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Tissue regeneration: Reserve or reverse? – Science Magazine

By daniellenierenberg

A cross section of mouse small intestine, showing intestinal crypts and villi, is visualized with immunofluorescence microscopy (nuclei in red, and F-actin, which marks the cytoskeleton, in blue). Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of crypts, where they maintain cell turnover.

Tissues with high intrinsic turnover, such as the skin and intestinal lining, rely on resident stem cells, which generate all native cell types. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are highly sensitive to damage, although they recover quickly. It is unclear whether this recovery (i.e., regeneration) occurs from less sensitive pools of reserve stem cells (1) or whether ISC progeny undergo reverse differentiation into stem cells (2). Recent studies in diverse organs highlight that dedifferentiation of specified cell types is a pervasive and dominant means for tissue regeneration. The findings have broad implications because all tissues experience some cell attrition over a lifetime, and knowing how tissues replenish those losses may help in preventing or treating organ failure. Moreover, it remains unclear whether incomplete differentiation, a common feature of cancer, reflects normal tissue plasticity, and it is unclear whether stem cells that arise by dedifferentiation may spawn cancers.

ISCs expressing leucine-rich repeatcontaining G proteincoupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) lie at the bottom of small bowel crypts (3). In the course of homeostatic tissue turnover, their immediate progeny adopt alternative enterocyte or secretory fates, then fill the crypts with replicating progenitors that migrate away from ISCs. Cell division ceases at the crypt tops, where postmitotic cells begin a 3- to 5-day journey along intestinal villi. When ISCs sustain irreparable damage, some source in the crypt must regenerate new ISCs. Other adult epitheliasuch as airways, prostate, and liverare organized differently from the intestine and from each other (see the figure). These epithelia also restore cells lost by damage or attrition, even though at rest they turn over at least a hundred times more slowly than the intestinal lining.

Airway epithelial structure varies from trachea to small bronchioles, and distinct progenitors in different segments produce assorted secretory and ciliated cell types. In the lining of human and mouse upper airways, flat basal cells lie beneath a layer of columnar differentiated cells and adjacent to submucosal myoepithelial glands. Stem cell activity in normal tissue turnover maps to a subpopulation of keratin 5 (Krt5)expressing basal cells (4). The trachea and bronchi are vulnerable to diverse injuries, including targeted destruction of Krt5+ stem cells and pervasive mucosal damage from noxious inhalants or viruses.

Adult human and mouse prostate glands also contain columnar luminal and flat KRT5+ basal cells. Distinct unipotent progenitors maintain both populations, and castration induces massive luminal cell loss. Androgen reexposure restores prostate mass within weeks, which implies the presence of castration-resistant progenitors. However, an unequivocal stem cell pool has not been identified. The liver also has notable regenerative abilities after chemical or surgical injury. The emerging consensus is that this organ lacks a dedicated stem cell compartment and recovers from damage through dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes and biliary cells (5, 6).

Stem cell activity in vivo is demonstrated most persuasively by introducing into a tissue a permanent color or fluorescent label whose expression depends on Cre recombinasemediated excision of a STOP cassette. When Cre activity is restricted to stem cells, all the progeny of those cells exclusively carry the label. ISCs and tracheal stem cells were thus identified because targeted Cre activity in LGR5+ or KRT5+ mouse cells labeled the respective full lineages (3, 4). Investigation of tissue regeneration requires ablation of a stem cell compartment, followed by tracking of the restored ability to produce sufficient numbers of all native stem cell progeny. The canon of tissue repair rests heavily on such lineage-tracing experiments, but one limitation is that Cre recombinase is not often confined to a single defined cell type. This challenge lies at the heart of competing models for tissue recovery after lethal cell injuries.

Dividing cells take up labels such as [3H]thymidine or fluorescent histone 2B and shed these labels as they replicate further or their daughters die. In the intestine, however, rare cells located near the fourth tier from the crypt base retain [3H]thymidine for weeks. Given once-popular ideas that stem cells must be few in number and retain one immortal DNA strand when they replicate, +4 label-retaining cells (LRCs) were described as ISCs. In support of that idea, lineage tracing from Bmi1, a locus thought to be restricted to nonreplicating +4 LRCs, elicited an ISC-like response in vivo (7).

Physiologic cell turnover and recovery from injury occur from different cellular sources in diverse epithelia (intestine, upper airway, and prostate gland). Homeostatic turnover is driven by the stem cell pool, and tissue restoration from injury occurs through transient expansion and dedifferentiation of specified mature cells.

To reconcile the evidence for ISC properties in both LGR5+ crypt base columnar cells (CBCs) and +4 LRCs, researchers postulated that abundant CBCs serve as frontline ISCs, whereas the smaller +4 LRC population contains dedicated reserves. Indeed, intestinal turnover is unperturbed when LGR5+ CBCs are ablated because other crypt cells' progeny continue to repopulate villi and an LGR5+ ISC compartment is soon restored (1). Multiple candidate markers of +4 LRCs that regenerate ISCs after injury have been proposed (8). Although these cells are too few to explain the typical scale and speed of ISC restoration, the prospect of two stem cell pools carried the additional allure of a sound adaptive strategy in a tissue that requires continuous self-renewal.

ISC differentiation is, however, not strictly unidirectional. Cre expression in absorptive or secretory cell types tags those cells selectively, but upon ablation of LGR5+ CBCs, the label appears throughout (9). These observations imply that differentiated daughter cells have reverted into ISCs. Moreover, Bmi1 expression was found to mark differentiated crypt endocrine cells (10), and putative +4 markers are expressed in many crypt cells including LGR5+ CBCs. Accordingly, when Cre is expressed from these loci, the traced lineage might simply reflect CBC activity in resting animals and reverse differentiation of crypt cells after ISC ablation. But is dedifferentiation a rare and physiologically inconsequential event or the predominant mode of stem cell recovery? Dedifferentiation may obviate the need to invoke a dedicated reserve population, or it is possible that ISC recovery may reflect both dedifferentiation and contributions from a reserve stem cell population.

To investigate these issues, researchers activated a fluorescent label in LGR5+ CBCs and waited for this label to pass into progeny cells before ablating CBCs (11). Thus, only the CBCs that recover by dedifferentiation should be labeled, and any cells arising from reserve ISCs should not. Nearly every restored crypt and CBC was fluorescent, with substantial contributions from both enterocytes and secretory cells (11). Cells captured early in the restorative process coexpressed mature-cell and ISC genes, which is compatible with recovery by dedifferentiation. Another study found that damaged ISCs are reconstituted wholly by the progeny of LGR5+ CBCs (8). Thus, dedifferentiation would seem to be the principal mode of ISC regeneration, and prior conclusions about +4 ISCs likely reflect unselective Cre expression.

Different tissues might deploy distinct regenerative strategies, and recent studies in mouse airway, prostate, intestinal, and liver epithelia provide insightful lessons. After ablation of KRT5+ airway stem cells, specified secretory and club cell precursors were found to undergo clonal multilineage expansion and accounted for up to 10% of restored KRT5+ cells in vivo (12). Chemical or viral damage was subsequently reported to induce migration and dedifferentiation of submucosal gland myoepithelial cells into the basal layer to reconstitute the surface lining, including KRT5+ stem cells (13). Thus, dedifferentiation into native stem cells occurs upon injury to both airway and intestinal linings in mice.

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of mouse prostate glands recently revealed distinct gene expression profiles in 3% of luminal cells, which are more clonogenic than others, express putative stem cell markers, and hence qualify as a pool enriched for native stem-like cells (14). After androgen reexposure following castration, however, the scale and distribution of cell replication and the location of restored clones were incompatible with an origin wholly within that small pool. Rather, the principal source of gland reconstitution in vivo, including new KRT5+ basal cells, was the dominant population of differentiated luminal cells (14). These observations parallel those in the liver, where recovery of organ mass after tissue injury occurs by renewed proliferation of mature resting hepatocytes (5), abetted by expansion of bile duct cells that transdifferentiate into hepatocytes (6). Cell plasticity is thus widespread, whether tissues have or lack native stem cell compartments.

Reverse differentiation in the intestine, airways, and prostate gland was generally observed after near-total elimination of resident stem or luminal cells, an extreme and artificial condition. However, several observations suggest that this dedifferentiation reflects a physiologic process designed to maintain a proper cell census. Contact with a single KRT5+ airway stem cell prevents secretory and club cell dedifferentiation in vitro (12), and tracheal submucosal glands exhibit limited stem cell activity even in the absence of injury (13). Live imaging of intestinal crypts reveals continuous and stochastic exit from and reentry into the ISC compartment (15), implying that barriers for differentiation or dedifferentiation are inherently low. However, the primary purpose of dedifferentiating airway, intestinal, liver, and prostate cells is not to enable tissue recovery. Therefore, they should be regarded as facultative stem cells; that is, they have other physiologic functions and realize a latent stem cell capacity only under duress.

This distinction from reserve stem cells is not merely semantic. Emphasis in regenerative therapy research belongs on any cell population with restorative potential; in vivo findings now direct attention away from putative reserve cells and toward dedifferentiation as a common means for tissue recovery. The absence of dedicated reserves and the inherent cellular ability to toggle between stem and differentiated states also inform cancer biology. Because mutations realize oncogenic potential only in longlived cells, both frontline and reserve stem cells represent candidate sources of cancer, in contrast to differentiated cells, which are generally short-lived. However, oncogenic mutations that arise in differentiated cells could become fixed upon dedifferentiation, thus enabling tumor development.

Notably, stem cell properties and interconversion with their progeny are not stereotypic. ISCs divide daily into two identical daughters, whereas hematopoietic stem cell replication is infrequent and asymmetric. Severe loss of blood stem cells does not elicit substantial dedifferentiation and is rescued only by adoptive stem cell transfer. Immature secretory precursors dedifferentiate more readily than terminally mature airway cells (12), whereas fully differentiated cells fuel liver and prostate regeneration. Cell plasticity in each case is determined by local signals. Unknown factors from KRT5+ tracheal stem cells, for example, suppress secretory cell dedifferentiation (12), and specific factors secreted from the prostate mesenchyme stimulate luminal cell dedifferentiation (14). The intestinal mesenchyme probably senses ISC attrition to trigger tissue recovery, but the spatial and molecular determinants remain unknown. Outstanding challenges are to identify the signaling pathways that ensure a stable cell census and to harness diverse regenerative responses to ameliorate acute tissue injuries or prevent organ failure. Knowing the cellular basis for stem cell recovery in different contexts brings us closer to those goals.

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Heres why natural ingredients and science-backed formulations are the perfect combination – Vogue India

By daniellenierenberg

Heres a fun fact about rosehip oil: it does not smell like roses. It does, however, heal. Known as the Himalayan musk rose, this wild flowering plant has only five petals, says Roshni Laura George, who discovered the elusive bloom during her honeymoon in Kashmir, as she was researching medicinal plants through the country in the remotest parts of the valley. Every May, the musk rose bushes burst into bloom, covering trees, tumbling over cliffs and blanketing the earth with their heady scent. The hip, a powerhouse of essential nutrients, is what is left once the petals fall. Thats where the oil is extracted from, explains George, who preserved this juice in Timekeeper, a vivid amber face oil that launched her skincare brand, Rasula. We do not bleach, colour or deodorise our rosehip oil as this would deplete its natural goodness. The oil is hardly oily, the red lingers for just a few seconds before your skin drinks it up, and its nutty smell is so distinct that you can only assume it came from the roses hip. George promised it would become my one-step skincare routine (followed by sunscreen in the day, of course) and my combination-dehydrated- acne-prone-moody skin might agree.

Rosehip oil can handle the fussiest skin types. Two reasons: vitamin F and beta carotene. Vitamin F is an essential fatty acid, rich in omega-6, which produces ceramide 1, a key part of a healthy skin barrier. Beta carotene is an antioxidant that gives the oil its rich orange hue. It can neutralise free radicals from the environment, protect against UVA damage, reduce oxidative stress, and enhance the appearance of skin. Essential fatty acids in the rosehip oil are absorbed by the skin to regenerate collagen and elastin fibres that keep the skin firm and youthful, explains George. In short, it helps your skin fight for itself.

George aimed to create category-defining natural skincare for photo-aged skin. Three years of research working closely with leading institutions like IIM Jammu and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research in Bengaluru, led to Rasula, a clean beauty brand that comes without parabens, SLS, and artificial fragrance, among other nasties. Rasulas products are handcrafted and packed by hand in recyclable glassware, and its rosehip is hand-picked from the Himalayan Range by the local women of Kashmir. While common extraction practices include cold-pressing, George took a more expensive, environmentally friendly approach to ensure her oil was more concentrated, cleaner and superior, with a longer shelf life. We flush supercritical CO2 under high pressure through the seeds, which gently removes the oil, explains George. And if youre still not convinced, know this: rosehip oil is the most inclusive ingredient in skincare. Suitable for all skin types and age groups, including pregnant women and children, the oil helps eradicate a host of skin issuesscars, burns, fine lines, stretch marks, acne, dryness, sensitivity, sun damage, uneven skin tone, age spots, eczema and more. Most importantly, it is gender-neutral, says George.

