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Stem Cells for Skin Quality – innovationsstemcellcenter.com

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Stem cells can do a lot of things - they can heal damaged tissue, reduce inflammation and restore function to damaged tissues. Did you know that stem cells can also improve your skin's quality and reduce the signs of aging? Innovations Stem Cell Center offers fat stem cell therapy for not only a wide array of medical conditions, but also for powerful anti-aging benefits.

How Can Stem Cell Therapy Improve Skin Quality?

Stem cells can help improve skin quality by helping to heal tissues that have been damaged by:

Aging. The aging process causes the breakdown of skin cells and skin quality, leaving the skin looking dull and dirty. Skin also loses elasticity and tightness.

Genetics. Genetics plays a large part in how your skin ages, and it's hard to fight it with over-the-counter products and treatments.

Poor diet. Lack of quality nutrition can negatively impact both the body and the skin. When the skin is not supported through a healthy diet, skin becomes dull, drab and damaged.

Environment. Environmental factors that affect the skin include pollution, dirt and germs. These things clog the pores, dull your appearance and lead to blemishes, acne and breakouts. Environmental factors also include prolonged exposure to the sun, which can cause pigmentation problems and destroy collagen and elastin.

How Is Stem Cell Therapy Used for the Skin?

One of the ways stem cell therapy is used for the skin is through a stem cell face-lift procedure. During this treatment, Dr. Johnson harvests stem cells from unwanted fat taken from another area of your body, such as your lower back or abdomen.

After the cells are harvested, they are separated from the blood and other tissue and then injected into your face with tiny needles.

The stem cell face-lift can be combined with other procedures, such as the facial fat transfer. Combining the procedures increases the odds of stem cell survival and boosts the anti-aging benefits.

What Are the Benefits of Stem Cell Therapy for the Skin?

Patients who undergo stem cell therapy for anti-aging benefits see changes in their skin such as:

Are you interested in learning more about stem cell therapy and its benefits for your skin? Call Innovations Stem Cell today at 214-256-1462 to learn more.

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What Can Stem Cells Do For Your Skin? | Skeyndor Australia

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Did you know that around 10,000 skin cells are born from one stem cell? Skin cells are constantly regenerating and on average live for 21 days. They make their way up from the deepest layers of your skin where they then die protecting themselves from external aggressors. As the engine for the constant renewal of your skin it is important we nourish and protect precious stem cells so they can keep producing your best skin.

As you age the activity of stem cells decrease. This is when you start to notice those first signs of ageing; thinner and more delicate skin, sagging, wrinkles and lack of luminosity. After the age of 40, the skins regeneration cycle slows down. New skin cells take longer to reach the surface of the skin, and dead cells can take twice as long to disappear, affecting the youthful appearance of your skin.

Do skincare products and skin treatments with stem cells make sense before the age of 40?Yes!

Young skin regenerates more quickly, and to mimic this we suggest an aggressive treatment, such as a peel, which removes lots of dead skin cells at once, to thenhelp your stem cells to renew andactivate the production of new, healthy and strong skin cells more quickly. Then we recommend stem cell skin products and treatments.

How exactly does a stem cell treatment work? The answer seems simple, but it is the result of many years of scientific research to ensure proven results. At Skeyndor we can guarantee this thanks to our laboratories with more than 50 years of experience in cosmeceuticals. Thanks to our incredible scientists, who have been at the forefront of skin stem cell innovations and breakthroughs we have developed two lines that contain stem cells.

Eternal:Skeyndors Eternalrangecontains the regenerative power of liposomes, derived from apple origin stem cells.These act on your skin stem cells to produce a greater amount of vital dermal substances, filling wrinkles, firming the skin and bringing luminosity to the face.

Timeless Prodigy: Timeless Prodigy by Skeyndor is a technological jewel to globally and definitively fight against the signs of skin ageing. Its formulation contains the revitalizing power of 50 million Damascus rose stem cells and is combined with the power of 10 other active ingredients, including five growth factors, white truffle and kombucha to eliminate signs of ageing. Including wrinkles and sagging, hydrating the skin in depth to revitalize its appearance and create that youthful glow. Timeless Prodigy is exclusive to select Skeyndor Spas and Beauty Salons.

Find your closest Eternal and Timeless Prodigy stockists to see the results for yourself, click here.

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Stem Cell Basics A Closer Look at Stem Cells

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About stem cells

Stem cells are the foundation of development in plants, animals and humans. In humans, there are many different types of stem cells that come from different places in the body or are formed at different times in our lives. These include embryonic stem cells that exist only at the earliest stages of development and various types oftissue-specific(oradult)stem cells that appear during fetal development and remain in our bodies throughout life.Stem cells are defined by two characteristics:

Beyond these two things, though, stem cells differ a great deal in their behaviors and capabilities.

Embryonic stem cells arepluripotent, meaning they can generate all of the bodys cell types but cannot generate support structures like the placenta and umbilical cord.

Other cells aremultipotent,meaning they can generate a few different cell types, generally in a specific tissue or organ.

As the body develops and ages, the number and type of stem cells changes. Totipotent cells are no longer present after dividing into the cells that generate the placenta and umbilical cord. Pluripotent cells give rise to the specialized cells that make up the bodys organs and tissues. The stem cells that stay in your body throughout your life are tissue-specific, and there is evidence that these cells change as you age, too your skin stem cells at age 20 wont be exactly the same as your skin stem cells at age 80.

Learn more about different types of stem cellshere.

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Skin stem cells: where do they live and what can they do? | Eurostemcell – Stem Cell Research | Uses of Stem Cells and Ethics | EuroStemCell

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One of the current challenges for stem cell researchers is to understand how all the skin appendages are regenerated. This could lead to improved treatments for burn patients, or others with severe skin damage.

Researchers are also working to identify new ways to grow skin cells in the lab. Epidermal stem cells are currently cultivated on a layer of cells from rodents, called feeder cells. These cell culture conditions have been proved safe, but it would be preferable to avoid using animal products when cultivating cells that will be transplanted into patients. So, researchers are searching for effective cell culture conditions that will not require the use of rodent cells.

Scientists are also working to treat genetic diseases affecting the skin. Since skin stem cells can be cultivated in laboratories, researchers can genetically modify the cells, for example by inserting a missing gene. The correctly modified cells can be selected, grown and multiplied in the lab, then transplanted back onto the patient. Epidermolysis Bullosa is one example of a genetic skin disease, where patients can benefit from this approach. Work is underway to test the technique.

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TREATMENTS – IMAGE NOW. Age later.

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Our signature chemical peels help to reverse the visible effects of damage in two ways. First, they power away dull, dead cells to illuminate the skin and reduce the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, age spots, clogged pores and blemishes. Then, they support collagen for firmer-looking skin over time. Ask your esthetician which IMAGE chemical peel will best target your skins individual needs.

I PEEL | WRINKLE LIFT

Ultra-resurfacing blend of glycolic acid combined with retinol to visibly reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

Skin type indications: Aging, wrinkles, rough complexion, uneven skin tone, smokers skin, tired/dull skin, oily/acne

I PEEL | WRINKLE LIFT FORTE

This advanced treatment is formulated with additional glycolic acid and an innovative blend of firming and anti-aging properties, to visibly reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

Skin type indications: Advanced aging, wrinkles, rough complexion, uneven skin tone, smokers skin, tired/dull skin, oily/acne

I PEEL | PERFECTION LIFT

This distinct blend of active exfoliants works synergistically to visibly reduce the appearance of fine lines, correct uneven skin tone, smooth rough texture and reduce acne blemishes.

Skin type indications: Aging, pigmentation, acne

I PEEL | PERFECTION LIFT FORTE

This concentrated blend of lactic acid, salicylic acid and resorcinol works synergistically to quickly and effectively reduce the appearance of advanced aging, pigmentation and acne. This extra strength treatment reveals a younger you in a single treatment.

Skin type indications: Advanced aging, pigmentation, acne

I PEEL | ACNE LIFT

Blend of AHAs and BHAs with protective agents to effectively treat all grades of acne.

