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NIH researchers develop first stem cell model of albinism to study related eye conditions – National Institutes of Health

By daniellenierenberg

News Release

Tuesday, January 11, 2022

Use of patient-derived stem cells will enable high-throughput drug screening for potential therapeutics.

Researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) have developed the first patient-derived stem cell model for studying eye conditions related to oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). The models development is described in the January issue of the journal Stem Cell Reports. NEI is part of the National Institutes of Health.

This disease-in-a-dish system will help us understand how the absence of pigment in albinism leads to abnormal development of the retina, optic nerve fibers, and other eye structures crucial for central vision, said Aman George, Ph.D., a staff scientist in the NEI Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch, and the lead author of the report.

OCA is a set of genetic conditions that affects pigmentation in the eye, skin, and hair due to mutation in the genes crucial to melanin pigment production. In the eye, pigment is present in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and aids vision by preventing the scattering of light. The RPE is located right next to the eyes light-sensing photoreceptors and provides them nourishment and support. People with OCA lack pigmented RPE and have an underdeveloped fovea, an area within the retina that is crucial for central vision. The optic nerve carries visual signals to the brain.

People with OCA have misrouted optic nerve fibers. Scientists think that RPE plays a role in forming these structures and want to understand how lack of pigment affects their development.

Animals used to study albinism are less than ideal because they lack foveae, said Brian P. Brooks, M.D., Ph.D., NEI clinical director and chief of the Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch. A human stem cell model that mimics the disease is an important step forward in understanding albinism and testing potential therapies to treat it.

To make the model, researchers reprogrammed skin cells from individuals without OCA and people with the two most common types of OCA (OCA1A and OCA2) into pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The iPSCs were then differentiated to RPE cells. The RPE cells from OCA patients were identical to RPE cells from unaffected individuals but displayed significantly reduced pigmentation.

The researchers will use the model to study how lack of pigmentation affects RPE physiology and function. In theory, if fovea development is dependent on RPE pigmentation, and pigmentation can be somehow improved, vision defects associated with abnormal fovea development could be at least partially resolved, according to Brooks.

Treating albinism at a very young age, perhaps even prenatally, when the eyes structures are forming, would have the greatest chance of rescuing vision, said Brooks. In adults, benefits might be limited to improvements in photosensitivity, for example, but children may see more dramatic effects.

The team is now exploring how to use their model for high-throughput screening of potential OCA therapies.

NEI leads the federal governments research on the visual system and eye diseases. NEI supports basic and clinical science programs to develop sight-saving treatments and address special needs of people with vision loss. For more information, visit

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH):NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit

NIHTurning Discovery Into Health

Aman George, Ruchi Sharma, Tyler Pfister, Mones Abu-Asab, Nathan Hotaling, Devika Bose, Charles DeYoung, Justin Chang, David R. Adams, Tiziana Cogliati, Kapil Bharti, Brian P. Brooks. In Vitro Disease Modeling of Oculocutaneous Albinism Type I and II Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium (2022). doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.11.01.


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Global Stem Cell Therapy Market valued at USD 200 million is set to witness a healthy growth of 17% in the upcoming years : Medi-Tech Insights -…

By daniellenierenberg

Stem cells are the bodys raw materials. They are unspecialized cells that have ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and differentiate into a diverse range of specialized cell types. They are critical for the development, growth, maintenance and repair of bones, muscles, blood, brain, nerves, skin and other organs. There are several sources of stem cells:

Embryonic Stem Cells: These stem cells come from embryos that are three to five days old. These are pluripotent stem cells and can be used to regenerate or repair diseased tissues and organsAdult Stem Cells: These stem cells are found in most adult tissues (bone marrow or fat) in small numbers. As compared to embryonic stem cells, they have more limited ability to give rise to various cells of the bodyInduced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Using genetic reprogramming, adult cells are transformed by scientists into stem cells that act similar to embryonic stem cellsPerinatal Stem Cells: These stem cells are found in amniotic fluid & umbilical cord blood. They have the ability to change into specialized cells

Factors Igniting Interest in Stem Cells

To Develop Understanding of How Diseases Occur: By observing how stem cells mature into cells in nerves, bones, heart muscles and other organs and tissues, researchers and healthcare professionals may better understand how diseases and conditions developHelp in Generating Healthy Cells to Replace Diseased Cells: Stem cells possess the potential to transform into specific cells that can be used to regenerate and repair diseased or damaged tissuesTo Test Safety and Effectiveness of New Drugs: Prior to using investigational drugs on people, researchers can use stem cells to test drugs for quality & safety

Transplantation of Blood Stem Cells Most Established Stem Cell Treatment

Currently, there are only limited stem cell therapies that have been thoroughly established as safe and effective treatment. The most well-established and widely used stem cell treatment is the transplantation of blood stem cells to treat diseases and conditions of the blood and immune system, or to restore the blood system after treatments for specific cancers.