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The ultimate path to skin rejuvenation – Philstar.com

By daniellenierenberg

MANILA, Philippines Breach. Reanimate. Create. This is the mantra behind La Prairies Platinum Rare Haute Rejuvenation Protocol, a new anti-aging product that is the Swiss luxury skincare brands most groundbreaking innovation yet.

La Prairie sought to go beyond skin renewal, and for the first time, we will create new skin tissue, says Dr. Daniel Stangl, La Prairies director of innovation.

This ultimate path to rejuvenation has been designed to work in three steps: breach the skin barrier, reanimate cells, and create new skin tissue.

As the first step, and in analogy to (La Prairie founder) Dr. Paul Niehans cellular therapy, the formula temporarily softens the skin barrier in order to optimally deliver the active ingredients into the skin and enhance the full potential, Stangl says.

In the second step, Platinum Rare Haute Rejuvenation Protocol reanimates cells in all skin layers, specifically stem cells and differentiated cells, which make up the majority of skin cells.

To reanimate these cells, the formula of the serum contains an exclusive platinum multi-peptide combined with two essential growth factors and La Prairies exclusive Cellular Complex. These highly potent active ingredients reanimate stem cells to produce new cells and differentiated cells to synthesize a new extracellular matrix, including fibers of collagen and elastin, as well as the hyaluronic acid, Stangl continues.

Thirdly, as a result of breaching the skins barrier and reanimating cells, La Prairie creates new skin tissue. The creation of new skin tissue in all skin layers is the fundamental process of rejuvenation, Stangl says. It literally infuses the skin with youth, improving all signs of aging as never seen before.

The product is designed as a month-long protocol, consisting of three vials. One vial is used for 10 days, day and night. After this month-long phase of intense rejuvenation, the skin needs time to re-equilibrate, notes Stangl. We therefore recommend using it for one month, four times a year.

The unique packaging includes a mini pedestal on which you put the jewel-toned vial and twist it, releasing clouds of product that you then shake to mix into a fresh serum. It displays La Prairies merging of art and science at its finest, giving its clientele the most luxurious, magical experience.

La Prairies Platinum Rare Haute Rejuvenation Protocol will be on counter at Rustans The Beauty Source on Feb. 25.

Light and cooling: Kiehls Ultra Facial Oil-free Gel Cream

One of Kiehls hero products has always been its Ultra Facial moisturizer, which can hydrate even the driest of skins. In the tropical Philippines, however, that formula might be too rich, especially for people with oily, acne-prone skin.

So now Kiehls has formulated Ultra Facial as an oil-free gel cream, a lightweight, cooling moisturizer thats perfect for our humid weather, especially in the coming summer months. Glacial glycoprotein Antarcticine hydrates skin for 24 hours, while Micronized Amino Acid helps regulate excess oil for shine control, so its suited to those with oily and combination skin who have a tendency to break out with maskne, like I do. I also love that its fragrance-, alcohol- and paraben-free.

He hearts her: Nars Claudette Collection was inspired by Francois Nars mother and first muse.

Nars limited-edition Claudette Collection is Francois Nars tribute to his mother and very first muse, Claudette, and the bohemian spirit of Paris Rive Gauche (Left Bank) in the 70s. The prints on the packaging were inspired by the prints on the dresses his mom used to wear.

Claudettes eyeshadow palette, St. Germain Des Prs, is filled with six warm, neutral shades in matte, satin and shimmer finishes. You cant go wrong with the neutrals in this palette, which are so subtle and wearable youll always end up with an elegant look, no matter which color or combination you use.

Nars cult-favorite satin Audacious lipstick comes in four shades named after his mom Claudette is a striking rust red and the other inspiring women in his life, grandmothers La and Ginette.

New to Audacious is a Sheer Matte formula with a soft-focus finish and medium-sheer coverage: Sandrine is a scarlet red; Sylvie is a berry red, and they feel so comfy and soft on the lips.

The Claudette Collection is available at Nars boutiques and Rustans The Beauty Source.

Dress your lips: Rouge Dior comes in 75 shades and new, refillable logo cases.

Christian Diors most iconic lipsticks have been released in modern, refillable packaging, and ultra-flattering finishes.

Rouge Dior 999 Velvet is a crimson-red born from the first two lipsticks launched by Christian Dior 9 and 99 and 100 Nude Look, a reinterpretation of the greige new look of 1947. (The other two icons are 080 Red Smile, one of the first reds Dior created in 1950 thats been reinvented as an intensely luminous red; and 525 Chrie, a rosewood nude whose name conveys Diors love of women and his muses.)

The legendary fashion designer not only wanted to dress women but also their smiles, so he created his first couture lipstick in 1953, eventually releasing it in over a thousand shades. Ever the visionary, Rouge Dior was already sustainable back then, as the lipsticks came in refillable cases.

Today, Peter Philips, the creative and image director for Dior Makeup, has resurrected 75 shades in new, refillable logo cases, and satin, matte, velvet and metallic finishes to flatter all skin tones.

Flowers always inspired Dior, so the formula has been enriched with floral, lip-care ingredients like red peony and pomegranate blossom extract.

Rouge Dior is available at Dior boutiques and SM Makati.

Beauty bargains: Get discounts on beloved brands at Shopee Beauty.

I love Shopee for its amazing deals and steals, so I was really excited to learn that the e-tailer has launched Shopee Beauty, a one-stop online destination for the best deals from top makeup and skincare brands.

You can find well-established, beloved brands such as Dove, TRESemm, and Cream Silk, as well as exciting finds from up-and-coming brands like Face Republic, Beauty Avenue, Teviant, and Seoul White Korea.

Brands will curate based on the latest makeup trends, and recommend products based on your needs. Youll also get fun tutorials from their favorite Shopee KOLs, product reviews, makeup tips, and giveaways on Shopee Live.

But face it: we love the bargains, right? Aside from free shipping vouchers, limited-time deals and exclusive product launches, until March 24 theyre giving discounts of up to 90 percent off on their go-to lippies, mascaras, and skincare brands.

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Trupure Organics Is First 50-Plus Brand Devoted to That Market’s Distinct Needs – PRNewswire

By daniellenierenberg

CLEVELAND, Feb. 19, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- Paulette Kaplan noticed something different as she entered into her 50s. Her skin was now dryer, and looked older than just a couple years earlier. Looking at her cabinet full of products that were supposed to work, she thought, "Nothing really works well."

As a skincare advocate, she began to consider creating her own line exclusively for the needs of the 50-plus.

In an industry obsessed with youth, Paulette found there to be a tremendous lack of skincare products made for this market.

According to an AARP national survey, "Women over age 50 make a big investment of time and money on beauty and personal grooming products, spending a whopping $22 billion annually, yet they still think that the beauty industry ignores them as they age."

Paulette was determined and began her search and discovered that some ingredients could be damaging to how skin looks and cause inflammation that works against the skin's ability to heal.

She did not want to make more 'anti-aging' potions. Or use unhealthy ingredients but to offer a clean and nourishing age perfect skincare line that would strengthen mature skin.

Trupure Organics was born with the help of scientists, chemists, and multiple formulas. A100% natural plant-based line using stem cells, bio-retinol, extracts, peptides, oils and juices. Their TruPurity promise excludes ingredients like chemicals, fragrances, dyes, parabens, GMOs, and phthalates.

What are the key goals? Provide continuous moisture, soothe, firm, protect, lift, strengthen, plump, smooth, and nourish with specific delivery systems.

Paulette explains her 50-plus line, "The focus isn't to put yourself under a magnifying glass, but actually celebrate your age by focusing on healthier radiant skin. Because when skin is healthy, it naturally looks beautiful."

Retinol is a common ingredient in skincare products because of how well it can promote collagen production. Trupure Organics No More Crepe Neck and Dcolletage Cream ($65) uses a different approach through a plant-based bio-retinol. Itwon't cause peeling, irritation, itching, or make skin considerably more sensitive to sunlight like standard retinol.

This same kind of approach is used in formulating all their plant-based products for mature skin. Visit trupureorganics.com to view the full collection of serums and creams.

References

Women 50 and Older Feel Overlooked by the Beauty Industry

Contact:

Paulette Kaplan Founder and CEO, Trupure Organics216.702.0345[emailprotected]http://www.trupureorganics.com

SOURCE Trupure Organics

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Mouth Sores from Chemo: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments – Healthline

By daniellenierenberg

While youre receiving treatment for cancer, some of the drugs you take can cause painful sores to develop inside your mouth. You can also get them if youve had a bone marrow (stem cell) transplant as part of your cancer care.

Although they often heal on their own, these mouth sores can make it uncomfortable to eat and talk. Well discuss what you can do to relieve the pain and prevent them from getting worse.

Mouth sores can be a common side effect of cancer treatment. The condition, known as stomatitis or mucositis, is an inflammation of the tissues inside your mouth.

Whitish, ulcer-like sores can form on your cheeks, gums, lips, tongue, or on the roof or floor of your mouth. Even if you dont develop mouth ulcers, you may have patches that feel inflamed and painful, as if theyve been burned.

Anyone who is receiving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a bone marrow (stem cell) transplant can develop mouth sores as a side effect of these treatments.

If you have dry mouth or gum disease, or if your teeth and gums are not well taken care of, you may be at a higher risk of getting mouth sores during your treatment. Women and people who smoke or drink alcohol are also at a higher risk, according to the Oral Cancer Foundation.

If youre receiving chemotherapy, the sores could begin forming anywhere from 5 days to 2 weeks after your treatment. Depending on the specific cause, the sores could go away on their own in a few weeks, or they could last longer.

Its important to find ways to manage your pain and to watch for signs of an infection. Cancer-related mouth sores can lead to weight loss, dehydration, and other serious complications.

Cancer cells can grow very quickly. The aim of cancer treatment is to stop or slow down that growth. The cells in the mucous membranes lining your mouth are also fast-growing cells, so cancer treatments affect them, too.

Cancer treatments also keep the cells in your mouth from being able to repair themselves efficiently when theyre damaged.

Radiation therapy can also damage the glands in your mouth that make saliva. A dry mouth is more susceptible to infections that cause mouth sores.

Chemotherapy and radiation can both change the microbiome in your mouth, upsetting the balance between good and bad bacteria. The growth of harmful bacteria in your mouth can also lead to mouth sores.

Sometimes cancer treatments suppress your immune system, which may make it more likely that youll get a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection that causes mouth sores. An older infection (such as the herpes simplex virus) can also suddenly flare up again.

If youve had a bone marrow (stem cell) transplant, sores may be a sign that youve developed a condition known as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).

When this happens, the cells in your body are attacking the transplanted cells as though they were an unhealthy invader. According to research published in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, short-term (acute) GVHD occurs in 50 to 70 percent of stem cell transplant cases and longer-term (chronic) GVHD is seen in 30 to 50 percent of cases.

The form of GVHD that causes mouth sores is usually mild, and doctors often treat it with corticosteroid medications.

Its important to talk with your doctor if you develop mouth sores after a stem cell transplant, as some kinds of GVHD can turn serious if left untreated.

There is a good chance that youll experience mouth sores at some point during your cancer treatment. Researchers estimate that 20 to 40 percent of those who have chemotherapy and 80 percent of those who have high-dose chemotherapy will develop mucositis afterward.

Still, there are steps you and your cancer care team can take to lower your risk, reduce the severity of the sores, and promote faster healing.

About a month before your cancer treatment begins, schedule an appointment with your dentist to make sure your teeth and gums are healthy. If you have cavities, broken teeth, or gum disease, its important to come up with a dental treatment plan to take care of these conditions so they dont lead to infections later, when your immune system may be vulnerable.

If you wear braces or dentures, ask your dentist to check the fit and remove any part of the device you dont need during your treatment.

Its very important to maintain good oral hygiene practices throughout your treatment to lower your risk of infection. Brush and floss gently but regularly, avoiding any painful areas. You can also ask your dentist whether a mouth rinse with fluoride is advisable in your case.

For certain kinds of chemotherapy (bolus 5fluorouracil chemotherapy and some high-dose therapies), your healthcare team may give you ice chips to chew for 30 minutes before your treatment. This type of cold therapy can lower your risk of getting mouth sores later.

During treatment of some blood cancers, doctors may give you injections of palifermin, also known as human keratinocyte growth factor-1 (KGF-1), to prevent mouth sores.

If youre scheduled to receive high-dose chemotherapy or radiotherapy, your cancer care team may prepare your mouth using low-level laser therapy beforehand to keep you from getting mouth sores.

For people who have radiation therapy for head and neck cancers, doctors may prescribe this medicated mouthwash to minimize mouth sores.

The length of time your mouth sores may last depends on the specific cancer treatment youve had. Here are some estimates broken down by treatment:

You may notice symptoms anywhere between a few days and a few weeks after your cancer treatment. Heres what you may see and feel as mucositis develops:

You may notice that the sores become slightly crusty as they heal. Its important to keep track of your symptoms and let your oncologist know if the sores arent healing on their own.

Contact your doctor right away if you:

Untreated mouth sores can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, and life-threatening infections.

