide discussion about the ethics of gene-editing with a particular focus on adult cells. Personally, I do not think we should be editing germline cells or embryos at least not for the next five years, while the ethical issues are debated.

"Part of gene-editing is knowing what DNA sequence needs to be edited, so I think I hope this could be the year where personalised medicine and individual genotyping takes off.

"Our research focuses on patients with a fragile skin condition called epidermolysis bullosa (EB). We are pushing to get patients with EB genotyped so that we can perform gene-editing on their skin cells we can't do anything useful without this information.

"Currently, we are paying for the genotyping out of our research budgets. Of course, genotyping raises its own ethical and societal issues, so I hope we will see more discussion about this."

In 2020, results should start rolling in from clinical trials using edited T-cells against melanoma and edited bone-marrow cells to treat patients with sickle-cell anaemia, Sheppard says.

"These are very exciting times. I'm sure we'll see more clinical trials targeting previously untargeted disorders soon perhaps for conditions like Duchenne muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis."

RNZ

In this podcast, The Detail's Sharon Brettkelly talks to Auckland University physics professor Shaun Hendy about his no-flying mission for the whole of last year.

While Tan, Sheppard and Wiles are looking for discoveries on the tiniest of scales, other scientists are grappling with the biggest question in the universe.

Theoretical cosmologist and University of Auckland professor of physics Richard Easther is among those hoping for a resolution of what has become known as "Hubble tension" a growing disagreement in calculations of how fast the universe is expanding, which has repercussions on its likely age.

The Hubble Constant the number that tells us how fast the universe was expanding has always been hard to measure, he says.

"There was a period of time when a whole different bunch of approaches to measuring it had converged on a single value, which is fascinating. But just over the last couple of years, it seems like there are now two different sets of numbers you get and they've pulled apart a little bit.

"You know, there's this joke that science isn't so much about people saying 'Eureka!' but about someone looking at something and going, 'well, you know, that's funny'.

"This is increasingly resembling one of those moments.

"The numbers are clustering around two values one that would put it in the early to mid-70s [kilometres per second per megaparsec], and one that would put it in the mid- to late 60s, and the uncertainty in the measurements is such that they don't really overlap with each other.

"As the individual measurements get more accurate, the sharpness of the disagreement is growing."

University of Auckland physicist, professor Shaun Hendy, is expecting leaps ahead in clean energy in 2020.

Does it matter? Of course, Easther says.

"There are different physical assumptions that go into the different measurementsandso, if there is a real discrepancy, it would tell us there's something about the expansion of the universe that we don't understand.

"It's hinting at that. The implication seems to be that the story is one step more complicated than current models of the expanding universe might recognise.

"One thought is, that in one set of numbers, there's something that got missed and kind of got away. The other possibility is, there's something kind of physical, that isn't included in our current thinking of the expanding universe.

"The idea that there is something interesting going on is something that cosmologists over the course of the last year have grown substantially more willing to entertain."

Chris Skelton/STUFF

Nicola Gaston is an Associate Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Auckland and Co-Director of the MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology.

At the University of Otago, associate professor Mikkel Andersen, a physicist in the university's Dodd-Walls Centre for Photonic and Quantum Technologies, has been making astounding international discoveries and controlling the movement of individual atoms in a world-first laboratory experiment.

Such control opens up possibilities for a "second quantum technology revolution" and quantum supremacy, something Andersen says will creep closer in 2020.

The first quantum revolution was made possible by the discovery of quantum mechanics in the 1920s, leading to the development of transistors and lasers, the building blocks of all computers.

In the second, he says quantum computers of fewer than 100 atoms will ultimately be able to out-compete "the world's combined conventional computing power".

"Reaching quantum supremacy means that a quantum computer will be able to do calculations that cannot be done on the world's conventional computers. I do not know if it will happen next year, but it will happen eventually.

"In recent years, Google, IBM, Microsoft and a lot of others have invested enormously in development of quantum computers. Quantum supremacy is likely still some years away, but it is one of those things that would clear all the headlines if it happened in 2020."

University of Auckland physicist,professor Shaun Hendy, agrees.

"Google declared quantum supremacy last month they demonstrated that a quantum computer could beat a conventional computer, albeit at a very niche task.

"We'll see more of this next year, as quantum computers start to stretch their legs just don't expect to see one on your phone any time soon."