Acne, oily, acne-prone, aging

I PEEL | BETA LIFT

This powerful non-blended salicylic acid treatment quickly and effectively targets and improves moderate/severe acne. Skin type indications: Acne, oily, aging

I PEEL | LIGHTENING LIFT

Lactic acid blended with kojic acid and a cocktail of brightening agents to reduce all forms of pigmentation.

Skin type indications: Pigmentation, aging, dry/dehydrated, uneven skin tone, age spots, redness-prone

I PEEL | LIGHTENING LIFT FORTE

This results-driven treatment combines the most innovative and effective botanical brighteners with echinacea, plant-derived stem cells and anti-aging peptides for youthful, illuminated skin.

Skin type indications: Advanced pigmentation, aging, dry/dehydrated, uneven skin tone, age spots, redness-prone

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Stem cells explained: What are they, and how do they work?

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Stem cells explained: What are they, and how do they work?

What are stem cells and how do they work?

There are three types of stem cells. Each has potential for medical research and clinical applications based on its unique properties.

Peter Hoey, Special To The Chronicle

Stem cells are the building blocks of the human body. At the start of life, they divide over and over again to create a full person from an embryo. As we age, they replenish cells in our blood, bone, skin and organs. Stem cells could be powerful tools in treating injury and illness.

Embryonic Stem Cells

The first cells to form after a sperm fertilizes an egg.

Blank slate cells: can become every other kind of cell in the body.

Can divide and multiply endlessly.

Controversial in medicine because embryos must be destroyed to obtain stem cells.

Adult Stem Cells

Mature stem cells that replenish blood, skin, gut and some other cells.

In some cases, can replace cells damaged by illness or injury.

Limited ability to become other types of cells.

Limited ability to divide and multiply.

Induced-pluripotent Stem Cells

Adult cells that are reprogrammed to look and act like embryonic stem cells.

Can be made from skin, blood and other adult cells.

From their embryonic-like state, can be further altered to become any other type of cell.

Good potential use in medicine, but still a new area of research.

Embryonic

What are they?

Embryonic stem cells are the starter cells of the human body. They are undifferentiated, which means they have not matured and specialized, and they are able to become any other kind of cell in the body.

In embryos, these cells multiply and differentiate to become organs, bones and muscles. In the laboratory, they can be multiplied to create stem cell lines for study or for therapy.

Scientists harvest embryonic stem cells from three- to five-day-old embryos donated by people who have gone through in-vitro fertilization. Scientists isolated the first human embryonic stem cells in 1998.

What makes them different from other stem cells?

These are the only stem cells that naturally are able to become any other cell type and to multiply endlessly. Under the right circumstances in a lab, they can be nudged to become specific cell types.

Why do these characteristics give these cells medical potential?

Because of their ability to differentiate and multiply, embryonic stem cells long were thought to be the most powerful, and thus have the most potential for treating injury and disease. If scientists are able to control how they differentiate and how often, embryonic stem cells could be used to replace any damaged part of the body from missing insulin-making cells in people with Type 1 diabetes to brain cells lost in Parkinsons disease or skin cells scarred by burns.

What are the limitations of these therapies?

Many people have ethical problems using human embryos for scientific study. Also, embryonic stem cells ability to replicate endlessly means they may develop mutations that can interfere with their growth or allow them to keep dividing to the point of causing harm. Finding the right medical applications for embryonic stem cells is challenging.

Adult

What are they?

Adult stem cells are so-named because they are more mature than embryonic stem cells, though they dont necessarily have to come from adults. Their maturity means that they are limited in their ability to differentiate. Pockets of adult stem cells are found in many of our organs and they replenish cells in the organs in which they reside. Types of adult stem cells include:

Hematopoietic

Found in bone marrow and umbilical cord blood, they become blood and immune cells. They are the only stem cells approved by the FDA for therapy, for treatment of certain blood cancers.

Mesenchymal

These cells are found throughout the body, including in bone marrow, fat tissue and organs. They turn into the connective tissue found throughout the body, though the specific cell they become is related to the organ in which theyre located. These stem cells may decrease inflammation.

Fetal

Stem cells from fetuses are more mature, and therefore less able to differentiate, than embryonic stem cells, but they may be more multipurpose than other adult stem cells. For example, neural stem cells from fetal brain tissue can become several kinds of neurons, but neural stem cells from the adult brain are rare and have very limited ability to differentiate.

What makes them different from other stem cells?

Adult stem cells are limited in their abilities. They can only become certain types of cells they are called multi-potent, instead of pluripotent, for that reason and there is a limit to how often they can divide.

Why do these characteristics give these cells medical potential?

Adult stem cells are less powerful than embryonic, but they are easier to use, since all humans have their own supply of these cells. They may be useful for reducing inflammation.

What are the limitations of these therapies?

Its unclear how useful these stem cells could be given their limited abilities. Though the idea of tapping into a persons own source of adult stem cells and using them for treatment is appealing, these cells cannot repair serious injuries or replace cells lost to disease, like neurons or insulin-producing cells.

Induced-pluripotent

What are they?

Induced-pluripotent stem (IPS) cells are adult cells often skin or blood cells that have been taken from an individual and reprogrammed in a lab to become like embryonic stem cells. Then, like embryonic stem cells, they can be developed into any other type of cell. So a skin cell could be turned into an embryonic-like cell and then further turned into a heart cell.

What makes them different from other stem cells?

Like embryonic stem cells, except they are manufactured in a lab. And since they come from an individual, they are an exact match to that individual. Scientists are still studying whether IPS cells could be used interchangeably with embryonic stem cells.

Why do these characteristics give these cells medical potential?

They could be used to replace cell types lost to disease or injury. In addition, IPS cells can be used to study human diseases in Petri dishes or in animals. Scientists can take skin cells from a person with a genetic mutation, convert those cells to IPS cells, then study those cells as a living model of how the mutation functions.

What are the limitations of these therapies?

Making IPS cells can be a time- and resource-consuming process. But mostly, IPS cells have the same limits as embryonic stem cells.

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Grow Stem Cells with Fasting – The Healing Miracle

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New research from the University of Southern California has come to light that fasting as little as eight (8) days a year could deliver significant health benefits, especially when it comes to stem cells.

Believe it or not, fasting two to four days at a time (every six months) causes stem cells to awaken from their normal dormant state, and start regenerating.

Essentially, researchers discovered that fasting helped eliminate damaged and older cells, allowing new healthier cells to replace them completely, effectively renewing the immune system.

This is one of the first times any natural intervention has ever been shown to trigger this self-renewal.

Going a bit deeper In mice and humans, white blood cell counts were significantly lowered after long periods without food. These bodies are vital to the human immune system.

But, when their numbers decline to a critical point, pathways for hematopoietic stem cells were switched on. These cells manage the immune system and generate new blood.

When you starve, the system tries to save energy, and one of the things it can do to save energy is to recycle a lot of the immune cells that are not needed, especially those that may be damaged, Valter Longo of the USC Davis School of Gerontology, said.

Fasting for an extended period of time (up to 48 to 96 hours) changes the human body to consume fat reserves, glucose (sugar), and ketones. Unhealthy white blood cells are also broken down, so that in part, their components can be reused for new, thriving cells.

This is considered to be a cell recycling of sorts.

After a period of fasting, the bodys immune system will generate new blood cells when nutrients begin flowing back into the body.

The main point of interest in this study at USC, they were committed to knowing what drives body systems to rebuild the cells.

To go further into the science a bit

The study found that Protein kinase A, an enzyme known to inhibit cell regeneration, was reduced in the systems of people who are fasting. Concentrations of a growth-factor hormone called IGF-1 were also lowered in those who have not eaten in days.

Important note: you will want to be careful if you decide to fast on only water for extended periods of time. To protect yourself, fasting for two to four days at a time should be done under medical supervision.

Another approach to fasting which has produced beneficial results is time restricted eating or intermittent fasting. This form of fasting involves eating in an 8 hour window and not eating during the remaining 16 hours.

This could be during a span from noon to 8:00 pm or 9:00 am to 5:00 pm. This time period will be completely up to you, just as long as you limit your intake to a single eight hour duration.

Youre not limited to the amount of water, and intermittent fasting is growing in popularity but is still considered a secret in the stem cell community.