There are a few different ways that you can help mouth sores heal and avoid prolonger pain or an infection.

While the sores are healing, its very important to keep the inside of your mouth clean to prevent an infection from developing.

The National Cancer Institute recommends that you gently clean your teeth every 4 hours and just before you go to sleep at night. Here are a few tips to consider:

If the pain from mouth sores is interfering with your ability to eat and drink, your doctor may treat the condition with a opioid mouthwash or one containing doxepin or lidocaine.

To ease discomfort and keep your mouth from feeling dry, you may want to try rinsing with a mild saltwater or baking soda solution. Heres how to make each of them:

Your cancer care team may recommend that you use a lubricating liquid (artificial saliva) to moisten the inside of your mouth if dryness is a problem. These liquids are usually gel-like. They coat your mouth with a thin film to help ease discomfort and promote healing.

Some people have found it useful to rinse with a blend of medications called the magic mouthwash. Formulas for this mouthwash vary, but most of them include a combination of medications to treat different symptoms, including:

Magic or miracle mouthwash solutions usually have to be prescribed by a doctor and prepared by a pharmacist, although some people mix up an over-the-counter version at home.

There isnt enough research to say for sure whether magic mouthwash works. If you think youd like to try it, talk with your oncologist or a healthcare professional about whether its a good idea for you.

Here are a few more things you can try at home that may help ease pain from mouth sores:

Mouth sores are one of the most common side effects of cancer treatment. Shortly after chemotherapy, radiation, or transplant treatments, painful, ulcer-like sores can form on the inside of your mouth.

These sores may go away on their own. If they dont, its important to seek medical treatment for them because they can lead to very serious complications.

Before you start cancer treatments, visit a dentist to make sure your teeth and gums are healthy. Keeping up good dental hygiene practices during and after cancer treatment will help limit mouth sores.

If the sores are keeping you from eating and drinking, talk with your oncologist about medications could relieve the pain and speed up the healing process, so you can enjoy a better quality of life during treatment.

Its really important to keep track of any sores in your mouth so you can reach out to your healthcare team if they dont improve. Sores that deepen or worsen can lead to serious even life-threatening complications.

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Research Associate in Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine job with KINGS COLLEGE LONDON | 246711 – Times Higher Education (THE)

By daniellenierenberg

Job descriptionThe Centre for Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine is located in Guys Hospital.It is internationally recognized for research on adult and pluripotent stem cells and is a focus for cutting-edge stem cell research currently taking place across the College and its partner NHS trusts, as part of Kings Health Partners. Through the Centre, Kings aims to drive collaboration between scientists and clinicians to translate the potential of stem cells into clinical reality for patients.Applications are invited for a postdoctoral researcher funded as part of the PIs Wellcome Clinical Fellowship, and will work with a dynamic group of scientists focussed on reproductive biology, early embryonic development and the causes of infertility. The post holder will contribute to the regenerative medicine theme and will be involved in the generation and processing of single cell experiments using a variety of techniques.This is an exciting opportunity following our recent work (Sangrithi et al. 2017, Dev Cell & Lau et al. 2020, Dev Cell). The project aims to discover the function of genes on the X-chromosome in male germline stem cells (spermatogonia) and their role in idiopathic and sex chromosome aneuploidy associated infertility. We aim to understand physiological gene regulatory networks functional in spermatogonial stem cells using a combination of single-cell methods, to explain how perturbation in X-gene dosage in SSCs may cause infertility. The postholder will also identify and validate candidate disease bio-markers.This post will be offered on an a fixed-term contract until 05/04/2026This is a full-time post - 100% full time equivalent

Key responsibilities Carry out world class research. Are adept at working in a wet lab setting with experience in designing and executing experiments. Familiarity in single cell work nucleic acid manipulation is desirable Communicate results effectively in writing and orally Contribute to publications arising from the research projects Keep clear and up-to-date records of work Attend and present at seminars, journal clubs and conferences Contribute to collaborative atmosphere of the department Share skills by training others Comply with all relevant safety legislation to ensure a safe working environment Take part in public engagement activities To support grant writing, for maintaining the continual research in this domain, e.g. Fellowships Post holder will be expected to plan and prioritise their own workload, with competing and shifting priorities under pressure of deadlinesThe above list of responsibilities may not be exhaustive, and the post holder will be required to undertake such tasks and responsibilities as may reasonably be expected within the scope and grading of the post.

Skills, knowledge, and experience

Essential criteria PhD awarded in the biological sciences Excellent general knowledge of molecular biology Knowledge of cell biology Knowledge of flow cytometry Relevant postdoctoral experience Experience in a molecular biology research lab Excellent record keeping / attention to detail Organized and systematic approach to research Pro-active, enthusiastic, positive attitude Self-motivated, with the ability to work under pressure & to meet deadlines Keen interest in infertility and regenerative medicine Ability to think strategically

Desirable criteria Understanding of the biology of germ cells and embryo development Previous experience in working with the laboratory mouse ES cell culture experience General knowledge of computational tools for single cell RNAseq Ability to make collaborative and independent decisions*Please note that this is a PhD level role but candidates who have submitted their thesis and are awaiting award of their PhDs will be considered. In these circumstances the appointment will be made at Grade 5, spine point 30 with the title of Research Assistant. Upon confirmation of the award of the PhD, the job title will become Research Associate and the salary will increase to Grade 6.Further informationABOUT THE SCHOOLThe School of Basic & Medical Biosciences is led by Professor Mathias Gautel and comprises five departments with a wide range of expertise and interests. Using a bench to bedside approach, the School aims to answer fundamental questions about biology in health and disease and apply this to the development of new and innovative clinical practise, alongside providing a rigorous academic programme for students.DepartmentsThe Centre for Human & Applied Physiological Sciences (CHAPS) uses an integrative and translational research approach focusing on fundamental questions about human physiological function in health and disease to explore 3 research themes: skeletal muscle & aging, sensory-motor control & pain and aerospace & extreme environment adaptation.The Centre for Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine focuses on cutting-edge stem cell research, how stem cells interact with their local environment and how these interactions are important for developing effective cell therapies in the clinic.The Department of Medical & Molecular Genetics uses cutting-edge technologies and analysis techniques to explore the mechanistic basis of disease, improve diagnostics and understand the epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation and RNA processing, working from whole population level to complex and rare disease genomesThe Randall Centre of Cell & Molecular Biophysics takes a multi-disciplinary approach at the interface of Biological and Physical Sciences to explore the underlying mechanisms behind common diseases.St Johns Institute of Dermatology seeks to improve the diagnosis and management of severe skin diseases, through a better understanding of the basic pathogenetic mechanisms that cause and sustain these conditions focussing on cutaneous oncology, genetic skin disorders, inflammatory & autoimmune skin disorders, and photomedicine.About the Department of Centre for Stem Cells & Regenerative MedicineThe Centre for Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine is led by Professor Fiona Watt, whos laboratory comprises approximately 30 research staff and visiting scientists and is internationally recognised for research on adult and pluripotent stem cells. Along with Professor Watts group there are nine other research groups operating at the Centre, bringing the total number of staff to approximately 80 people.Research at the Centre is focused on how stem cells interact with their local environment, or niche. We believe that an understanding of these interactions is important for developing effective cell therapies in the clinic. Located on the Guys Hospital campus, the Centre acts as a focus for cutting-edge stem cell research taking place across the College and its partner NHS Trusts, as part of Kings Health Partners. To facilitate collaborations within Kings and with external partners, we have opened a Stem Cell Hotel where researchers can access specialist equipment and technical support to study stem cell behaviour at single cell resolution. We also host an international seminar series and run the Stem Cells @ Lunch seminar series to share ideas and unpublished data. Our researchers are committed to public engagement and take part in diverse outreach events.Detailed information about the Centre for Stem Cells & Regenerative medicine can be found in the link below:http://www.kcl.ac.uk/lsm/research/divisions/gmm/departments/stemcells/index.aspx

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Research Associate in Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine job with KINGS COLLEGE LONDON | 246711 - Times Higher Education (THE)

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Gergis Explains the Differences Between Acute and Chronic GVHD – Targeted Oncology

By daniellenierenberg

Usama Gergis, MD, MBA Professor of Oncology Director, Bone Marrow Transplant and Immune Cellular Therapy Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center Thomas Jefferson University Hospital Philadelphia, PA, reviewed that difference in acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the treatment available for each.

Targeted OncologyTM: How would you treat a patient with GvHD in the second line?

GERGIS: If you [have a patient with] second-line acute GVHD, your answer should be ruxolitinib [Jakafi] because its the only drug that has been tried in phase 3 trials. If you get a [case of] chronic GVHD, your answer should be ibrutinib [Imbruvica].

What is the efficacy of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) versus bone marrow from unrelated donors in patients with acute and chronic GvHD?

[Results from] a phase 3 study of bone marrow versus stem cells for unrelated donors [showed] the acute GVHD population [cumulative incidence] was the same between both.1 For the chronic population, the bone marrow did better [PBSC 53% vs bone marrow 41%; P = .01]. This was published almost 8 years ago, [and it] was reported almost 10 years ago, but we still use stem cells.

This has not changed practices, and the reasons are, number 1, there was more primary graft failure on the bone marrow than the PBSC, and number 2, its pretty involved to do bone marrow harvest, although I have done it for 15 years, at least a few every month.

The benefit of bone marrow versus PBSCand this benefit was only studied in unrelated donors, not in matched related donorswas seen across all organs affected with chronic GVHD except lungs, [gut, and serosa].2 So, there was no real benefit in the lungs.

Can you explain the difference between acute and chronic GvHD?

Chronic GVHD is more complicated and involved than acute GVHD. In acute, you have the skin, gastrointestinal organs, and the liver [that may be affected]. Thats it. In chronic, all the patients other organs can be affected. The patients weight can be affected. [Chronic GVHD is] more debilitating over a long time and [can] go unrecognized for a while. [If a patient is] experiencing acute GVHD, you see them twice a week, whereas if the patient has chronic GVHD, you probably see them once a month. So you can see a very stark change in your patients within that month if they lose 10% of their body weight and they already lost a lot of weight in the period right after [transplantation], so that can be obvious to you.

[In my institution], we have the GVHD clinic where we [grade the patient based on] studying the degree of fibrosis, how many organs are affected, the patients range of motion, and the degrees in range of motion. We do frequent pulmonary function tests and various [other] testing. By looking at all the affected organs, you reach a grade, and that can be mild, moderate, or severe [chronic GVHD].

How do you treat moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD at initial presentation and in the second line?

First-line treatment for chronic GVHD are steroids. For second line, there are many agents [to consider]. Ive tried most of them. I like photopheresis because its not pharmacological, but its pretty involved. Your patient will need a permanent catheter, and they will need to come to the transplant center twice a week, and you see a response after a long time. It takes an average of 50 photopheresis sessions for a response. But the beauty of photopheresis [is that] you could try it with other agents, so its not mutually exclusive. You could use it with ruxolitinib, ibrutinib, or any other agents.

The answer will be ibrutinib [for chronic GVHD], and thats based on the [results of a] phase 2 clinical trial that treated 42 patients with steroid-refractory chronic GVHD, and the efficacy was 69% [best overall response rate], and 31% complete response rate.3

What do you think of these poll results?

Everybody agrees on giving ibrutinib. When I gave this talk a couple months ago, lenalidomide [Revlimid] was not included in the poll. I added it because [recently], a nice study in Blood came out from the National Institutes of Health where they tried lenalidomide at a small dose, 2 mg, in steroid-refractory chronic GVHD. Its a large trial; I think its about 100 patients. Theyve seen responses that are comparable with ibrutinib....I treated a patient for multiple myeloma; he received a transplant for multiple myeloma, and now, 6 months later, he has chronic GVHD and some clonal plasma cells. So for him, I was comforted to know the results of the lenalidomide trial.

How does ruxolitinib play a role in this setting?

Ruxolitinib was reported in the REACH3 trial [NCT03112603] with very good responses in chronic GVHD.4 I think it probably will get approved for that indication. Looking at this study about 2 years ago, nothing was studied well in this indication, and ibrutinib was approved.

REACH3 was a large trial, almost 300 patients, and everybody was randomized to ruxolitinib 10 mg twice a day versus best available treatment. They looked at everybody about 6 months later for response.

What should physicians keep in mind when treating?

Chronic GvHD is pretty involved. Your patients will need a multidisciplinary approach. You need to pay attention to their bones. In the first 100 days post transplant, the average bone aging is 17 years.

So although were trying to treat acute GVHD, viruses, and prevent relapses, [by putting] your patients on some steroids, you are aging your patients bones by 17 years only in the first 100 days. No matter what you do, give your patients vitamin D, calcium, and Fosamax [alendronate sodium].

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Smart Stem Cells Made From Fat Have the Power to Heal – Freethink

By daniellenierenberg

New smart stem cells show a promising power to heal.

Researchers have reprogrammed human fat cells into adaptive smart stem cells that can lie dormant in the body until they are needed to heal various tissues. They demonstrated the cells' effectiveness at healing damaged tissue in a mouse study.