Favorable investment environment, rising clinical trials for stem cell based-therapies, increasing demand for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as an alternative to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the rising demand for cell & gene therapies are some of the key factors driving the growth of the Stem Cell Therapy Market.

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Other areas/indications where stem cell therapies are being used are:

For the treatment of knee cartilage defects in patients with Osteoarthritis (OA)For the treatment of Crohns fistulaFor regeneration of subcutaneous adipose tissueFor the treatment of ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)For the treatment of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) in children and adults, among others

Derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) requires destruction of human embryos. Ethical concerns related to embryonic stem cells is one the of key factors that is likely to hamper the growth of the Stem Cell Therapy Market. Increasing number of clinics offering unproven stem cell-based treatments is another ethical issue faced in the field of stem cell-based therapies.

Stem cells have a bright future for the therapeutic world by promising stem cell therapy. We hope to see new horizon of therapeutics in the form of bone marrow transplant, skin replacement, organ development, and replacement of lost tissue such as hairs, tooth, retina and cochlear cells.

CEO, South Korea Based Stem Cell Therapy Provider

Future Outlook of Stem Cell Therapy Market

Stem cell therapy could be the medical innovation of the century. It has emerged as a promising new approach in almost every medicine specialty. Despite an enormous amount of research being undertaken, there are still limited safe and effective treatments available to patients. This is partially because complex diseases which are currently incurable require complex treatments and a personalized approach.

However, the future growth prospects of stem cell therapy market looks promising as there are several ongoing and completed clinical trials involving stem cells which are showcasing positive outcomes.

In clinical studies and treatment attempts, stem cell therapies have been tested with the following indications:

Macular DegenerationNeurological ConditionsDiabetesGraft-versus-host disease (GvHD)Cirrhosis of the Liver, among others

Stem cell therapies are increasingly being seen as the transformative step in treating conditions with unmet needs. This, coupled with growing investment in the sector and an increasing number of stem cell donors is expected to drive the global Stem Cell Therapy market forward in the coming years.

Sources: Medi-Tech Insights Analysis, Interviews, Company Websites

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Genome Editing Market: Rise in drug discovery and development activities to drive the market – BioSpace

By daniellenierenberg

Genome Editing Market: Snapshot

Genome editing tools have come a long way from the mid-twentieth century. In 1970s and 1980s, gene targeting was done using largely homologous combination, but was only possible in mice. Since then, the expanding science of genetic analysis and manipulation extended to all types of cells and organisms. Advent of new tools helped scientists achieve targeted DNA double-strand break (DSB) in the chromosome, and is a key pivot on which revenue generation in the genome editing market prospered. New directions for programmable genome editing emerged in the decades of the twenty-first century, expanding the arena.

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Cutting-edge platforms at various points in time continue to enrich genome editing market. Various classes of nucleases emerged, most notable of which is CRISPR-Cas. Research labs around the world have extensively used the platforms in making DSBs at any target of choice. Aside from this, agricultural sciences and medical sectors make substantial use of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in genome editing. Strides made in stem cell therapies, particularly in rectifying an aberrant mutation, have boosted the growth of the genome editing market. Genetic diseases such as muscular dystrophy and sickle cell disease present an incredible revenue prospect in the genome editing market. Ongoing research on novel vectors and non-vector approaches are expected to bolster the outlook of the market.

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Genomic editing refers to the strategies and techniques implemented for the modification of target genetic information of any living organism. Genome editing involves gene modification at specific areas through recombinant technology, which increases precision in insertion and decreases cell toxicity. Current advancement in genome editing is based on programmable nucleases. The genome editing market is presently witnessing significant growth due to increase in R&D expenditure, rise in government funding for genomic research, technological advancements, and growth in production of genetically modified crops. Companies have made significant investments in R&D in the past few years to develop cutting-edge technologies, such as, CRISPR and TALEN. For instance, Thermo Fisher Scientific is investing significantly in the development of its CRISPR technology for providing better efficiency and accuracy in research and also to fulfil the unmet demands in research and therapeutics. Cas9 protein and FokI protein have been combined to form a dimeric CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided FokI nucleases system, which is expected to have wide range of genome editing applications.