Fasting has been a widely used approach for generations going back to early civilization, but either as a survival, ritualistic, or weight loss tactic.

But now, we have the research to support that fasting is an incredibly powerful stem cell boosting secret that can return powerful results.

After this study (and others) surfaced, we became inspired to see what other natural alternative secrets are out there.

In the end, we were able to gather and expand on 7 Secrets PROVEN to Grow More Stem Cells.

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Grow Stem Cells with Fasting - The Healing Miracle

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Macquarie Stem Cells Treatment – Sydney, Melbourne, Perth …

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After 20 years in general and cosmetic medicine, in 2004 Dr Ralph Bright encountered his first experience with biological medicine. Dr. Bright performed a cosmetic fat transfer into a patients leg to improve the appearance of a split skin graft after having a cancerous growth removed.Typically, you will need to transfer the fat a few times to achieve the desired shape.

Thats when Dr. Bright read the work of Patricia Zuk which was published in 2001. He had come to understand, body fat actually contains numerous different cell lines that can help repair damage in your body.

Moving forward to 2008, Dr Bright was invited to teach veterinarians how to perform liposuction on dogs. This struck him as odd Why do dogs need liposuction?After signing a confidentiality waiver they showed Dr Bright a dog who looked perfectly healthy and commented, just 6 months ago this dog could not get off the ground because they were riddled with arthritis. The veterinarians were using the dogs own body fat to treat the dogs arthritis.

Later, in 2008 one of Dr Brights patients repetitively requestedI need this treatment for my arthritis, I need you to try it.After a lot of research, in 2009 Dr Bright agreed to treat her. This was Dr Brights very first patient for this process.In fact it was the very first patient to ever receive treatment for their osteoarthritis using their own body fat in Australia.

That patient responded phenomenally well, so we treated a series of 6 patients and published these results in the medical journals. These results prompted Dr. Bright to start the new medical company we got to know as Macquarie Stem Cells.

Fast forward 10 years, Macquarie Stem Cells now has multiple doctors, nurses, cell biologists, cell technicians, consultants with a team of allied health professionals. Our results are significantly better, with higher success rates for our patients receiving treatment.We also perform a significant amount of research using our own private funding, including an upcoming placebo controlled clinical trial.

Thats the thing about medicine and innovation, its scary and its risky but, at the end of the day someone has to get up and lead the way. This is our way of giving back to the community.

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Could skin-related stem cells help in treating …

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UMSOM Researchers Discovered that Pigment-Producing Stem Cells Can Help Regenerate Vital Part of Nervous System

Neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) affect millions of people worldwide and occur when parts of the nervous system lose function over time. Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) have discovered that a type of skin-related stem cell could be used to help regenerate myelin sheaths, a vital part of the nervous system linked to neurodegenerative disorders.

The discovery into these types of stem cells is significant because they could offer a simpler and less invasive alternative to using embryonic stem cells. This early stage research showed that by using these skin-related stem cells, researchers were able to restore myelin sheath formation in mice.

This research enhances the possibility of identifying human skin stem cells that can be isolated, expanded, and used therapeutically. In the future, we plan to continue our research in this area by determining whether these cells can enhance functional recovery from neuronal injury, saidThomas J. Hornyak, MD, PhD, Associate Professor and Chairman of theDepartment of Dermatology, and Principal Investigator in this research. In the future, we plan to continue our research in this area by determining whether these cells can enhance functional recovery from neuronal injury.

Using a mouse model, Dr. Hornyaks team of researchers discovered a way to identify a specific version of a cell known as a melanocyte stem cell. These are the precursor cells to the cells in skin and hair follicles that make a pigment know as melanin, which determines the color of skin and hair. These melanocyte stem cells have the ability to continue to divide without limit, which is a trait that is not shared by other cells in the body. Additionally, the researchers discovered that these stem cells can make different types of cells depending on the type of signals they receive. This research was published inPLoS Genetics.

Importantly, unlike the embryonic stem cell, which must be harvested from an embryo, melanocyte stem cells can be harvested in a minimally-invasive manner from skin.

Dr. Hornyaks research team found a new way to not only identify the right kind of melanocyte stem cells, but also the potential applications for those suffering from neurodegenerative disorders. By using a protein marker that is only found on these specialized cells, Dr. Hornyaks research group was able to isolate this rare population of stem cells from the majority of the cells that make up skin. Additionally, they found that there exist two different types of melanocyte stem cells, which helped in determining the type of cells they could create.

Using this knowledge, the UMSOM researchers determined that under the right conditions, these melanocyte stem cells could function as cells that produce myelin, the major component of a structure known as the myelin sheath, which protects neurons and is vital to the function of our nervous system. Some neurodegenerative diseases, like multiple sclerosis, are caused by the loss of these myelin-producing, or glial, cells which ultimately lead to irregular function of the neurons and ultimately a failure of our nervous system to function correctly.

Dr. Hornyak and members of his laboratory grew melanocyte stem cells with neurons isolated from mice that could not make myelin. They discovered that these stem cells behaved like a glial cell under these conditions. These cells ultimately formed a myelin sheath around the neurons that resembled structures of a healthy nerve cell. When they took this experiment to a larger scale, in the actual mouse, the researchers found that mice treated with these melanocyte stem cells had myelin sheath structures in the brain as opposed to untreated mice who lacked these structures.

This research holds promise for treating serious neurodegenerative diseases that impact millions of people each year. Our researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have discovered what could be a critical and non-invasive way to use stem cells as a therapy for these diseases,said UMSOM Dean,E. Albert Reece, MD, PhD, MBA, Executive Vice President for Medical Affairs, UM Baltimore, and the John Z. and Akiko K. Bowers Distinguished Professor.

Learn more: UMSOM Researchers Discover Certain Skin-Related Stem Cells Could Help in Treating Neurogenerative Diseases

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Embryo stem cells created from skin cells Scope of …

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These are 4-cell stage mouse embryos.

Researchers have found a way to transform skin cells into the three major stem cell types that comprise early-stage embryos. The work (in mouse cells) has significant implications for modeling embryonic disease and placental dysfunctions, as well as paving the way to create whole embryos from skin cells.

Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) have found a way to transform skin cells into the three major stem cell types that comprise early-stage embryos. The work (in mouse cells) has significant implications for modelling embryonic disease and placental dysfunctions, as well as paving the way to create whole embryos from skin cells.

As published in Cell Stem Cell, Dr. Yossi Buganim of HUs Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research and his team discovered a set of genes capable of transforming murine skin cells into all three of the cell types that comprise the early embryo: the embryo itself, the placenta and the extra-embryonic tissues, such as the umbilical cord. In the future, it may be possible to create entire human embryos out of human skin cells, without the need for sperm or eggs. This discovery also has vast implications for modelling embryonic defects and shedding light on placental dysfunctions, as well as solving certain infertility problems by creating human embryos in a petri dish.

Back in 2006, Japanese researchers discovered the capacity of skin cells to be reprogrammed into early embryonic cells that can generate an entire fetus, by expressing four central embryonic genes. These reprogrammed skin cells, termed Induced Plutipotent Stem Cells (iPSCs), are similar to cells that develop in the early days after fertilization and are essentially identical to their natural counterparts. These cells can develop into all fetal cell types, but not into extra-embryonic tissues, such as the placenta.

Now, the Hebrew University research team, headed by Dr. Yossi Buganim, Dr. Oren Ram from the HUs Institute of Life Science and Professor Tommy Kaplan from HUs School of Computer Science and Engineering, as well as doctoral students Hani Benchetrit and Mohammad Jaber, found a new combination of five genes that, when inserted into skin cells, reprogram the cells into each of three early embryonic cell types iPS cells which create fetuses, placental stem cells, and stem cells that develop into other extra-embryonic tissues, such as the umbilical cord. These transformations take about one month.

The HU team used new technology to scrutinize the molecular forces that govern cell fate decisions for skin cell reprogramming and the natural process of embryonic development. For example, the researchers discovered that the gene Eomes pushes the cell towards placental stem cell identity and placental development, while the Esrrb gene orchestrates fetus stem cells development through the temporary acquisition of an extrae-mbryonic stem cell identity.