To create the smart stem cells, the team from UNSW Sydney exposed human fat cells to a compound mixture. After about three and a half weeks, the cells lost their original identity and began acting like stem cells, or iMS (induced multipotent stem cells).

"The stem cells acted like chameleons. They followed local cues to blend into the tissue that required healing."

"The stem cells we've developed can adapt to their surroundings and repair a range of damaged tissues," said UNSW hematologist John Pimanda, and co-author of the study, which they published in Science Advances.

"To my knowledge, no one has made an adaptive human multipotent stem cell before. This is uncharted territory."

Next, they injected the experimental iMS cells into healthy mice to see how the cells would respond. The cells remained dormant for some time, but they activated when the mouse was injured. Because of the cells' regenerative ability to act as "smart stem cells," they transformed themselves into whatever tissue was needed to heal the injured mouse --- like bone tissue, heart, or skin.

"The stem cells acted like chameleons," said Avani Yeola, lead author on the study at UNSW Medicine & Health. "They followed local cues to blend into the tissue that required healing."

All cells in a human body contain the same DNA. To differentiate between tissues, like a skin cell versus a bone cell, the cells only use a small portion of their total DNA. The rest of the DNA is shut down naturally by local modifications.

"The idea behind our approach was to reverse these modifications," said Pimanda. "We wanted the cells to have the option of using that part of the DNA if there was a signal from outside the cell."

Tissue-specific stem cells, like those that are restricted to becoming parts of the liver or lung, are limiting. But smart stem cells that can respond to their environment and become any tissue, like multipotent stem cells, will have many uses.

In the future, doctors could take a patient's fat cells, incubate them with the compound, and inject them into the patient to heal heart damage or trauma injuries.

But applications like this could be a long way off. The team needs to do much more research to prove this is safe in humans for different kinds of trauma before it becomes a real therapy.

We'd love to hear from you! If you have a comment about this article or if you have a tip for a future Freethink story, please email us at [emailprotected]

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Manageable Safety Profile Observed in Phase 1 Studies Examining UCART19 for Pediatric and Adult Patients with B-Cell ALL – Cancer Network

By daniellenierenberg

UCART19 produced a manageable safety profile in 2 separate phase 1 studies examining heavily pretreated pediatric and adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), according to data published in The Lancet.

For the first time, these studies support the feasibility of UCART19 and other genome-edited, donor-derived allogeneic anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells to treat this group of patients with aggressive forms of ALL.

Phase 1 trials in paediatric and adult patients with late-stage relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia have shown the feasibility, safety, and activity of UCART19, an off-the-shelf CAR T-cell product, wrote the investigative team. The results of these trials represent a substantial step forward in the development of CAR T cells and could herald a new, effective, and easily accessible cell therapy for patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

The results determined that the most common adverse event between both phase 1 studies was cytokine release syndrome (CRS), observed in 19 patients (91%). Three patients (14%) experienced grade 3/4 CRS.

More, 8 patients (38%) experienced grades 1/2 neurotoxicity, 2 (10%) experienced grade 1 acute skin graft-versus-host disease, and 6 (32%) had grade 4 prolonged cytopenia.

The research team recorded 2 treatment-related deaths between the 2 studies. The first was caused by neutropenic sepsis in a patient with concurrent CRS and the other was from pulmonary hemorrhage in a patient with persistent cytopenia.

Overall, 14 of 21 patients (67%) experienced a complete response or complete response with incomplete hematological recovery at 28 days following infusion. Median duration of response was recorded at 4.1 months, with 10 of 14 adult patients (71%) progressing to subsequent allogeneic stem cell transplant. The progression-free survival rate at 6 months was 27%, with an overall survival rate of 55%.

The adverse effects observed with UCART19 to date seem similar to those reported for autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells, wrote the investigators. Cytokine release syndrome was encountered in the majority of patients in whom UCART19 expansion was detected and appeared no more severe than with approved autologous products.

The 2 ongoing, multicenter, clinical trials (NCT02808442 and NCT02746952) enrolled 7 pediatric and 14 adult patients from June 3, 2016, through October 23, 2018, to examine the safety profile and antileukemic activity of UCART19.

The dose-escalation studies began with patients undergoing lymphodepletion with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide, with or without alemtuzumab (Lemtrada), followed by different doses of UCART19 for adults and children. The primary end point of the data was adverse events.

The small sample size for the investigation is the leading limitation for the research, but the research team also mentioned the differing trial designs, lymphodepletion regimens, and UCART19 cell doses to be among limitations of both trials.

The results [of these studies] are an encouraging step forward for the field of allogeneic CAR T cells, and UCART19 offers the opportunity to treat patients with rapidly progressive disease and where autologous CAR T-cell therapy is unavailable, wrote the investigators.

Reference:

Benjamin R, Graham C, Yallop D, et al. Genome-edited, donor-derived allogeneic anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells in paediatric and adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of two phase 1 studies. Lancet. 2020;396(10266):1885-1894. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32334-5

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Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy: The answer to a rejuvenated body, skin, hair and sex life! – Longevity LIVE – Longevity LIVE

By daniellenierenberg

You might associate platelet rich plasma therapy (PRP) with the renowned vampire facial and youd be right. However, theres so much more to this ground-breaking treatment than what youve seen in mainstream media. Founder of Anti-Aging Art Medical Aesthetics, Dr Reza Mia, shares more on this cutting-edge procedure.

PRP, or platelet rich plasma therapy, as its technically known, is a non-invasive treatment performed to accelerate healing, minimise the signs of ageing, accentuate parts of the body and to relieve pain. Incredibly versatile, this therapy is used among athletes to accelerate the healing of injuries, it is used to treat arthritis and tendonitis and is also popularly used as an anti-ageing facial treatment. PRP is considered a long-lasting solution to the bodys natural healing process, with results ranging from instant, to appearing after a couple of weeks, and lasting up to several years.

The science behind it

Plasma is the liquid part of the blood, consisting mainly of water and protein. It allows red and white blood cells, as well as platelets (a type of blood cell responsible for making blood clot, as well as for facilitating healing) to move through the bloodstream. Platelets are rich in connective tissue growth and healing factors; they initiate repair in the body and attract stem cells to injuries. This amazing healing ability is what makes them so effective in platelet rich plasma therapy.

To collect plasma, we draw blood from the body and then inserts it into a machine called a centrifuge, which spins the blood at high speeds, separating platelet-rich plasma from the rest of the blood. The red blood cells are discarded, and one is left with a concentration of platelets above normal values. This concentration can then be injected into various areas of the body to treat injuries or concerns.

Sports-related injuries

PRP has become a popular therapy among athletes. It is used to treat injured tendons, ligament sprains and tears, damaged ligaments and joints. Not only does it stimulate the healing of cartilage but it also helps reduce pain. Soft tissue injuries are most responsive to PRP treatment. Depending on the type of injury and the severity of it, some athletes who would have been side-lined for months have seen major results after around 6 weeks.

The vampire facial or facelift gained worldwide fame when reality star Kim Kardashian famously posted about it on Instagram a few years ago. Today, it is a common anti-ageing treatment. PRP is injected into the face to reduce wrinkles and rejuvenate the skin. The treatment provides a gradual increase in volume by helping to stimulate the bodys natural collagen production. Other benefits of the treatment include skin tightening, lifting and smoothing, and a more even skin tone.

Also known as a vampire breast lift, PRP for breast enhancement is a non-surgical form of breast augmentation. Unlike a traditional breast lift or augmentation which requires incisions, this treatment is performed by utilising PRP injections to create a fuller and firmer bust. A vampire breast lift wont increase your cup size or change the shape of your breast. However, it will create a fuller and firmer appearance and minimise the appearance of wrinkles and stretch marks. The results have been likened to those achieved by wearing a great quality push-up bra.

PRP therapy can be used to improve sexual function in both men and women. Platelet rich plasma sexual rejuvenation, involves injecting your own activated blood into the vagina or penis. The v-shot can enhance clitoral orgasms; increase arousal and lubrication and vaginal tightness. The benefits of the p-shot are longer, firmer and more sustainable erections and proven penis enlargement. The question on everyones lips is, of course, whether or not the latter procedure is painful. No. It is completely painless!

Did you know that PRP therapy is also successful when used to enhance hair growth? The treatment has shown to effectively treat androgenic alopecia (also known as male pattern baldness). PRP injections trigger and maintain natural hair growth by stimulating blood flow to the hair follicles. This treatment may be combined with otherhair loss procedures or medications.

Undergoing PRP therapy is simple and painless. The entire procedure, from drawing the blood to solution preparation, takes around half an hour and is performed in your aesthetic practitioners office. The time spent on the treatment performed with the PRP afterwards, is dependent on the individual treatment. Generally speaking, PRP injections are not painful,. We make use of various pain management techniques to ensure the comfort of our patients during their procedures. Depending on your treatment, you may experience some swelling and bruising for a few days, but this clears up quickly.

While the vampire facial put PRP on the general publics map, theres so much more that can be achieved by making use of this incredible treatment. Whether youre looking to treat an injury, minimise your wrinkles, rejuvenate your sex life or increase your hair growth, Plasma rich platelet therapy is a safe and effective treatment option to consider.

Visit http://www.drreza.co.za or or follow Dr Mia on Instagram @drreza.sa and @antiagingart

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Paragon Biosciences Expands Cell And Gene Therapy Platform – Contract Pharma

By daniellenierenberg

Paragon Biosciences, a life science innovator that creates, invests in and builds life science companies in biopharmaceuticals, cell and gene therapy and synthetic biology utilizing artificial intelligence, has launched CiRC Biosciences, a cell therapy company developing treatments for serious diseases with high, unmet needs with an initial focus on the eye."The addition of CiRC Biosciences to our portfolio builds upon our cell and gene therapy platform, an area that has tremendous potential to address serious genetic diseases," said Jeff Aronin, founder, chairman and chief executive officer, Paragon Biosciences. "CiRC Biosciences gives us the science to target retinal diseases that could lead to vision restoration with numerous other applications in the years ahead."CiRC Biosciences is currently advancing pre-clinical development of chemically induced retinal cells for vision restoration in Geographic Atrophy Age-Related Macular Degeneration (Dry AMD), which is the most common cause of irreversible vision loss over the age of 65, and advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), a genetic disorder that causes tunnel vision and eventual blindness. There are no U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatments to restore vision loss in Dry AMD or RP.The company's novel mechanism of action is designed for direct chemical conversion of fibroblasts into other cell types using a cocktail of small molecules in an 11-day chemical conversion process. Pre-clinical studies have shown efficacy in blind mice that demonstrated vision restoration. CiRC Biosciences has provisional patent applications to protect its platform."Our technology transforms ordinary skin cells into specialized retinal cells using a cocktail of small molecules," said Sai Chavala, M.D., co-founder and chief scientific officer, CiRC Biosciences. "This process is potentially safer, quicker, more cost effective and easier to manufacturer than using traditional stem cells. Working with Paragon Biosciences to build and advance CiRC Biosciences provides us the opportunity to efficiently progress this technology through research and development stages.CiRC Biosciences first reported its discovery in the highly respected scientific journal Nature (April 15, 2020). A recently published New England Journal of Medicine article (Nov. 5, 2020) discussed CiRC's technology of using chemically induced cells to restore retinal function. The article concluded, "The new and emerging strategies for the rescue, regeneration, and replacement of photoreceptors suggest a bright future in the fight to preserve and restore vision in blinding eye diseases."The abstract in Nature is available here.Access to the NEJM article is available here.

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[Full text] Successful Use of Nivolumab in a Patient with Head and Neck Cancer Aft | OTT – Dove Medical Press

By daniellenierenberg

Introduction

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the major causes of cancer-associated illness and death, with more than 600,000 newly diagnosed cases worldwide each year1 and a continuously increasing incidence rate.2 HNSCC includes cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. The anatomical structures of the head and neck can be damaged by the tumor itself or treatments such as surgical resection and chemoradiotherapy, which sometimes cause speech, swallowing, and breathing impairments.3,4 Patients with HNSCC have been shown to bear greater psychological distress than those with other types of cancer.5

Despite the currently available therapies, patients with advanced HNSCC still experience poor outcomes.68 For example >50% of patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC experience recurrence or metastases development within 3 years of treatment.911 Treatment options for patients with the recurrent and metastatic disease following progression after a platinum-based regimen are limited, and the median overall survival of such patients is less than 7 months.1215

The recurrence and metastasis of HNSCC are facilitated by immune evasion;16 therefore, as one of the methods to inhibit immune evasion, the use of programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway inhibitors is considered effective in the treatment of recurrent HNSCC.1719 Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 antiPD-1 monoclonal antibody, has shown remarkable antitumor efficacy and safety when administered to patients with recurrent HNSCC whose disease had progressed within 6 months of platinum-based chemotherapy;19 Furthermore, nivolumab treatment has been shown to improve the quality of life of these patients.20 However, PD-1 inhibitors can upregulate T cells in vivo, which may lead to the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).2123 To the best of the authors knowledge, no studies have investigated the safety and efficacy of nivolumab in patients with HNSCC after allo-HSCT. Here, we report the case of a patient who experienced excellent control of left buccal squamous cell carcinoma with nivolumab after the failure of platinum-based chemotherapy despite receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

Without any family history of tumor, a 33-year-old man was diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome-positive T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia on March 19, 2014. He received one course of vincristine and prednisone therapy and four courses of vincristine, daunorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone therapy. He was in complete remission at the end of therapy. Subsequently, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was performed; the donor was his human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical sibling (sister). He experienced chronic GVHD (c GVHD) of the oral cavity and skin 3 months after transplantation, for which he was treated with steroid hormone- and cyclosporine-based therapies. Skin rejection lasted for more than 3 years. Imatinib mesylate was administered for 2 years after transplantation, and his leukemia was well controlled.