Ross Giblin

Victoria University of Wellington's professor James Renwick hopes to see breakthroughs in climate change science which reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Hendy is also expecting leaps ahead in clean energy in 2020.

"We will continue to see the cost of solar and battery technologies fall, to the extent that they will start to disrupt other energy systems. We have seen this already in Australia, where it has become a defining political issue.

"It will play out differently in New Zealand, because our grid is already more than 80 per cent renewable, while many of our industrial energy systems are not. Expect to see some of our big industrial corporates Fonterra, NZ Steel etc moving to greener industrial processes."

Victoria University of Wellington's Professor James Renwick, head of the school of geography, environment and earth sciences, hopes to see breakthroughs in climate change science which reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

He points to work being done at the Cawthron Institute in Nelson into the benefits of using the seaweed Asparagopsis armata as cattle feed. Chemicals in the red seaweed reduce microbes in the stomachs of cattle that make them burp when eating grass.

Renwick is also excited about the use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to help with severe weather prediction.

"Weather forecasters are totally inundated with information these days, volumes of radar data and satellite data coming through every 10 minutes. So, AI can help in making sense of all that, and what is the most important in determining where, for example, a severe storm will happen."

University of Otago associate professor Mikkel Andersen believes a "second quantum technology revolution" and quantum supremacy will creep closer in 2020.

Auckland University of Technology senior lecturer Dr Mahsa Mohaghegh also foresees huge steps forward in AI and its applications next year and beyond.

"In the medical sector, AI is being used to speed up symptom recognition and diagnosis. Early warning signs can be easily detected, allowing fast reaction.

"Environment and climate monitoring using AI can assist with weather-cycle predictions, frost warnings, and harvest alerts. Automated irrigation is possible using moisture and temperature sensors."

There are also uses in New Zealand's burgeoning space industry, in traffic management and in the "smart home" of the future, she says.

"New Zealand is a leader and frontrunner in the development of AI and related fields. The next 10 years of technology development are set to be exciting."

David White

Auckland University of Technology senior lecturer Dr Mahsa Mohaghegh foresees huge steps forward in AI and its applications next year.

University of Auckland physicist, associate professor Nicola Gaston, co-director of the Victoria University of Wellington-hosted MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, told Stuff scientific discovery did not happen "one year at a time".

"Discoveries that impact on our lives next year will be built on work that has been going on for decades. The biggest discoveries of next year will be the ones that impact on our lives in a decade or two.

"But there is no competition between this fundamental scientific work of discovery and the development of technologies. The two go in tandemand, perhaps in 2020, we can try to appreciate that."

That may be finding a way of moving to negative emissions technologies, or changing the chemistry of materials so they are recyclable and avoid environmental pollution.

"The most important breakthrough of 2020 will be one that none of us sees.

"It'll be a dedicated student or post-doc in a lab somewhere, or up late at night on a computer, who solves the last remaining piece of one of the puzzles that underpin so much of what we hope technology can do for us in the future."

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Stem cell therapy on skin: Mechanisms, recent advances and …

By daniellenierenberg

Highlights

Skin stem cells and the mechanism of skin repair: illustrating how skin stem cells are involved in the skin repair process.

Cell products for skin repair: the history of skin repair products and newly emerging medications applying stem cell biology.

Drug reviewing issue of skin cell products: the disputations of dermatological drug development and critical recommendations.

Stem cell products and its clinical applications have been widely discussed in recent years, particularly when the Japanese induced pluripotent stem cells founder Dr. Yamanaka was awarded as Nobel Prize laureate in 2013. For decades, major progresses have been achieved in the stem cell biology field, and more and more evidence showed that skin stem cells are involved in the process of skin repair. Stem/progenitor cells of the epidermis are recognized to play the most essential role in the tissue regeneration of skin. In this review, we first illustrated basic stem cell characteristics and various stem cell subtypes resided in the skin. Second, we provided several literatures to elucidate how stem/progenitor cells collaborate in the process of skin repair with the evidence from animal model studies and invitro experiments. Third, we also introduced several examples of skin cell products on the pharmaceutic market and the ongoing clinical trials aiming for unmet medical difficulties of skin. Last but not least, we summarized general reviewing concerns and some disputatious issues on dermatological cell products. With this concise review, we hope to provide further beneficial suggestions for the development of more effective and safer dermatological stem/progenitor cell products in the future.

Cell therapy

Dermatology

Drug reviewing

Recommended articlesCiting articles (0)

2017 Food and Drug Administration, Taiwan. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

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