To uncover the molecular mechanisms that are activated during the formation of these various cell types, the researchers analyzed changes to the genome structure and function inside the cells when the five genes are introduced into the cell. They discovered that during the first stage, skin cells lose their cellular identity and then slowly acquire a new identity of one of the three early embryonic cell types, and that this process is governed by the levels of two of the five genes.

Recently, attempts have been made to develop an entire mouse embryo without using sperm or egg cells. These attempts used the three early cell types isolated directly from a live, developing embryo. However, HUs study is the first attempt to create all three main cell lineages at once from skin cells. Further, these findings mean there may be no need to sacrifice a live embryo to create a test tube embryo.

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Hebrew University researchers create embryo stem cells …

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Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem say they have found a way to transform skin cells into the three major stem cell types that comprise early-stage embryos.

The discovery could pave the way to creating entire human embryos out of human skin cells, without the need for sperm or eggs, the researchers say. And it could also have vast implications for modeling embryonic defects and shedding light on placental dysfunctions, as well as solving certain infertility problems by creating human embryos in a petri dish, a Hebrew University statement said.

You could say we are close to generating a synthetic embryo, which is a really crazy thing, said Dr. Yossi Buganim of the universitys Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, who led the study that was published in Cell Stem Cell.

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This discovery could allow researchers in future to generate embryos from sterile men and women, using only their skin cells, and generate a real embryo in a dish and implant the embryo in the mother, Buganim said in a phone interview.

Researchers at the Hebrew Hebrew University of Jerusalem say they have found a way to transform skin cells into the three major stem cell types that comprise early-stage embryos; the image shows 4-cell stage mouse embryos (Kirill Makedonski)

Buganim and his team discovered a set of five genes capable of transforming murine skin cells into all three of the cell types that make up the early embryo: the fetus itself, the placenta and the extra-embryonic tissues, such as the umbilical cord.

In 2006, Japanese researchers Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka discovered the capacity of skin cells to be reprogrammed into early embryonic cells that can generate an entire fetus through the use of four central embryonic genes. These genes reprogrammed the skin cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are similar to cells that develop in the early days after fertilization and are essentially identical to their natural counterparts. These cells can develop into all fetal cell types, but not into extra-embryonic tissues, such as the placenta.

The Japanese researchers discovered that the four central embryonic genes can be used to rejuvenate the skin cells to function like embryonic stem cells, explained Buganim.

After fertilization of the egg, the cell divides into 64, creating a bowl of cells that make up the three crucial parts of an embryo the epiblast, the inner cell mass which gives rise to the fetus itself; the primitive endoderm that is responsible for the umbilical cord; and a third part, the trophectoderm, that is responsible for creating the placenta.

What the Japanese managed to do, Buganim said, was to transform the skin cells into fetus stem cells. But that is not enough to create an entire embryo, he said, because the other parts are also needed those that develop the umbilical cord and the placenta.

Dr. Yossi Buganim of The Hebrew Universitys Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research (Shai Herman)

The breakthrough of the Hebrew University team, Buganim said, was creating with five genes all of the three essential compartments that make up the embryonic and extra-embryonic features necessary for the creation of an in-vitro embryo. The work was done with mice, and the team is now starting to apply the same research to human embryos, he added.

The researchers used five genes that are completely different from those used by the Japanese researchers, Buganim noted. The genes the Israeli researchers used are those that play a role in the early development of the embryo. They specify and direct what each cell will develop into, whether the umbilical cord, the placenta or the fetus itself.

The team used new technology to study the molecular forces that dictate how each of the cells develop. For example, the researchers discovered that the gene Eomes pushes the cell toward placental stem cell identity and placental development, while Esrrb orchestrates the development of fetus stem cells, attaining first, but just temporarily, an extra-embryonic stem cell identity.

It was our idea to use those genes, Buganim said.

The researchers then combined these five genes in such a way that, when inserted into skin cells, they managed to reprogram the cells into each of three early embryonic cell types in the same petri dish.

The discovery will enable researchers to better understand and address embryonic malfunctions and diseases such as placental insufficiencies or miscarriages, he said. This could enable researchers to use a dish to model the embryonic cells and identify early markers for risk.

The challenges ahead, however, are still huge, said Buganim. An embryo is a three dimensional structure. We need to learn how to put this all together to generate a real embryo. We need to identify the ratios of placental stem cells, umbilical cord cells and iPS cells, which create the fetuses, and in what scaffold to place them, he said.

These cells know how to stick together, Buganim said. I need to give them the proper environment and the proper ratio to organize themselves into a real embryo.

The study was done by Buganim together with Dr. Oren Ram from Hebrew Universitys Institute of Life Science and Professor Tommy Kaplan from the universitys School of Computer Science and Engineering, as well as doctoral students Hani Benchetrit and Mohammad Jaber.

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Hebrew U Researchers Created Embryo Stem Cells from Skin …

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A new, groundbreaking study by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) found a way to transform skin cells into the three major stem cell types that comprise early-stage embryos. This work has significant implications for modelling embryonic disease and placental dysfunctions, as well as paving the way to create whole embryos from skin cells.

As published in Cell Stem Cell, Dr. Yossi Buganim of HUs Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research and his team discovered a set of genes capable of transforming murine skin cells into all three of the cell types that comprise the early embryo: the embryo itself, the placenta and the extraembryonic tissues, such as the umbilical cord. In the future, it may be possible to create entire human embryos out of human skin cells, without the need for sperm or eggs. This discovery also has vast implications for modelling embryonic defects and shedding light on placental dysfunctions, as well as solving certain infertility problems by creating human embryos in a petri dish.

Back in 2006, Japanese researchers discovered the capacity of skin cells to be reprogrammed into early embryonic cells that can generate an entire fetus, by expressing four central embryonic genes. These reprogrammed skin cells, termed Induced Plutipotent Stem Cells (iPSCs), are similar to cells that develop in the early days after fertilization and are essentially identical to their natural counterparts. These cells can develop into all fetal cell types, but not into extra-embryonic tissues, such as the placenta.

Now, the Hebrew University research team, headed by Dr. Yossi Buganim, Dr. Oren Ram from the HUs Institute of Life Science and Professor Tommy Kaplan from HUs School of Computer Science and Engineering, as well as doctoral students Hani Benchetrit and Mohammad Jaber, found a new combination of five genes that, when inserted into skin cells, reprogram the cells into each of three early embryonic cell typesiPS cells which create fetuses, placental stem cells, and stem cells that develop into other extraembryonic tissues, such as the umbilical cord. These transformations take about one month.

The HU team used new technology to scrutinize the molecular forces that govern cell fate decisions for skin cell reprogramming and the natural process of embryonic development. For example, the researchers discovered that the gene Eomes pushes the cell towards placental stem cell identity and placental development, while the Esrrb gene orchestrates fetus stem cells development through the temporary acquisition of an extraembryonic stem cell identity.

To uncover the molecular mechanisms that are activated during the formation of these various cell types, the researchers analyzed changes to the genome structure and function inside the cells when the five genes are introduced into the cell. They discovered that during the first stage, skin cells lose their cellular identity and then slowly acquire a new identity of one of the three early embryonic cell types, and that this process is governed by the levels of two of the five genes.

Recently, attempts have been made to develop an entire mouse embryo without using sperm or egg cells. These attempts used the three early cell types isolated directly from a live, developing embryo. However, HUs study is the first attempt to create all three main cell lineages at once from skin cells. Further, these findings mean there may be no need to sacrifice a live embryo to create a test tube embryo.

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10 Best Stem Cell Beauty Products On The Market Today

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Fight the signs of premature aging with these stem cell skin care beauty products. A lot of companies claim to incorporate the benefits of plant and human stem cells, as well as components secreted by them, into the best stem cell beauty products on the market. Below, we present what appears (based on company claims) to be ten of the best products available today.

As a publisher of stem cell news, we havent traditionally wandered into the world of claims made by stem cell beauty products suppliers. For obvious reasons, we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the claims made by these companies or the presence of specific active agents within them.