In August 2018, the patient developed an ulcer of approximately 0.5 0.5 cm size in the left buccal mucosa; the ulcer was slightly painful and covered with white moss. In September 2018, the patient was admitted to Peking University Stomatological Hospital, where a biopsy of the buccal mucosa was performed. The pathology results showed the presence of squamous cell carcinoma in the left cheek. Unfortunately, this patient was not a right candidate for HNSCC in terms of exposure to risk factors, such as long terms of smoking and drinking. On October 10, 2018, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) showed that the mass in the left cheek was metabolically active, which is consistent with the activity of a malignant tumor. One course of an adjuvant therapy regimen (nimotuzumab [200 mg d0] + docetaxel [60 mg d1, 8]+ nedaplatin [60 mg d2, 3]) was administered on October 26, 2018. Following this, the patient developed degree II thrombocytopenia and redness, swelling, and ulceration of the cheek, which had discharge with a peculiar smell. On November 29, 2018, a head and neck CT scan showed a left buccal malignant tumor with the destruction of the neighboring mandibular bone and lymph node enlargement in the left submaxillary region and right carotid sheath. The CT examination revealed disease progression. Following a multidisciplinary consultation in our hospital, surgery was not recommended; instead, a chemotherapy-based comprehensive treatment was recommended as a better option for the patient. The patient received chemotherapy with albumin paclitaxel (200 mg d1, 8)+ bleomycin (15,000 units d2, 9) from November 30, 2018 to January 9, 2019. On another CT scan, the curative effect was evaluated as partial remission (showed in Video 1, Figure 1A); subsequently, two courses of a chemotherapy regimen comprising nivolumab (140 mg d1) + albumin paclitaxel (200 mg d1, d8) were administered. A CT examination showed stable disease (SD) on March 12, 2019, following which the patient was administered 120 mg of nivolumab once every 2 weeks from March 15 to May 23, 2019. Another CT examination was performed on May 28, 2019 (showed in Video 2, Figure 1B). During the therapy course, the related tumor markers showed an overall downward trend, the new metastases did not appear, the patients status became better than before. Subsequently, another CT examination performed in August 02, 2019 showed the extent of the tumor was obvious reduction than before (showed in video 3, Figure 1C). And the corresponding CT report in August 02, 2019 was described as follows Compared with the CT on 28 May, 2019, the extent of the tumor in the left cheek became obviously smaller, the tubercle in the left submandibular and the lymph nodes in the left neck also became smaller. There were no other significant changes in this image. Most importantly, the patient did not develop any form of GVHD following nivolumab administration.

Figure 1 Head and neck CT images showing tumor before (A) and after treatment with nivolumab (B, C, respectively).

Abbreviation: CT, computed tomography.

Note: The arrows indicate the maximum length diameter of tumor or tumor site.

Reliable data on the clinical safety and efficacy of nivolumab in the treatment of recurrent or metastatic HNSCC have been obtained in a Phase III randomized clinical trial (CheckMate 141).19 In this trial, 361 patients with recurrent HNSCC for whom disease had progressed within 6 months after platinum-based chemotherapy were enrolled between May 29, 2014, and July 31, 2015. The median follow-up duration for overall survival (OS) was 5.1 months (range, 016.8 months). OS was significantly greater in patients randomized to receive nivolumab than in those who received standard second-line, single-agent systemic therapy with either methotrexate, docetaxel, or cetuximab (hazard ratio, 0.70; 97.73% confidence interval (CI), 0.510.96; P = 0.01). The median OS was 7.5 months (95% CI, 5.59.1) in the nivolumab group versus 5.1 months (95% CI, 4.06.0) in the standard therapy group. The one-year survival was also greater in patients who received nivolumab than in those who received standard therapy (36.0%vs. 16.6%). Furthermore, the response rate was higher in those who received nivolumab than in those who received standard therapy (13.3% vs 5.8%); however, the median progression-free survival was not significantly different between the groups (2.0 vs 2.3 months; P=0.32). In this study, patients who were treated with nivolumab had a longer OS than those treated with standard therapy, regardless of tumor PD-L1 expression or p16 status. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 13.1% of patients who received nivolumab and 35.1% of those who received standard therapy. Physical function, role functioning, and social functioning were stable in the nivolumab group, whereas they were substantially worse in the standard therapy group.20 Moreover, among Asian patients, the survival benefits were consistent with the global group.24

It was unclear whether nivolumab could be used in patients with recurrent HNSCC after allo-HSCT, though Khaddour et al proved the efficacy and safety of Pembrolizumab in patients who underwent allo-HSCT after relapsed and refractory Szary Syndrome and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.25 However, some case reports (Table 1) and clinical trials (Table 2) have reported the efficacy and safety of nivolumab when administrated to patients with recurrent hematological malignancies (mostly Hodgkins lymphoma) after allo-HSCT.

Table 1 Case Reports of Nivolumab Use After Allo-HSCT

Table 2 Studies on Nivolumab Use After Allo-HSCT

In Herbaux et al, nivolumab (3 mg/kg, once every 2 weeks) was administered to 20 patients with Hodgkins lymphoma who experienced relapse after allo-HSCT. The overall response rate was 95%, the 1-year progression-free survival rate was 58.2%, and the 1-year OS rate was 78.8%.26 Compared with other treatment options, nivolumab was more effective in these patients.2730 Haverkos et al reported results after a median follow-up duration was 428 days (range, 133833 days). After treatment with PD-1 inhibitors [nivolumab 3 mg/kg, once every 2 weeks (n = 28) and pembrolizumab (n =3)], the overall response rate of 31 patients with relapsed lymphoma after allo-HSCT was 77%, the median progression-free survival was 591 days (range,400644 days), and 68% of the patients survived to the end of the study.23 These two studies showed that nivolumab is effective when administered to patients with recurrent blood cancers after allo-HSCT, which is consistent with the results of several other case reports3134 and case series.35,36 The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway plays a key role in the regulation of the balance among T cell activation, T-cell tolerance, and immune-mediated tissue damage. This pathway protects healthy cells from excessive inflammatory or autoimmune responses.37,38 Some studies have shown that the activation of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway can reduce acute and chronic GVHD, whereas its blockade can accelerate the graft-versus-host response and increase the associated mortality.21,22,39 It is unclear whether the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab increases the risk of GVHD and the associated mortality in patients after allo-HSCT.23,26 Some clinical studies and case reports have shown that nivolumab treatment-related GVHD and consequent death in patients after allo-HSCT might be affected by the following factors. First, GVHD after antiPD-1 treatment has been observed most frequently in matched sibling donor transplants; for which Haverkos et al reported an incidence of 75%.23 In a Phase I pilot study, without GVHD or G3/G4 immune toxicity after receiving multiple doses of nivolumab was only among one patient whose donor source was Haploidentical+cord blood Fludarabine.40 Second, a history of GVHD, especially for the acute GVHD, may lead to an increased risk of nivolumab treatment-related GVHD after allo-HSCT. In a French cohort, all patients who presented with acute GVHD after nivolumab treatment had a prior history of acute GVHD, among which three patients presented with steroid-refractory nivolumab-induced GVHD, and GVHD was not observed among patients without a history of GVHD.26 This phenomenon was also observed in Steinerovs medical report.41 In the study by Haverkos et al, 63% of patients with a history of GVHD prior to antiPD-1 treatment developed treatment-emergent GVHD after receiving antiPD-1.23 Third, the shorter the interval between transplantation and nivolumab use, the greater the risk of GVHD. In the study by Herbaux et al, the median intervals between transplantation and nivolumab use in cases with the presence and absence of GVHD were 8.5 months and 28.5 months, respectively.26 In another study by Wang et al, the reported four patients all experienced immune-related adverse events following nivolumab treatment and the median time from transplantation to nivolumab use was 7.8 months.40 Fourth, dose is a risk factor for nivolumab treatment-related GVHD. In a case report, chronic skin GVHD was observed when the dose of nivolumab was adjusted from 0.5 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg.33 Other factors, such as immunosuppressive therapy at the time of nivolumab administration, may also influence nivolumab treatment-related GVHD. Recently, a comprehensive literature review was launched by Awais et al to assess the safety and efficacy of the use of checkpoint inhibitors (ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab) in blood cancers before and after allo-HSCT. Collective data showed that checkpoint inhibitors use after allo-HSCT for post-transplant relapse had higher efficacy but the risk of GVHD was significant. Moreover, the investigation indicated that higher drug doses, shorter intervals between checkpoint inhibitors exposure and allo-HSCT and prior history of GVHD had a positive correlation with the risk of GVHD.42

In the present case, HNSCC was effectively controlled without any nivolumab treatment-related acute or chronic GVHD after nivolumab administration, while the weight loss being the only adverse event. After comprehensive analysis, we found that many factors may impede the development of nivolumab treatment-related GVHD in our patient. On one hand, the appropriate donor, no use of checkpoint inhibitors prior to allo-HSCT, the long interval between nivolumab administration and allo-HSCT (36 months) and the standard dose use of nivolumab were the negative factors for GVHD development. On the other hand, the chronic GVHD of the oral cavity and skin before nivolumab use might lead to the development of GVHD. However, it remained unknown what role the immunosuppressant therapy played in the occurrence of GVHD, though we definitely known that immunosuppressant was administered more than 2 years after allo-HSCT and discontinued for 2 years before treatment with nivolumab in our patient. Finally, whether the two primary cancers in our case affected the efficacy and safety of nivolumab by some unknown pathways were unclear, which needed further exploration.

Nivolumab has been shown to be effective in patients with HNSCC for whom platinum-based therapy has failed. However, little is known about the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in patients with HNSCC who have undergone allo-HSCT. Our case report shows that nivolumab could be used effectively and safely in such patients, however, more clinical trials are required to confirm these results.

This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital. The authors state that they have obtained verbal and written informed consent from the patient for the inclusion of their medical and treatment history within this case report.

This work was supported by the Tianjin Science and Technology Commission (18ZXXYSY00070), Key Task Project of Tianjin Health and Family Planning Commission (16KG128), Anticancer Key Technologies R&D Program of Tianjin (12ZCDZSY16200), and Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin (18JCYBJC91600).

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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14. Argiris A, Ghebremichael M, Gilbert J, et al. Phase III randomized, placebo-controlled trial of docetaxel with or without gefitinib in recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer: an eastern cooperative oncology group trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(11):14051414. doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.45.4272

15. Saloura V, Cohen EEW, Licitra L, et al. An open-label single-arm, phase II trial of zalutumumab, a human monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody, in patients with platinum-refractory squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014;73(6):12271239. doi:10.1007/s00280-014-2459-z

16. Ferris RL. Immunology and Immunotherapy of head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(29):32933304. doi:10.1200/JCO.2015.61.1509

17. Chow LQM, Haddad R, Gupta S, et al. Antitumor activity of pembrolizumab in biomarker-unselected patients with recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: results from the phase Ib KEYNOTE-012 expansion cohort. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(32):38383845. doi:10.1200/JCO.2016.68.1478

18. Seiwert TY, Burtness B, Mehra R, et al. Safety and clinical activity of pembrolizumab for treatment of recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (KEYNOTE-012): an open-label, multicentre, phase 1b trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(7):956965. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30066-3

19. Ferris RL, Blumenschein G Jr, Fayette J, et al. Nivolumab for recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(19):18561867. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1602252

20. Harrington KJ, Ferris RL, Blumenschein G Jr, et al. Nivolumab versus standard, single-agent therapy of investigators choice in recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (CheckMate 141): health-related quality-of-life results from a randomised, Phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017;18:11041115. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30421-7

21. Blazar BR, Carreno BM, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, et al. Blockade of programmed death-1 engagement accelerates graft-versus-host disease lethality by an IFN-gamma-dependent mechanism. J Immunol. 2003;171:12721277. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.171.3.1272

22. Saha A, Aoyama K, Taylor PA, et al. Host programmed death ligand 1 is dominant over programmed death ligand 2 expression in regulating graft-versus-host disease lethality. Blood. 2013;122:30623073. doi:10.1182/blood-2013-05-500801

23. Haverkos BM, Abbott D, Hamadani M, et al. PD-1 blockade for relapsed lymphoma post-allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant: high response rate but frequent GVHD. Blood. 2017;130:221228. doi:10.1182/blood-2017-01-761346