However, we get approached daily with questions about this topic and know that people are seeking information about it from a source that: 1) Doesnt inflate the claims, and 2) Understands the science.

For this reason, we have decided to share with you what appear to be interesting skin care options, coupled with a healthy dose of warnings reminding you that the stated claims may or may not be accurate.

Kimera Labs makes the top of this list for numerous reasons. First, the companys science it is solid. Instead of being a supplier of beauty products, the company is a specialty contract research organization (CRO) focusing on regenerative medicine applications, including exosome purification. Exosomes are small vesicles (~30-100nm) that are secreted by nearly all cell types and act as intracellular mail.

Exosomes transfer DNA, RNA, and proteins to other cells, thereby altering the function of the other cells.

Second, the company has an FDA registered tissue facility in Miami, FL, where it develops pharmaceutical grade, exosome-based regenerative therapies. The company has a 6,000 sq. ft. facility in Miramar, Florida, that includes impressive features such asISO:9001/13485 certification, cleanrooms, and a variety of high-end scientific equipment.

Third, the company is run by Dr. Duncan Ross, a highly regarded scientist with a Ph.D. in Immunology from the University of Miami. Dr. Ross is also a Principal at The Kimera Society, a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancementof stem cells, regenerative medicine,and cancer immunotherapies.

For those seeking stem cell beauty products, the companys core offering is XoGlo, a product which provides growth and healing signals to guide the re-deposition of tissue and avoid the scarring that often accompanies burns or other skin damage. You can see an incredible Case Study from the company in which XoGlo was used to heal second-degree burns in a patient in approximately seven days. The product can also be used for general skin health and enhancement.

More information on the XoGlois available here.

According to the company, this facial cleanser is formulated with stem cytokines that promote the skins ability to heal itself, leaving softer and smoother skin. It also has essential fatty acids, detoxifying actives, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory botanicals that deeply cleanse your skin of excess oil, impurities, and surface debris. This makes the skin smoother, more balanced, and hydrated.

Lifeline says that it offers a moisture serum with a formula consisting of proteins and peptides from pluripotent stem cells. It works by reversing skin aging signs and actively moisturizing the skin with its cucumber melon extracts. The serum primarily targets the reduction of wrinkles and fine lines.

At $105 for a 1 oz bottle, it is notable that the company does not mention how it sources pluripotent stem cells, leaving key questions about its active ingredients unanswered.

Heres another skin care serum on this list of stem cellbeauty products. This serum is enriched with a tissue nutrient solution (TNS) technology that reduces wrinkles and fine lines and improves skin texture and tone. TNS is formulated with matrix proteins, cytokines, soluble collagen, antioxidants, and growth factors that are essential to keeping skin healthy.

This regenerative eye creamcontains autokine-CM obtained from adult stem cells through mini-liposuction. This unique ingredient is composed of extracted cytokines, matrix proteins, and growth factors from adult stem cells that help improve the skins ability to heal. It also aids in synthesizing elastin and collagen production, thus reducing fine lines and wrinkles, improving skin tone and texture, and increasing epidermal thickness in the eye area.

Venus Skin introduced a stem cell therapy serum packed with bio-signals from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for stimulation of skin tissue repair and healing. This reverses aging signs and rejuvenates the feel and look of the skin. It also contains essential vitamins A, C, and E to normalize skin functions, promote collagen synthesis in the skin, and reduce the appearance of scars, respectively.

This hydrating mask possesses a stem cell culture technology that penetrates deep into the skin for intense and long-lasting hydration. This leaves the skin well-moisturized and supple. It also fills fine lines and wrinkles and restores parched skin, bringing skin moisture and smoothness back.

This intensive facial mist restores the skins elasticity and moisture with its fine liquid particles that immediately penetrate the skin. It contains APL stem cell-conditioned medium extracts that help regenerate, whiten, and hydrate the skin and minimize pores and wrinkles. The facial mist also has chamomile extracts that bring a soothing effect to the skin.

Skin Drink Phytoceuticals highlights three potent anti-aging skin care ingredients in this serum.PhytoCellTec is an ingredient that safeguards the skin stem cells longevity, fights off skin aging, and delays biological aging of cells. Derm SRC works on reducing wrinkles and fine lines, while Ellagi-C promotes skin elasticity and suppleness.

This snail serum boasts an epidermal growth factor ingredient that stimulates the skins stem cell growth and cell survival. It also has a snail mucus extract that refreshes and brightens the skin. Aside from that, the serum contains other natural ingredients, such as macadamia seed oil and hydrolyzed placenta extract, for skin hydration and nourishment.

Which of these components actually enhance skin health and complexion? Hard to say, but the ingredient list certainly is exotic.

With this list of the best beauty products, it can be tricky to know which ones will enhance skin health. Stem cells are becoming a common ingredient in skin products, but regulation of this area is sparse, making it important to be vigilant in your selection.

A steep price tag doesnt guarantee results. Claims of active ingredients do not guarantee they are present. Even the confirmed presence of an ingredient by third-party testing does not substantiate its claimed effect.

However, there are hundreds of user reviews for some of these products, so the possibility for these skin care products to improve the appearance of your skin does exist. Importantly, many of these stem cell beauty products contain an impressive range of other ingredients, so you could benefit from them due to effects unrelated to the claimed stem cell components.

When judging the efficacy of these products, the only clear answer is that you need to be your own study of one.

If you found this article valuable, subscribe to BioInformantsstem cell industry updates.We are the industry leaders in stem cell research, with research cited byThe Wall Street Journal, Xconomy, AABB, andVogue Magazine.Bringing you breaking news on an ongoing basis, join more than half a million loyal readers, including physicians, scientists, executives, investors,and philanthropists.

Let this infographic be your guide. Download it now and use it as a reference later.

10 Best Stem Cell Beauty Products On The Market Today

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Glossary | stemcells.nih.gov

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Adult stem cell - See somatic stem cell.

Astrocyte - A type of supporting (glial) cell found in the nervous system.

Blastocoel - The fluid-filled cavity inside the blastocyst, an early, preimplantation stage of the developing embryo.

Blastocyst - Apreimplantationembryo consisting of a sphere made up of an outer layer of cells (thetrophoblast), a fluid-filled cavity (theblastocoel), and a cluster of cells on the interior (theinner cell mass).

Bone marrow stromal cells - A population of cells found in bone marrow that are different from blood cells.

Bone marrow stromal stem cells (skeletal stem cells) - A multipotent subset of bone marrow stromal cells able to form bone, cartilage, stromal cells that support blood formation, fat, and fibrous tissue.

Cell-based therapies - Treatment in which stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cells or tissues.

Cell culture - Growth of cells in vitro in an artificial medium for research.

Cell division - Method by which a single cell divides to create two cells. There are two main types of cell division depending on what happens to the chromosomes: mitosis and meiosis.

Chromosome - A structure consisting of DNA and regulatory proteins found in the nucleus of the cell. The DNA in the nucleus is usually divided up among several chromosomes.The number of chromosomes in the nucleus varies depending on the species of the organism. Humans have 46 chromosomes.

Clone - (v) To generate identical copies of a region of a DNA molecule or to generate genetically identical copies of a cell, or organism; (n) The identical molecule, cell, or organism that results from the cloning process.

Cloning - See Clone.

Cord blood stem cells - See Umbilical cord blood stem cells.

Culture medium - The liquid that covers cells in a culture dish and contains nutrients to nourish and support the cells. Culture medium may also include growth factors added to produce desired changes in the cells.

Differentiation - The process whereby an unspecialized embryonic cell acquires the features of a specialized cell such as a heart, liver, or muscle cell. Differentiation is controlled by the interaction of a cell's genes with the physical and chemical conditions outside the cell, usually through signaling pathways involving proteins embedded in the cell surface.

Directed differentiation - The manipulation of stem cell culture conditions to induce differentiation into a particular cell type.

DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical found primarily in the nucleus of cells. DNA carries the instructions or blueprint for making all the structuresand materials the body needs to function. DNA consists of both genes and non-gene DNA in between the genes.

Ectoderm - The outermost germ layer of cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst; gives rise to the nervous system, sensory organs, skin, and related structures.