24. Kiyota N, Hasegawa Y, Takahashi S, et al. A randomized, open-label, Phase III clinical trial of nivolumab vs. therapy of investigators choice in recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a subanalysis of Asian patients versus the global population in checkmate 141. Oral Oncol. 2017;73:138146. doi:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2017.07.023

25. Khaddour K, Musiek A, Cornelius LA, et al. Rapid and sustained response to immune checkpoint inhibition in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma after allogenic hematopoietic cell transplant for szary syndrome. J Immunol Cancer. 2019;7:338. doi:10.1186/s40425-019-0801-z

26. Herbaux C, Gauthier J, Brice P, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of nivolumab after allogeneic transplantation for relapsed hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2017;129:24712478. doi:10.1182/blood-2016-11-749556

27. Peggs KS, Kayani I, Edwards N, et al. Donor lymphocyte infusions modulate relapse risk in mixed chimeras and induce durable salvage in relapsed patients after T-cell-depleted allogeneic transplantation for hodgkins lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:971978. doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.32.1711

28. Anastasia A, Carlo-Stella C, Corradini P, et al. Bendamustine for Hodgkin lymphoma patients failing autologous or autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective study of the fondazione Italiana linfomi. Br J Haematol. 2014;166:140142. doi:10.1111/bjh.12821

29. Carlo-Stella C, Ricci F, Dalto S, et al. Brentuximab vedotin in patients with hodgkin lymphoma and a failed allogeneic stem cell transplantation: results from a named patient program at four Italian centers. Oncologist. 2015;20:323328. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2014-0420

30. Tsirigotis P, Danylesko I, Gkirkas K, et al. Brentuximab vedotin in combination with or without donor lymphocyte infusion for patients with hodgkin lymphoma after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2016;51:13131317. doi:10.1038/bmt.2016.129

31. Angenendt L, Schliemann C, Lutz M, et al. Nivolumab in a patient with refractory Hodgkins lymphoma after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2016;51:443445. doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.266

32. Yared JA, Hardy N, Singh Z, et al. Major clinical response to nivolumab in relapsed/refractory hodgkin lymphoma after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2016;51:850852. doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.346

33. Onizuka M, Kojima M, Matsui K, et al. Successful treatment with low-dose nivolumab in refractory hodgkin lymphoma after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Int J Hematol. 2017;106:141145. doi:10.1007/s12185-017-2181-9

34. Shad AT, Huo JS, Darcy C, et al. Tolerance and effectiveness of nivolumab after pediatric T-cell replete, haploidentical, bone marrow transplantation: a case report. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64. doi:10.1002/pbc.26257

35. Godfrey J, Bishop MR, Syed S, Hyjek E, Kline J. PD-1 blockade induces remissions in relapsed classical hodgkin lymphoma following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J Immunol Cancer. 2017;5:11. doi:10.1186/s40425-017-0211-z

36. El Cheikh J, Massoud R, Abudalle I, et al. Nivolumab salvage therapy before or after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in hodgkin lymphoma. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2017;52:10741077. doi:10.1038/bmt.2017.69

37. Keir ME, Butte MJ, Freeman GJ, Sharpe AH. PD-1 and its ligands in tolerance and immunity. Annu Rev Immunol. 2008;26:677704. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.26.021607.090331

38. Francisco LM, Sage PT, Sharpe AH, The PD-1. pathway in tolerance and autoimmunity. Immunol Rev. 2010;236:219242.

39. Fujiwara H, Maeda Y, Kobayashi K, et al. Programmed death-1 pathway in host tissues ameliorates Th17/Th1-mediated experimental chronic graft-versus-host disease. J Immunol. 2014;193:25652573. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1400954

40. Wang AY, Kline J, Stock W, et al. Unexpected toxicities when nivolumab was given as maintenance therapy following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2020;26:10251027. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.01.021

41. Steinerov K, Jindra P, Lysk D, Karas M. Development of resistant GvHD in a patient treated with nivolumab for hodgkins lymphoma relapse after allogeneic unrelated transplantation. Klin Onkol. 2019;32:6669. doi:10.14735/amko201966

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[Full text] Successful Use of Nivolumab in a Patient with Head and Neck Cancer Aft | OTT - Dove Medical Press

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Two Studies Shed Light on How and Where the Body Can Add New Fat Cells – Technology Networks

By daniellenierenberg

Gaining more fat cells is probably not what most people want, although that might be exactly what they need to fight off diabetes and other diseases. How and where the body can add fat cells has remained a mystery - but two new studies from UT Southwestern provide answers on the way this process works.

The studies, both published online in Cell Stem Cell, describe two different processes that affect the generation of new fat cells. One reports how fat cell creation is impacted by the level of activity in tiny organelles inside cells called mitochondria. The other outlines a process that prevents new fat cells from developing in one fat storage area in mice - the area that correlates with the healthy subcutaneous fat just under the skin in humans. (Both studies were done in mice.)

In the second study, a commonly used cancer drug was able to jump-start healthy fat cell creation in mice, a finding that raises the possibility of future drug treatments for humans.

While fat isn't popular, as long as people overeat they will need a place to store the excess calories, explains Philipp Scherer, Ph.D., director of the Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research at UT Southwestern and senior author of the first study focusing on mitochondria. There are two options, he says: squeezing more lipids (fat) into existing fat cells and ballooning their size, leading to problems such as inflammation and, eventually, diabetes; or creating new fat cells to help spread the load. Fat stored properly - in fat cell layers under the skin (subcutaneous fat) that aren't overburdened instead of around organs (visceral fat) or even inside organs - is the healthy alternative, he says.

Problems follow if existing fat cells are left on their own to become engorged, adds Rana Gupta, Ph.D., associate professor of internal medicine and senior author of the second study. "When these cells are so overwhelmed that they can't take it anymore, they eventually die or become dysfunctional, spilling lipids into places not intended to store fat."

Those lipids may move into the liver, leading to fatty liver disease; to the pancreas, resulting in diabetes; or even to the heart, causing cardiovascular disease, Gupta says. Visceral, or belly fat, may surround the organs, creating inflammation.

The healthiest place to store fat is in subcutaneous fat, adds Gupta. Ironically, that is where mice in his study were least able to create new fat cells, despite the fact that stem-cell-like progenitor cells primed to become fat cells were present there as well, he says.

Gupta's study identified a process that prevents progenitor cells from developing into fat cells in mouse subcutaneous inguinal fat.

The protein HIF-1a (short for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha) is central to the process. It kicks off a series of cellular actions that ultimately inactivate a second protein called PPARgamma, the key driver of fat cell formation.

These proteins are found in both humans and mice. In fact, in a culture of human subcutaneous fat cell progenitors, HIF-1a also inhibited new fat cells from being created, according to Gupta.

In Gupta's mouse study, researchers used a genetic approach to inhibit HIF-1a and found that the progenitor cells could then make subcutaneous inguinal fat cells and fewer were inflamed or fibrotic.

Next, they tested the cancer drug imatinib (brand name Gleevec) and found it had the same effect. The cancer drug was tried because it was known to have beneficial effects against diabetes in cancer patients with both diseases, Gupta says.

In Scherer's study, researchers manipulated a protein called MitoNEET in the outer membrane of the precursor cells' mitochondria, organelles known as the cells' power plants. The resulting mitochondrial dysfunction and drop in cell metabolism caused precursor cells to lose the ability to become new fat cells and increased inflammation.

"This study shows we can manipulate the precursor cells' willingness to become fat cells," Scherer says. "The ability to recruit new fat cells by tickling these pre-fat cells to become fat cells is very important and has profound beneficial effects on health, particularly in the obesity-prone environment that we all live in."

He says his goal is now to design a drug that could stimulate mitochondrial activity.

"Understanding the mechanism is an important first step," Scherer says, referring to the findings from the two studies. "We will have to learn in the future how to manipulate these processes pharmacologically."

Reference: Joffin N, Paschoal VA, Gliniak CM, et aI. Mitochondrial metabolism is a key regulator of the fibro-inflammatory and adipogenic stromal subpopulations in white adipose tissue. Cell Stem Cell. doi:doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2021.01.002

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

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Two Studies Shed Light on How and Where the Body Can Add New Fat Cells - Technology Networks

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Heidi Klum loves to pamper her skin with goodies from Drunk Elephant and Glossier – woman&home

By daniellenierenberg

With her sun-kissed hair and flawless golden skin, it's easy to forget that Heidi Klum is in her mid 40s. Genetics certainly help. But so do Heidi Klum's favourite skincare products by Glossier and Drunk Elephant, plus a reminder of home courtesy of German beauty brand The Cream by Augustinus Bader.

In a rare selfie, Klum showed off the Perfectil Hair Skin And Nails Vitamins she takes daily, alongside this smorgasbord of beauty products, which proves the supermodel takes her skincare seriously.

Here are some of her favourite products:

More from womanandhome:

Drunk Elephant T.L.C. Framboos Glycolic Resurfacing Night Serum

This night serum contains a hefty dose of glycol acid to exfoliate built-up dead skin cells and resurface dull, uneven skin. Expect brighter, smoother skin when you wake.

Drunk Elephant T.L.C. Sukari Babyfacial 25% AHA + 2% BHA Mask

If you like to feel a product working, you'll positive love this mask. Like an AHA/BHA facial in a bottle, it resurfaces skin to reveal greater clarity and improved skin tone.

Drunk Elephant C-Firma Day Serum

This vitamin C day serum is packed with antioxidants to protect skin from urban aggressors.

Glossier Solution

A liquid exfoliator that you apply a bit like toner, it buffs away dead dulling skin with a single swipe.

Mario Badescu Drying Lotion

We know, we know, even supermodels get spots. This cult zit lotion contains salicylic acid, sulfur, and zinc oxide to dry up blemishes - fast.

Augustinus Bader The Rich Cream

The brainchild of a stem cell scientist no less, this overnight treatment uses amino acids and vitamins to re-energise cells to repair damage more effectively.

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When to take fish oil: Timing, dosages and side effects – Medical News Today

By daniellenierenberg

There is no incorrect time of day to take fish oil supplements. However, some evidence suggests that people absorb omega-3 fatty acids more effectively when they take them with a meal that contains dietary fat.

This comes from a study in Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care.

Fish oil is a major source of omega-3 fatty acids, which may have a number of health benefits.

In this article, we will discuss when people should take fish oil, how to take it, dosage, and any health benefits and side effects.

There is no significant benefit to taking fish oil at a specific time of day. However, people may wish to take fish oil with a meal that contains dietary fat.

A 2019 study on omega-3 found that taking an omega-3 concentrate with food that contains fat increased bioavailability, making it easier for the body to absorb.

Additionally, an older 2015 study found that taking omega-3 fatty acids with a low fat meal reduced absorption.

Both of these studies looked at omega-3 fatty acids specifically, so the results may not apply to people taking fish oil. Additionally, the amount of omega-3 in fish oil can vary, depending on factors such as the type of fish, and the brand.

People can take fish oil capsules with water during a meal. If a person typically does not eat much fat at breakfast, they may wish to wait until lunch or their evening meal before taking it.

Some people experience gastrointestinal side effects when taking fish oil. If a person experiences this side effect, they may find it helpful to split their fish oil into two doses and take them at different times of the day.

People who split their dose in half may need to take each one at different mealtimes.

Researchers have found it difficult to define an optimal amount of omega-3 fatty acids to get per day.

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommend adults take between 5001,000 milligrams of omega-3 per day. However, other countries and organizations recommend different doses.

The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) note that while some types of omega-3 have no official recommended dose, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an exception. This table shows the recommended daily amounts by age and sex:

The amount of ALA in omega-3 supplements can depend on the type of supplement and the manufacturer. Read the product label to determine how much a supplement contains.

Omega-3 fatty acids may have a positive effect on human health in a number of ways. Research into its benefits is ongoing, but there is evidence that it may:

However, many studies on omega-3s health benefits focus on getting these fatty acids from fish and seafood, rather than from fish oil capsules. If a person is thinking of taking fish oil for a health condition, they should speak with a doctor first.

Some specific conditions that may benefit from a higher intake of omega-3 include:

According to a 2015 review, there is some evidence that consuming omega-3 fatty acids may help prevent or manage cardiovascular conditions. Omega-3 fatty acids may help reduce triglyceride levels in the blood and reduce the risk of cardiovascular death.

Omega-3 fatty acids may also have antiarrhythmic effects, which means they help a persons heart beat in a regular pattern. The effect that omega-3 fatty acids have on arrhythmia may significantly reduce the risk of fatal ventricular arrhythmias.

However, more recent studies show that there may not be a clear benefit to taking omega-3 to prevent adverse effects of cardiovascular conditions. There is also some evidence that taking statins at the same time as omega-3 fatty acid supplements may reduce their protective effect on cardiovascular conditions.

Scientists need to carry out more research on omega-3 and its relationship with preventing or managing cardiovascular diseases.

Some studies have shown that a high omega-3 intake can reduce the risk of inflammatory disease mortality.

Some have also found that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for people with Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis, two types of inflammatory bowel disease.

However, there is no clinically significant evidence on whether omega-3 fatty acids help prevent relapses for people with these conditions.