Embryo - In humans, the developing organism from the time of fertilization until the end of the eighth week of gestation, when it is called a fetus.

Embryoid bodies - Rounded collections of cells that arise when embryonic stem cells are cultured in suspension. Embryoid bodies contain cell types derived from all threegerm layers.

Embryonic germ cells - Pluripotent stem cells that are derived from early germ cells (those that would become sperm and eggs). Embryonic germ cells are thought to have properties similar to embryonic stem cells.

Embryonic stem cells - Primitive (undifferentiated) cells that are derived from preimplantation-stageembryos, are capable of dividing without differentiating for a prolonged period in culture, and are known to develop into cells and tissues of the three primary germ layers.

Embryonic stem cell line - Embryonic stem cells, which have been cultured under in vitro conditions that allow proliferation without differentiation for months to years.

Endoderm - The innermost layer of the cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst; it gives rise to lungs, other respiratory structures, and digestive organs, or generally "the gut."

Enucleated - Having had its nucleus removed.

Epigenetic - The process by which regulatory proteins can turn genes on or off in a way that can be passed on during cell division.

Feeder layer - Cells used in co-culture to maintain pluripotent stem cells. For human embryonic stem cell culture, typical feeder layers include mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or human embryonic fibroblasts that have been treated to prevent them from dividing.

Fertilization - The joining of the male gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (egg).

Fetus - In humans, the developing human from approximately eight weeks after conception until the time of its birth.

Gamete - An egg (in the female) or sperm (in the male) cell. See also Somatic cell.

Gastrulation - The process in which cells proliferate and migrate within the embryo to transform the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage into an embryo containing all three primary germ layers.

Gene - A functional unit of heredity that is a segment of DNA found on chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. Genes direct the formation of an enzyme or other protein.

Germ layers - After the blastocyst stage of embryonic development, the inner cell mass of the blastocyst goes through gastrulation, a period when the inner cell mass becomes organized into three distinct cell layers, called germ layers. The three layers are the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm.

Hematopoietic stem cell - A stem cell that gives rise to all red and white blood cells and platelets.

Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) - A type of pluripotent stem cell derived from early stage human embryos, up to and including the blastocyststage. hESCs are capable of dividing without differentiating for a prolonged period in culture and are known to develop into cells and tissues of the three primary germ layers.

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) - A type of pluripotent stem cell, similar to an embryonic stem cell, formed by the introduction of certain embryonic genes into a somatic cell.

In vitro - Latin for "in glass;" in a laboratory dish or test tube; an artificial environment.

In vitro fertilization - A technique that unites the egg and sperm in a laboratory instead of inside the female body.

Inner cell mass (ICM) - The cluster of cells inside the blastocyst. These cells give rise to the embryo and ultimately the fetus. The ICM may be used to generate embryonic stem cells.

Long-term self-renewal - The ability of stem cells to replicate themselves by dividing into the same non-specialized cell type over long periods (many months to years) depending on the specific type of stem cell.

Meiosis - The type of cell division a diploid germ cell undergoes to produce gametes (sperm or eggs) that will carry half the normal chromosome number. This is to ensure that when fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg will carry the normal number of chromosomes rather than causing aneuploidy (an abnormal number of chromosomes).

Mesenchymal stem cells - A term that is currently used to define non-blood adult stem cells from a variety of tissues, although it is not clear that mesenchymal stem cells from different tissues are the same.

Mesoderm - Middle layer of a group of cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst; it gives rise to bone, muscle, connective tissue, kidneys, and related structures.

Microenvironment - The molecules and compounds such as nutrients and growth factors in the fluid surrounding a cell in an organism or in the laboratory, which play an important role in determining the characteristics of the cell.

Mitosis - The type of cell division that allows a population of cells to increase its numbers or to maintain its numbers. The number of chromosomes in each daughter cell remains the same in this type of cell division.

Multipotent - Having the ability to develop into more than one cell type of the body. See also pluripotent and totipotent.

Neural stem cell - A stem cell found in adult neural tissue that can give rise to neurons and glial (supporting) cells. Examples of glial cells include astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.

Neurons - Nerve cells, the principal functional units of the nervous system. A neuron consists of a cell body and its processes - an axon and one or more dendrites. Neurons transmit information to other neurons or cells by releasing neurotransmitters at synapses.

Oligodendrocyte - A supporting cell that provides insulation to nerve cells by forming a myelin sheath (a fatty layer) around axons.

Parthenogenesis - The artificial activation of an egg in the absence of a sperm; the egg begins to divide as if it has been fertilized.

Passage - In cell culture, the process in which cells are disassociated, washed, and seeded into new culture vessels after a round of cell growth and proliferation. The number of passages a line of cultured cells has gone through is an indication of its age and expected stability.

Pluripotent - The state of a single cell that is capable of differentiating into all tissues of an organism, but not alone capable of sustaining full organismal development.

Scientists demonstrate pluripotency by providing evidence of stable developmental potential, even after prolonged culture, to form derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers from the progeny of a single cell and to generate a teratoma after injection into an immunosuppressed mouse.

Polar body - A polar body is a structure produced when an early egg cell, or oogonium, undergoes meiosis. In the first meiosis, the oogonium divides its chromosomes evenly between the two cells but divides its cytoplasm unequally. One cell retains most of the cytoplasm, while the other gets almost none, leaving it very small. This smaller cell is called the first polar body. The first polar body usually degenerates. The ovum, or larger cell, then divides again, producing a second polar body with half the amount of chromosomes but almost no cytoplasm. The second polar body splits off and remains adjacent to the large cell, or oocyte, until it (the second polar body) degenerates. Only one large functional oocyte, or egg, is produced at the end of meiosis.

Preimplantation - With regard to an embryo, preimplantation means that the embryo has not yet implanted in the wall of the uterus. Human embryonic stem cells are derived from preimplantation-stage embryos fertilized outside a woman's body (in vitro).

Proliferation - Expansion of the number of cells by the continuous division of single cells into two identical daughter cells.

Regenerative medicine - A field of medicine devoted to treatments in which stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cell populations or tissues. (See also cell-based therapies).

Reproductive cloning - The process of using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce a normal, full grown organism (e.g., animal) genetically identical to the organism (animal) that donated the somatic cell nucleus. In mammals, this would require implanting the resulting embryo in a uterus where it would undergo normal development to become a live independent being. The firstmammal to be created by reproductive cloning was Dolly the sheep, born at the Roslin Institute in Scotland in 1996. See also Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

Signals - Internal and external factors that control changes in cell structure and function. They can be chemical or physical in nature.

Somatic cell - Any body cell other than gametes (egg or sperm); sometimes referred to as "adult" cells. See also Gamete.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) - A technique that combines an enucleated egg and the nucleus of a somatic cell to make an embryo. SCNT can be used for therapeutic or reproductive purposes, but the initial stage that combines an enucleated egg and a somatic cell nucleus is the same. See also therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning.

Somatic (adult) stem cell - A relatively rare undifferentiated cell found in many organs and differentiated tissues with a limited capacity for both self renewal (in the laboratory) and differentiation. Such cells vary in their differentiation capacity, but it is usually limited to cell types in the organ of origin. This is an active area of investigation.

Stem cells - Cells with the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells.

Stromal cells - Connective tissue cells found in virtually every organ. In bone marrow, stromal cells support blood formation.

Subculturing - Transferring cultured cells, with or without dilution, from one culture vessel to another.

Surface markers - Proteins on the outside surface of a cell that are unique to certain cell types and that can be visualized using antibodies or other detection methods.

Teratoma - A multi-layered benign tumor that grows from pluripotent cells injected into mice with a dysfunctional immune system. Scientists test whether they have established a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line by injecting putative stem cells into such mice and verifying that the resulting teratomas contain cells derived from all three embryonic germ layers.

Therapeutic cloning - The process of using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce cells that exactly match a patient. By combining a patient's somatic cell nucleus and an enucleated egg, a scientist may harvest embryonic stem cells from the resulting embryo that can be used to generate tissues that match a patient's body. This means the tissues created are unlikely to be rejected by the patient's immune system. See also Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

Totipotent - The state of a cell that is capable of giving rise to all types of differentiated cells found in an organism, as well as the supporting extra-embryonic structures of the placenta. A single totipotent cell could, by division in utero, reproduce the whole organism. (See also Pluripotent and Multipotent).