Several in vitro studies show that omega-3 fatty acids have an effect on colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSC). CCSC have a long lifespan and can self-renew, leading to colon tumors.

CCSC can lead to cancer relapse and chemotherapy resistance. Omega-3 fatty acids may stop CCSC from growing and may reduce chemotherapy resistance.

Omega-3 fatty acids may have several positive effects with regards to prostate cancer, although research on this is mixed.

Several studies have found that consuming fish or omega-3 fatty acids reduces the risk of developing prostate cancer, including aggressive forms.

However, other studies suggest that there is no clear benefit to consuming omega-3 fatty acids to prevent prostate cancer.

Side effects of fish oil supplements are usually mild. They include:

Additionally, omega-3 supplements can have an adverse interaction with drugs that affect blood clotting.

People should contact their healthcare provider to ensure it is safe for them to take a supplement before trying it.

Some evidence suggests that taking supplements that contain omega-3 with a meal that contains fat can increase absorption. As a result, people may wish to take fish oil at breakfast, lunch, or dinner. However, there is no correct or incorrect time to take it.

Always speak with a doctor before starting a new supplement. If a person experiences side effects, they may benefit from splitting their dose in two.

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I Tried MAC’s Virtual Try-On Tool & Here’s What Happened – GLAMOUR UK

By daniellenierenberg

There's no better time than a national lockdown to test out the coolest new skincare/makeup/hair trends and snazzy innovations in beauty tech from the comfort of your own home. That said, there's nothing more frustrating than spending upwards of 100 on a snazzy new hair treatment or at-home facial system, only to find out it doesn't *actually* work.

Enter GLAMOUR Tries: the weekly Instagram series which sees GLAMOUR editors do all of the time-consuming (and expensive) work for you.

We've been busy trying out all of the (sometimes) wacky but always wonderful beauty crazes to take the internet by storm - from the FOREO's UFO 2 Smart Mask Treatment to Sarah Chapman's 138 Meso-Melt Infusion at-home facial and Toni&Guy's Hello Day! Secret Volumising Crimper. These are the products that every veteran beauty sleuth is talking about - but that you want to do a bit of research into before buying.

Thanks to GLAMOUR Tries, you won't need to waste your hard-earned pennies on testing these innovations yourself. We're getting in their first, giving you the lowdown and making sure you invest in products that genuinely work. Like what you see? You can shop all of the products seen on GLAMOUR tries, with the click of a button, down below. Don't say we don't treat you.

On GLAMOUR Tries this week, our Beauty Editor Lottie Winter tried MAC's brand new virtual try-on tool, in an attempt to find her perfect shade of the classic Studio Fix foundation - from the comfort of her sofa. But was the tool accurate? Was the selected foundation *actually* Lottie's exact match? Here's what happened...

First thing's first: how can you access the tool? "All you have to do is go to the MAC website, find the Studio Fix foundation and simply click on "find your shade match" - and it'll take you straight through to the virtual try-on tool," said Lottie. Click "start now", "allow access to your camera" and then - strike a pose!

"Within just a few seconds, it has selected not only my best match but options for a more golden, more rosy, darker and lighter finish," Lottie continued. "N6 is the shade of Studio Fix Fluid foundation that the virtual try-on tool has chosen for me. So, let's put it to the test..."

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"I'm using a MAC 170 brush to apply. I've just half of my face so we can compare the results - but it couldn't be a better match. It has blended so effortlessly and it has knocked out all the redness around my nose and my eyes.

"What I love most about this foundation is that it's super long-wearing and it helps to control shine throughout the day which is great if you're like me and you have very oily skin. But also the coverage is buildable which means you can get that believable finish."

Any final thoughts? "It couldn't have been easier to get my perfect shade match. It just makes shopping for foundation online so much easier and totally reliable," said Lottie. We're sold.

Would you MAC's virtual try-on tool a go? Have you already tried it? Let us know your thoughts over on Instagram @glamouruk.

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World Cancer Day 2021: What are Blood Cancers, Types, Symptoms, Treatment and data in India? – Jagran Josh

By daniellenierenberg

World Cancer Day 2021: It is observed on 4 February every year and this year the theme is "I Am and I Will".The campaign shows that our actions have an impact on everyone around us, within our neighbourhoods, communities, and cities. This year is a reminder of the enduring power of cooperation and collective action i.e. together, all our actions matter.

What are Blood Cancers?

It is a type of cancer that affects blood cells and affects the production and function of blood cells.

This type of cancer starts in the bone marrow which is the main source of blood production.

It occurs when abnormal blood cells start growing out of control and interrupt the function of normal blood cells that fight off infection and produce new blood cells.

World Cancer Day 2021: Current Theme, History and Key Facts

Blood Cancer: Types

Mainly, there are three types of blood cancers namely leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma.

Leukemia

It is a blood cancer that originates in the blood and bone marrow. It is caused by the rapid production of abnormal white blood cells and interferes with the bone marrow's ability to make red blood cells and platelets. These high numbers of abnormal white blood cells are not able to fight infection.

Lymphoma

This type of blood cancer affects the lymphatic system, which removes excess fluids from the body and produces immune cells. As we know that lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that fights infection. Therefore, abnormal lymphocytes become lymphoma cells that multiply and collect in the lymph nodes and other tissues. And over time, these cancerous cells impair the immune system of the body.

Myeloma

It is a type of blood cancer that begins in the plasma cells of blood which is a type of white blood cell made in the bone marrow. Plasma cells are white blood cells that produce antibodies to fight against infection and disease in the body. So, myeloma cells prevent the normal production of antibodies which make the immune system weak and susceptible to infection.

Blood Cancer: Symptoms

Loss of appetite, nausea

Fever, chills

Night sweats

Persistent fatigue, weakness

Unexplained weight loss

Bone/joint pain

Shortness of breath

Abdominal discomfort

Frequent infections

Itchy skin or skin rash

Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarms or groin

Delirium and confusion

Decreased urination and difficulty while urinating

What is High Grade Metastatic Cancer?

Blood Cancer: Treatment

On the type of cancer, treatment depends and how fast the cancer is progressing, where cancer has spread, and other factors. Some common treatment for blood cancer are:

Chemotherapy: In this anticancer cancer drugs are provided to the patient to interfere with and stop the growth of cancer cells in the body. In blood cancer, in chemotherapy treatment, sometimes several drugs are given together in a set regimen. This treatment may also be given before a stem cell transplant.

Radiation therapy: In this type of cancer treatment high-energy rays are given to kill cancer cells. It may also be given before a stem cell transplant.

Stem cell transplantation: In this type of treatment, healthy stem cells are infused into the patient body to help resume healthy blood production following therapy to destroy malignant blood cells. Stem cells may be collected from the bone marrow, circulating blood, and umbilical cord blood.

Blood Cancer in India

In India, over 20,000 new cases of childhood blood cancer are diagnosed every year of which nearly 15,000 of those cases are leukemia as per Globocan 2020.

The most common type of blood cancer is leukemia that affects children and teens (0-19 years) and one of the leading causes of death.

As per some studies, India ranks 3rd highest in reported cases of Blood Cancer after the US and China. Several factors are responsible like low accessibility of affordable healthcare in rural areas, lack of awareness and education on Blood Cancer, etc.

So, now you may have come to know about the blood cancer, types, symptoms, treatment, etc.

GK Questions and Answers on Types of Cancers

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Heidi Klum loves to pamper her skin with goodies from Drunk Elephant and Glossier – Woman & Home

By daniellenierenberg

With her sun-kissed hair and flawless golden skin, it's easy to forget that Heidi Klum is in her mid 40s. Genetics certainly help. But so do Heidi Klum's favourite skincare products by Glossier and Drunk Elephant, plus a reminder of home courtesy of German beauty brand The Cream by Augustinus Bader.

In a rare selfie, Klum showed off the Perfectil Hair Skin And Nails Vitamins she takes daily, alongside this smorgasbord of beauty products, which proves the supermodel takes her skincare seriously.

Here are some of her favourite products:

More from womanandhome:

Drunk Elephant T.L.C. Framboos Glycolic Resurfacing Night Serum

This night serum contains a hefty dose of glycol acid to exfoliate built-up dead skin cells and resurface dull, uneven skin. Expect brighter, smoother skin when you wake.

Drunk Elephant T.L.C. Sukari Babyfacial 25% AHA + 2% BHA Mask

If you like to feel a product working, you'll positive love this mask. Like an AHA/BHA facial in a bottle, it resurfaces skin to reveal greater clarity and improved skin tone.

Drunk Elephant C-Firma Day Serum

This vitamin C day serum is packed with antioxidants to protect skin from urban aggressors.

Glossier Solution

A liquid exfoliator that you apply a bit like toner, it buffs away dead dulling skin with a single swipe.

Mario Badescu Drying Lotion

We know, we know, even supermodels get spots. This cult zit lotion contains salicylic acid, sulfur, and zinc oxide to dry up blemishes - fast.

Augustinus Bader The Rich Cream

The brainchild of a stem cell scientist no less, this overnight treatment uses amino acids and vitamins to re-energise cells to repair damage more effectively.

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Paragon Biosciences Launches CiRC Biosciences to Expand Cell and Gene Therapy Platform – PRNewswire

By daniellenierenberg

CHICAGO, Feb. 2, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- Paragon Biosciences, a life science innovator that creates, invests in and builds life science companies in biopharmaceuticals, cell and gene therapy and synthetic biology utilizing artificial intelligence, today announced the launch of CiRC Biosciences, a cell therapy company developing treatments for serious diseases with high, unmet needs with an initial focus on the eye.

"The addition of CiRC Biosciences to our portfolio builds upon our cell and gene therapy platform, an area that has tremendous potential to address serious genetic diseases," said Jeff Aronin, founder, chairman and chief executive officer of Paragon Biosciences. "CiRC Biosciences gives us the science to target retinal diseases that could lead to vision restoration with numerous other applications in the years ahead."

CiRC Biosciences is currently advancing pre-clinical development of chemically induced retinal cells for vision restoration in Geographic Atrophy Age-Related Macular Degeneration (Dry AMD), which is the most common cause of irreversible vision loss over the age of 65, and advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), a genetic disorder that causes tunnel vision and eventual blindness. There are no U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatments to restore vision loss in Dry AMD or RP.

The company's novel mechanism of action is designed for direct chemical conversion of fibroblasts into other cell types using a cocktail of small molecules in an 11-day chemical conversion process. Pre-clinical studies have shown efficacy in blind mice that demonstrated vision restoration. CiRC Biosciences has provisional patent applications to protect its platform.

"Our technology transforms ordinary skin cells into specialized retinal cells using a cocktail of small molecules," said Sai Chavala, M.D., co-founder and chief scientific officer of CiRC Biosciences. "This process is potentially safer, quicker, more cost effective and easier to manufacturer than using traditional stem cells. Working with Paragon Biosciences to build and advance CiRC Biosciences provides us the opportunity to efficiently progress this technology through research and development stages.

CiRC Biosciences first reported its discovery in the highly respected scientific journal Nature (April 15, 2020). A recently published New England Journal of Medicine article (Nov. 5, 2020)discussed CiRC's technology of using chemically induced cells to restore retinal function. The article concluded, "The new and emerging strategies for the rescue, regeneration, and replacement of photoreceptors suggest a bright future in the fight to preserve and restore vision in blinding eye diseases."

The abstract in Nature is available here: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2201-4

Access to the NEJM article is available here: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcibr2027602

About CiRC Biosciences CiRC Biosciences is a privately held cell therapy company dedicated to developing treatments for serious diseases with high, unmet needs with an initial focus on the eye. Currently it is pre-clinical phase for Geographic Atrophy Age-Related Macular Degeneration (Dry AMD) and advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). CiRC Biosciences is a portfolio company of Paragon Biosciences. Visit our website: https://circbiosciences.com/.

About Paragon Biosciences Paragon is a life science innovator that creates, invests in and builds life science companies in biopharmaceuticals, cell and gene therapy and synthetic biology utilizing artificial intelligence. The company's current portfolio includes Castle Creek Biosciences, CiRC Biosciences, Emalex Biosciences, Evozyne, Harmony Biosciences, Qlarity Imaging, Skyline Biosciences, and a consistent flow of incubating companies created and supported by the replicable Paragon Innovation Capital model. Paragon stands at the intersection of human need, life science, and company creation. For more information, please visit https://paragonbiosci.com/.

Media Contact:

Evelyn M. O'Connor Paragon Biosciences 312-847-1335 [emailprotected]

SOURCE Paragon Biosciences

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The 32 Best Beauty Products That Launched in January – Coveteur

By daniellenierenberg

From nourishing curl creams to moisturizers loaded with stem-cell technology.

It hardly seems possible that the first month of 2021 is behind us, but here we areand luckily, our beauty cabinets and drawers have never been better stocked. With the new year, weve dedicated precious shelf space to testing everything new in beauty, and there is plenty to be excited about. Whether youve been searching for a vitamin C serum to kiss those dark spots goodbye, a nourishing curl cream to help your texture pop, or perhaps a hydrating SPF to protect against sun damage and UV rays (remember, it is your most powerful anti-aging tool), there is something out there to fit in perfectly with your routine. Check out our picks for the 32 best beauty product launches of January.

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$145

The perennial favorite Dr. Barbara Sturm has finally released a vitamin C serum, which harnesses kakadu plum (more plums please!) to protect your cells from free-radical damage and lighten hyperpigmentation. The 5-percent formulation also contains two other sources of vitamin Coil-soluble THD ascorbate (a highly stable variety) and synthetic vitamin C in glycosidic form (aka ascorbyl glucoside). And the white, milky texture? Thats the added zinc, which helps your skin absorb the vitamin C faster and more effectively.

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$28

Posh is back with another addition to her clean collection of cosmetics. This mascara features a curved wand filled with short, almost teeth-like bristles that coat your lashes in a perfectly thin, even layer of formula. Do you want an ultra-voluminous lash look? This might not be the mascara for you. But for a gorgeous, minimalist, and clump-free effect, this launch delivers. And if you like adding product to your lower lashes but hate the potential smudging, be prepared to truly sing this mascaras praises.

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$20

Navigating between creams, gels, and oils can be tricky for anyone with curly hair, but this new milky serum is a serious gamechanger. Founder Babba C. Riveras recent launch not only gives you definition without the frizz, but the acai, chia seed, and castor-oil-rich formula also nourishes your hair for more flexibility and shine throughout the day. If youve yet to find your holy-grail texturizing product, give this one a try.

Buy

$34

Finding an affordable, comfortable, and effective physical SPF can seem like the unreachable trifecta, but clean beauty brand Saie nails it with their first sunscreen. The formula has a silky, lightweight feel with zero white cast, and the added aloe vera, viola extract, argan, grapeseed, and vitamin E will have your skin feeling nourished and soft all day long. No more excuses for not wearing your daily SPF when it feels this good.

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$68

The trio of algae, licorice root, and hyaluronic acid makes this creamy formula ideal for dry under-eyes that are showing signs of premature aging (like darkness and fine lines). The delicate area is strengthened, dark circles are minimized, and dehydration is nowhere to be found. If youre new to eye creams, this is a great place to start.

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$28

Media maven Katherine Power has debuted her next product line to accompany Versed Skincare: Merit Beauty, a collection of EU-compliant, clean cosmetics for the minimalist-minded consumer. There are six products with a few various shade options plus a brush in the line, but its the creamy Flush Balm blush that has us swooning. The Cheeky shade, a cool, almost russet pink melts into your skin for a natural flush that lights up your whole face. You can even add a swipe to your lips for a monochromatic effect.

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$12

Clarifying shampoos are one of our favorite products to keep the scalp clean and free of buildupwhich in turn promotes strong, healthy hair. But that doesnt mean you have to drop a ton of money to find a quality formula. Clean beauty brand Odele debuts their first clarifying product utilizing a rising-star ingredient, quinoa, to help fortify and repair your hair. Swap out your go-to shampoo once a week for this formula, and admire your endless good hair days.

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$69

This serum contains .3 percent retinol, the highest recommended for topical retinoids, along with over a dozen other skin-nourishing and brightening ingredients. These include moisturizing humectants like glycerin, hydroxyethyl urea, and sodium hyaluronate, mango seed butter for nourishing fatty acids, and squalane to boost your skins moisture levels. Brighter, more even, and highly moisturized skin is in your future.

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$23

We all know that moment after you spent part of your morning perfecting your brow shape only to spot a droopy tail by lunchtime. Youll never have a hair out of place with this new translucent wax which provides long-lasting hold and a full, fluffy effect. Just gather the product onto the applicator, sweep it through your brows, and apply your color product after to fill in any gaps. The brows of your dreams are easier to achieve than ever before.

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$265

Master Perfumer Jacques Cavallier Belletrud has created a dreamy new fragrance for 2021, with notes of creamy osmanthus, Chinese magnolia blossom, and sensual jasmine. If youre looking to update your fragrance collection for spring, this sophisticated blend (in a gorgeous bottle) is the perfect addition.

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$58

Exfoliation is non-negotiable if you want skin thats free from congestion, which is why incorporating this alpha hydroxy acid and beta hydroxy acid serum into your routine is a wise idea (especially if you dont use an exfoliating cleanser on the regular). The AHA blend helps to loosen dead skin cells while the smaller BHA molecules dive deep into pores and clear out excess dirt and sebum. The boost of rosehip oil also keeps your skin from drying out or growing irritated. Use it a few nights a week to start, and watch your complexion begin to glow.

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$70

If you can bear to disturb this beyond-gorgeous palette, youll find that the powder duo gives you the kind of radiant flush that we thought only the women on Bridgerton could manage. The satiny peach highlighter gives you the kind of glow that says No, I havent been burrowed under blankets for the last six months, while the complementary coral orange blush brings a much-needed boost of energy to your complexion. CHANEL resident makeup artist Lucia Pica definitely nailed it with this spring collection.

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$32

Curly girls, rejoice, because Jen Atkin has finally dropped a curl cream for the Ouai line. After two years of formulation, the linseed and chia seed oil create soft definition for your texture, while a mix of babassu, coconut, and soybean oils hydrate and repair damage from the environment, heat, or your recent color appointment. Start with a pea-sized amount and work it through damp hair, adding more depending on your thickness and curl pattern, and enjoy the touchable, bouncy curls you always wanted.

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$10

Our at-home manicures are looking better than ever, but we sometimes struggle with getting the polish to last longer than a day or two. Enter this new vegan nail primer which promises a 20 percent increase in durability for your latest mani. The consistency is much thinner than what youre used to for a nail primermore like alcoholwhich is why the brush is shorter: It can easily evaporate before it reaches your nail bed, so founder Sarah Gibson-Tuttle made the process quicker and more manageable. Prep your nail with a thin coat, allow it to dry, and carry on with your favorite polisheasy!

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$110

Loaded with skin-renewing longoza flower and plenty of ceramides to rebuild and restore your skin, this rich moisturizer is a must for anyone battling a dry complexion this winter. The brand spent 20 years researching stem-cell technology to perfect their topical anti-aging blend of ingredients and has the clinical data to back it up. If impossibly radiant skin is what youre after, this cream will be a wise investment.

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$78

While its impossible to eliminate cellulite with a topical product (tear), it is doable to minimize the appearance and improve tone and definition. This new, patented serum from Susanne Kaufmann uses a blend of caffeine, tiger grass, and boldo (a South American tree known for its anti-inflammatory properties) to smooth and firm your skin. We recommend slathering on a generous layer following a relaxing bath.

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$25

Tracee Ellis Ross is back with her newest launch for Pattern: a lightweight conditioner for fine or thin hair (that still doesnt sacrifice moisture or nutrients for your curls). The rich, creamy texture feels almost mask-like in the shower, but once you rinse it out, you can immediately notice the difference in your hair fiberseverything is smoother, stronger, and once you style to your hearts content, frizz is minimized. It took the brand over 60 iterations to get the formula right, so rest assured that this launch is worth your coveted shower space.

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You cant beat a charcoal mask to rid your skin of dirt and buildup, which is why this new blend of Japanese charcoal and botanicals is high on our must-have list. Environ is a dermatologist and aesthetician favorite for a reason, and the soothing blend of botanicals and protective antioxidants have us asking our providers for a bottle ASAP. Use it a few times a week for a deep clean that gives your skin a much-needed reset.

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$16

Sake is slowly making its way onto each of our dinner tables, but did we ever think it would make its way into our skin-care routines? Certainly not, but we are so glad it has. Sake has a ton of skin-care benefits, including light exfoliating properties that will slough off dead skin cells and prebiotics to reintroduce balance in the skin. This body lotion has a pH level of about 5.75, making it ideal for maintaining the integrity of our skin as we battle winter dryness and flakiness.

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$95

We know you might be thinking a balm near your eyes is going to be way too greasy or stickyeven if it provides a boost of hydrationbut we were pleasantly surprised by the lightweight texture of this oil-free formula. Skin care is a new addition to the Hourglass lineup, but so far were enjoying the brands new product innovation. Keep the appearance of fine lines minimized with consistent hydration.

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$9

We all love applying heaping loads of hyaluronic acid to our faces, but have we ever stopped to wonder what the ingredient would look like in our hair-care routines? This new hair mask introduces hyaluronic acid for a surge of moisture in hair that is otherwise frizzy and dry. This is a fabulous weekly hydrating mask to protect dry, color-treated, or heat-damaged hair and works great as a deep conditioner on days where you feel you need an extra boost for parched stands.

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$19

Jess Hannah Rvszs cult-favorite polish line has debuted the first new color of 2021 with Patina, an ultra-pale green that is basically spring in a jar. The non-toxic formula provides a subtle pop of color that looks gorgeous on any skin tone and is a perfect addition to our at-home manicure kit. Dont be afraid of green polish! This is the perfect minimalist shade to try it out.

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$90

Chebula is a healing fruit extract with roots in Ayurvedic traditions. In skin care, chebula acts as a cascading antioxidant, meaning that as it fights off free radicals, its chemical composition evolves to fight off even more free radicals throughout the day. Its a potent protector against environmental stressors for those of us living in cities or for those with active lifestyles. With elderberry, ginger, and echinacea for additional antioxidant support and antibacterial properties, and both low and high molecular hyaluronic acid to hydrate the skin, this is the perfect addition to anyones routine which needs an extra protective pick-me-up.

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$34

Get you a lipstick that can do both. Charlotte Tilbury releases an innovative lipstick this month that delivers on color impact while also supplying the skin with beneficial skin-care ingredients. This lipstick balm penetrates the skin on the lips with hyaluronic acid, providing ample hydration to dry winter lips. Additionally, it washes the lips with color in a balmy yet pigmented way that feels like velvet during wear. Add a pat or two to your cheeks for some gorgeous complementary color.

Buy

$135

Its time to energize with a sativa strainbut not in the way you might think. This creamy serum contains whole-flower cannabis sativa extract to soothe any inflammation in the skin and help it return to a glowing state of balance. In addition to being ultra soothing for your skin, this serum also contains chlorophyll, aloe, and squalane to lock moisture in for a radiant shine that never feels too heavy.

Buy

$30

Its Aquarius season, and what better way to celebrate a time of eccentric energy than by dabbing some colorful metallic and matte shadows around your eyes? This cool-toned palette contains a range of shades that will work well with every eye color, whether you are looking for a vibrant liner on your lash line or a bold, technicolor halo. This formulation is highly pigmented and has a staying power that will last throughout the entire day.

Buy

$275

If you cannot tell by now, we love retinol here at Coveteur. And why is that? Its a powerful ingredient that speeds the cell renewal process, igniting the production of skin-plumping collagen and elastin in the skin. Another thing we love about retinol is its ability to rid the complexion of post-hyperpigmentation, which is why we are so excited about RVives new dark-spot corrector. In addition to containing the powers of retinol, this night cream also contains vitamin C to improve the skins tone and peptides to provide the building blocks for a youthful, bouncy effect.

Buy

$42

Cover FX enters the skin-care category this month, and we must admit that their first foray into such a congested industry is quite impressive. The lightweight moisturizer contains both prebiotics and probiotics to maintain the integrity of the skins microbiome. Simultaneously, ceramides protect against environmental stressors, and olive and jojoba oils moisturize the skin while adding a dewy glow. We love using this as a base for a seamless makeup application that makes skin look like skin.

Buy

$11

Covergirls first full-coverage foundation is finally here, with 21 shades infused with SPF 18. Not only is it surprisingly breathable for being so full-coverage, but its also humidity- and transfer-proof, so no rubbing off on your mask if you need to travel anywhere. For a more minimal, dewy effect, we like adding equal parts moisturizer and blending with a makeup sponge. Skin looks impossibly airbrushed without draining your bank account. Its a win-win.

Buy

$42

For most people, winter skin care means amping up the rich moisturizers and oils in our routines, scaling back on heavy cleansers, and using all the hydrating masks we can get our hands on. Yet, some of these typical winter routines just wont cut it for those with oily skin, as they create a slickness in the skin that will inevitably clog pores. If you have oily skin and are looking for a great winter moisturizer, consider this one from founder Marianna Hewitt. Its formula is oil-free, meaning it will not exacerbate breakouts, and contains hyaluronic acid and ceramides for a plumping action that will last all day.

Buy

$28

We believe that our curls are beautiful, but they are sometimes so difficult to tame. In a perfect world, they would air-dry into perfect ringlets with shine and volume after every wash. Unfortunately, our hair dries in a frizzy and flat way most of the time, despite our best efforts. If your hair-care woes are anything like ours, consider this new defining gel as your hair savior. It holds curls natural shape without weighing them down or amping up their crunch factor. It also maintains curls integrity in high levels of humidity.

Buy

$295

This month, Cl de Peau Beaut releases a mask that is as efficacious as it is luxurious. The Precious Gold Vitality Mask contains 24-karat gold to inhibit oxidation in the skin, resulting in a more youthful and even-toned appearance. Additionally, it envelops your skin in ginseng extract, which speeds up collagen production for a plumper feel. This mask is perfect for nourishing and restoring your skin as you nourish yourself with some self-care after a long and taxing day.

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