Transdifferentiation - The process by which stem cells from one tissue differentiate into cells of another tissue.

Trophoblast - The outer cell layer of the blastocyst. It is responsible for implantation and develops into the extraembryonic tissues, including the placenta, and controls the exchange of oxygen and metabolites between mother and embryo.

Umbilical cord blood stem cells - Stem cells collected from the umbilical cord at birth that can produce all of the blood cells in the body. Cord blood is currently used to treat patients who have undergone chemotherapy to destroy their bone marrow due to cancer or other blood-related disorders.

Undifferentiated - A cell that has not yet developed into a specialized cell type.

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Skin Program | Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI)

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Scientists in the HSCI Skin Program are using stem cells to regenerate tissue without scarring.

Because scars are made of fibrous tissue, they can seriously impair the function of an organ. To investigate how stem cells function in regenerative wound healing, cancers, and skin aging, and how they malfunction in scarring and fibrosis, we explore the fundamental roles of skin stem cells in health and disease. The insights we gain help us explore the reprogramming of skin cells to repair any part of the body.

Our scientists use a very wide range of experimental resources to explore how to target skin cancer stem cells therapeutically, and how skin stem cell health and maintenance could thwart chronological aging.

Read about George Murphy's research in the feature story Healing Without Scars.

Read about Markus Frank's work on limbal cells in the feature Can We Restore Sight?

So far, scientists in the HSCI Skin Program have:

Sign up for the monthly HSCI Newsletterto get email updates about our research.

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Getting to the Root of Skin Stem Cells | Brigham Clinical …

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Christine Lian (back) and George Murphy (front) are building a compelling case for why skin stem cells may be at the root of skin regeneration and the development of cancer.

In the 1980s, when George Murphy, MD, was just beginning his career at the Brigham, he had the opportunity to assist Brigham reconstructive plastic surgeon Dennis Orgill, MD, PhD, and MIT materials scientist Ioannis Yannas, PhD, on the development of a biodegradable membrane they hoped would act as an artificial skin and facilitate wound healing. Made from bovine collagen and a jelly-like substance derived from sharks (glycosaminoglycan), the membrane had the capacity to thwart the formation of dysfunctional scar tissue and promote true regenerative skin healing. (Known as Integra, the membrane is used all over the world today for wound healing.) The investigators didnt realize it at the time, but they had stumbled upon the healing power of skin stem cellsseveral decades before skin stem cells had been discovered.

In the years ahead, seminal discoveries and experiments by Brigham investigators including Murphy, who is now the director of Dermatopathology, and his colleague and collaborator Christine Lian, MD, would build a compelling case for why skin stem cells may be at the root of two seemingly unrelated phenomena: skin regeneration and the development of cancer.

In 2004, Murphy began his second foray into the world of skin stem cells by working intensively with Natasha Frank, MD, of the Division of Genetics; Markus Frank, MD, of the Renal Division; and Tobias Schatton, PhD, of the Department of Dermatology. In 2007, the team pioneered a discovery that made the cover of the journal Nature: the first identification of stem cells responsible for malignant melanoma, a potentially deadly yet poorly understood form of skin cancer.

Like queen bees in a hive of hundreds of workers, relatively rare malignant skin stem cells are crucial to the genesis and maintenance of an entire tumor, said Murphy. Stem cells tend to be covert and there is a scarcity of biomarkers with which to detect them. The molecule that was discoveredABCB5could identify stem cells in normal skin and identified a cell in malignant melanoma that, although only a small component of melanoma, appeared to drive the tumor.

These insights have led to a clear and concise goal in cancer therapeutics: target and eliminate malignant stem cells. But Murphy and colleagues want to take this goal one step further by targeting precursor cancer skin stem cells before melanoma poses danger.

Melanoma is curable when its very early. But when it gets to be the volume of something potentially no larger than a lentil, it can metastasize and kill you, said Murphy. This switchfrom a curable stage to a deadly stageis critical to study.

In contrast to stem cells that have gone awry, normal skin stem cells are essential to the health and well-being of mature, functional skin. The ability to manipulate the fate of normal skin stem cells could also hold the secret to regenerative wound healing. How to control stem cell behavior and destiny, therefore, became the burning question.

Murphy and Lian credit the origins of their collaborative partnership to strategic adjacency (being in the same building) and luck.

It was both science and serendipity that brought us together, said Lian. Now that the potential problems can be seen more clearly, our goal is to home in on the stem cell epigenome in ways that will lead to new and effective therapies for our patients. Together, we are aggressively pursuing this goal.

By 2011, Lian had joined the Program in Dermatopathology, bringing with her a fundamental insight into the role of the epigenome, the external coating that envelops the DNA molecule and regulates its behavior (or misbehavior, in the case of a malignancy).

Lian had joined the Brigham in 2004 as a postdoc, where she worked on the second floor of 221 Longwood Ave., striving to bring insights from epigenomics to bear on clinical work. Lian was especially interested in melanoma, in part because of the tremendous socioeconomic impact of the disease. She soon heard about Murphywho was working just two floors above. Their proximity helped bring about a new collaboration.

That collaboration led to the creation of the Dermatopathology Stem Cell/Epigenomics Laboratory. In 2012, they published a paper together in the journal Cell, exploring the role of a critical epigenetic marka chemical punctuation mark that tells a cell how genes should be readin melanoma skin stem cells. The team found that the loss of this key epigenetic mark was a hallmark of melanoma, with both diagnostic and prognostic implications, and could be identified in precursor cells. This landmark discovery suggested that the skin stem cell epigenome may be a key to both controlling melanoma and skin regeneration.

The epigenome controls the way DNA behaves, just like a mutation. But unlike a mutation, changes to the epigenome are reversible, said Lian. This opens up exciting therapeutic possibilities and avenues to pursue.

Lian, Murphy and their colleagues are intent on identifying novel ways to target and destroy skin cancer stem cells as well as to control and regulate skin stem cells capable of regenerative healing through therapeutic modulation of the epigenome.

In addition, they are pursuing questions related to aging and transplant rejection through collaboration with multidisciplinary experts and by leveraging diverse, cutting-edge technologies, including next-generation-epigenetic sequencing, three-dimensional bioprinting, and highly multiplexed image capture to simultaneously visualize critical stem cell molecules. The lab works closely with the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, and major collaborative proposals are planned and underway in areas including regenerative wound healing, cancer prevention and epigenomic therapeutics.

Weve assembled a multidisciplinary team interested in the conjunctiva of the eye, the dental cavity, the regenerative properties of salamanders and more, said Murphy. We have found investigators across the Boston area who share their interest in the role of skin stem cells but have expertise and interests in far-ranging areas.

Lian and Murphy are optimistic that this team, with its wide-ranging expertise, will take the steps needed to understand and control those rare cells thatbothdrive cancers and hold the key to tissue regeneration.

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Getting to the Root of Skin Stem Cells | Brigham Clinical ...

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Pluripotent Stem Cells 101 Boston Children’s Hospital

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Pluripotent stem cells are master cells. Theyre able to make cells from all three basic body layers, so they can potentially produce any cell or tissue the body needs to repair itself. This master property is called pluripotency. Like all stem cells, pluripotent stem cells are also able to self-renew, meaning they can perpetually create more copies of themselves.

There are several types of pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells. At Childrens Hospital Boston, we use the broader term because pluripotent stem cells can come from different sources, and each method creates a cell with slightly different properties.

But all of them are able to differentiate, or mature, into the three primary groups of cells that form a human being:

Right now, its not clear which type or types of pluripotent stem cells will ultimately be used to create cells for treatment, but all of them are valuable for research purposes, and each type has unique lessons to teach scientists. Scientists are just beginning to understand the subtle differences between the different kinds of pluripotent stem cells, and studying all of them offers the greatest chance of success in using them to help patients.

Types of pluripotent stem cells:

All four types of pluripotent stem cells are being actively studied at Childrens.

Induced pluripotent cells (iPS cells):Scientists have discovered ways to take an ordinary cell, such as a skin cell, and reprogram it by introducing several genes that convert it into a pluripotent cell. These genetically reprogrammed cells are known as induced pluripotent cells, or iPS cells. The Stem Cell Program at Childrens Hospital Boston was one of the first three labs to do this in human cells, an accomplishment cited as the Breakthrough of the Year in 2008 by the journal Science.

iPS cells offer great therapeutic potential. Because they come from a patients own cells, they are genetically matched to that patient, so they can eliminate tissue matching and tissue rejection problems that currently hinder successful cell and tissue transplantation. iPS cells are also a valuable research tool for understanding how different diseases develop.

Because iPS cells are derived from skin or other body cells, some people feel that genetic reprogramming is more ethical than deriving embryonic stem cells from embryos or eggs. However, this process must be carefully controlled and tested for safety before its used to create treatments. In animal studies, some of the genes and the viruses used to introduce them have been observed to cause cancer. More research is also needed to make the process of creating iPS cells more efficient.

iPS cells are of great interest at Childrens, and the lab of George Q. Daley, MD, PhD, Director of Stem Cell Transplantation Program, reported creating 10 disease-specific iPS lines, the start of a growing repository of iPS cell lines.

Embryonic stem cells:Scientists use embryonic stem cell as a general term for pluripotent stem cells that are made using embryos or eggs, rather than for cells genetically reprogrammed from the body. There are several types of embryonic stem cells:

1. True embryonic stem cell (ES cells)These are perhaps the best-known type of pluripotent stem cell, made from unused embryos that are donated by couples who have undergone in vitro fertilization (IVF). The IVF process, in which the egg and sperm are brought together in a lab dish, frequently generates more embryos than a couple needs to achieve a pregnancy.

These unused embryos are sometimes frozen for future use, sometimes made available to other couples undergoing fertility treatment, and sometimes simply discarded, but some couples choose to donate them to science. For details on how theyre turned into stem cells, visit our page How do we get pluripotent stem cells?

Pluripotent stem cells made from embryos are generic and arent genetically matched to a particular patient, so are unlikely to be used to create cells for treatment. Instead, they are used to advance our knowledge of how stem cells behave and differentiate.

2. Stem cells made by somatic cell nuclear transfer (ntES cells)The term somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) means, literally, transferring the nucleus (which contains all of a cells genetic instructions) from a somatic cellany cell of the bodyto another cell, in this case an egg cell. This type of pluripotent stem cell, sometimes called an ntES cell, has only been made successfully in lower animals. To make ntES cells in human patients, an egg donor would be needed, as well as a cell from the patient (typically a skin cell).

The process of transferring a different nucleus into the egg reprograms it to a pluripotent state, reactivating the full set of genes for making all the tissues of the body. The egg is then allowed to develop in the lab for several days, and pluripotent stem cells are derived from it. (Read more in How do we get pluripotent stem cells?)

Like iPS cells, ntES cells match the patient genetically. If created successfully in humans, and if proven safe, ntES cells could completely eliminate tissue matching and tissue rejection problems. For this reason, they are actively being researched at Childrens.

3. Stem cells from unfertilized eggs (parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells)Through chemical treatments, unfertilized eggs can be tricked into developing into embryos without being fertilized by sperm, a process called parthenogenesis. The embryos are allowed to develop in the lab for several days, and then pluripotent stem cells can be derived from them (for more, see How do we get pluripotent stem cells?)

If this technique is proven safe, a woman might be able to donate her own eggs to create pluripotent stem cells matching her genetically that in turn could be used to make cells that wouldnt be rejected by her immune system.

Through careful genetic typing, it might also be possible to use pES cells to create treatments for patients beyond the egg donor herself, by creating master banks of cells matched to different tissue types. In 2006, working with mice, Childrens researchers were the first to demonstrate the potential feasibility of this approach. (For details, see Turning pluripotent stem cells into treatment).

Because pES cells can be made more easily and more efficiently than ntES cells, they could potentially be ready for clinical use sooner. However, more needs to be known about their safety. Concerns have been raised that tissues derived from them might not function normally.

Read more about pluripotent stem cells by following these links:

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Pluripotent Stem Cells 101 Boston Children's Hospital

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StemFactor – Skin Growth Factor Serum

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"I started using Osmosis about two weeks ago and only off and on. I had several skin tags on my face, which a doctor want to charge 100 dollars per tag to remove. The StemFactor dried them up and I have been removing them when washing. Unbelievable. I thought I had to live with and the best part, no hyperpigmentation. Thanks!" ~ B Andrews

Esthetician Marianne Kehoe, has worked with thousands of clients and numerous products for more than 20 years. "Between Catalyst and StemFactor, the results Im seeing in my practice are phenomenal, repeatedly, according to Kehoe, including with post-operative scars and people who have been exposed to the California sun for years."

"Over the past month I have noticed a significant improvement in my skin through using Osmosis skincare. I began with a starter pack then introduced Stem Factor - this has resulted in a huge difference to both the acne prone areas as well as contributing to the overall glow of my skin. I have had problems with my skin for a number of years and in particular Osmosis Stem Factor is the only product I've found that continues to improve skin appearance." ~ Emma

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StemFactor - Skin Growth Factor Serum

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Stem Cell Therapy for the Face, Skin, and Hair Clinic …

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Unwelcome Signs of Aging

Saggy cheeks and eyelids, sallow looking skin, pronounced cellulite, thinning hair or even loss of hair those are just some examples for unpleasant changes of an aging face and body. Are these unavoidable signs of aging or do these changes of the body possibly have other reasons?

Unfortunately or rather luckily it is not possible to stop time and to spend life in eternal youth. However, premature or especially distinctive aging processes may be triggered by lifestyle, burdening circumstances, or illness.

If the body is suffering from deficiency symptoms due to chronic stress or illness, the skins biological quality and elasticity are decreasing and the underlying tissue, the muscles, and other body structures are degenerating. Thinning hair, extensive hair loss, or alopecia (circular hair loss) may also be explained by illness or age.

It is our task to determine why the body is aging ahead of time and furthermore to work against the degenerative aging processes in order to eliminate their unwelcome consequences. All our treatments are focused on rejuvenating by using the potential of the bodys own components. We especially use the impressive regenerative power of stem cells from body fat and growth factors found in the blood. Bioidentical hormones, which are structurally identical to natural hormones, support your body by rebuilding a stable hormonal balance, which is important for the bodily systems to function.

Thanks Dr. Heinrich, I again like to look in the mirror!

We offer promising therapies with stem cells and growth factors both for regeneration of skin as well as hair. Hormone deficiencies are often the reason for unwelcome changes of the body.

In most cases invasive surgical interventions such as facelifts and eyelid corrections, removing excess tissue, and hair transplants are not suitable. Instead it is more important to treat the cause of these issues and regenerate the underlying tissue and skin to gently replenish its volume.

We are strictly opposed to synthetic fillers (e.g., silicone, hyaluronic acid) since those kinds of therapies are solely used to improve the visible symptoms without having a regenerative effect and without treating the actual cause.

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Stem Cell Therapy for the Face, Skin, and Hair Clinic ...

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Types of Stem Cells A Closer Look at Stem Cells

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Tissue-specific stem cells

Tissue-specific stem cells (also referred to assomaticoradultstem cells) are more specialized than embryonic stem cells. Typically, these stem cells can generate different cell types for the specific tissue or organ in which they live.

For example, blood-forming (orhematopoietic) stem cells in the bone marrow can give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. However, blood-forming stem cells dont generate liver or lung or brain cells, and stem cells in other tissues and organs dont generate red or white blood cells or platelets.

Some tissues and organs within your body contain small caches of tissue-specific stem cells whose job it is to replace cells from that tissue that are lost in normal day-to-day living or in injury, such as those in your skin, blood, and the lining of your gut.

Tissue-specific stem cells can be difficult to find in the human body, and they dont seem to self-renew in culture as easily as embryonic stem cells do. However, study of these cells has increased our general knowledge about normal development, what changes in aging, and what happens with injury and disease.

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Types of Stem Cells A Closer Look at Stem Cells

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