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The genome editing market is growing rapidly due to its application in a large number of areas, such as mutation, therapeutics, and agriculture biotechnology. Genome editing techniques offer large opportunities in crop improvement. However, the real potential of homologous recombination for crop improvement in targeted gene replacement therapy is yet to be realized. Homologous recombination is expected to be used as an effective methodology for crop improvement, which is not possible through transgene addition. Rise in the number of diseases and applications is likely to expand the scope of genome editing in the near future. It includes understanding the role of specific genes and processes of organ specific stem cells, such as, neural stem cells and spermatogonial stem cells. Genome editing has a significant scope to treat genetically affected cells, variety of cancers, and agents of infectious diseases such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc. However, genetic alteration of human germline for medicinal purpose has been debated for years. Ethical issues, comprising concern for animal welfare, can arise at all stages of generation and life span of genetically engineered animal.

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The global genome editing market can be segmented based on technology, application, end-user, and geography. In terms of technology, the genome editing market can be categorized into CRISPR, TALEN, ZFN, and other technologies. Bioinformatics has eased the process of data analysis through various technological applications. On the basis of application, the global genome editing market can be classified cell-line engineering, animal genome engineering, plant genome engineering, and others. Based on end-user, the genome editing market can be segmented into pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies and academic and clinical research organizations. In terms of region, the global genome editing market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is projected to continue its dominance in the global genome editing market owing to high government funding for research on genetic modification in the region. Asia Pacific is a rapidly growing genome editing market due to rise in investments by key players in the region. Rise in drug discovery and development activities, coupled with increasing government initiatives toward funding small and start-up companies in the biotechnology and life sciences industry, is a major factor expected to drive the genome editing market in North America during the forecast period. Players should invest in the emerging economies and the countries of Asia-Pacific like China, South Korea, Australia, India and Singapore in which the genome editing market is expected to grow at rapid pace in future, due to growing funding in research.

Key players operating in the global genome editing market are CRISPR Therapeutics, Thermo Fisher Scientific, GenScript Corporation, Merck KgaA, Sangamo Therapeutics, Inc., Horizon Discovery Group, Integrated DNA Technologies, New England Biolabs, OriGene Technologies, Lonza Group, and Editas Medicine.

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North America Direct to Consumer Laboratory Testing Market :

The widespread diagnostic and serological testing is emerging as one of the key measures to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. The increased load on healthcare systems, social distancing, and convenience needs of individuals is anticipated to boost the growth of the North America direct-to-consumer laboratory testing market.

Topical Antibiotics Market :

Topical antibiotics have emerged as a popular drug class for the treatment and management of a range of medical conditions. Among different indications such as the skin, eye, and Bromhidrosis, the use of topical antibiotics to fight bacterial skin infection has witnessed consistent growth over the past few decades a trend that is expected to continue over the upcoming years. Research and development activities around the world are likely to fuel the growth of the global topical antibiotics market, as new topical antibiotics continue to enter the market. While the growing popularity of antiseptics could potentially hinder market growth, the growing awareness pertaining to the benefits of topical antibiotics is anticipated to boost the demand.

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The role of gel wound dressings loaded with stem cells in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers – DocWire News

By daniellenierenberg

This article was originally published here

Am J Transl Res. 2021 Dec 15;13(12):13261-13272. eCollection 2021.


Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a serious complication of diabetes and the main cause of nontraumatic lower limb amputations, resulting in a serious economic burden on society. The main causes of DFUs include peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, chronic inflammation, and peripheral artery disease. There are many clinical approaches for the treatment of DFUs, but they are all aimed at addressing a single aetiological factor. Stem cells (SCs), which express many cytokines and a variety of nerve growth factors and modulate immunological function in the wound, may accelerate DFU healing by promoting angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and nerve growth and regulating the inflammatory response. However, the survival time of SCs without scaffold support in the wound is short. Multifunctional gel wound dressings play a critical role in skin wound healing due to their ability to maintain SC survival for a long time, provide moisture and prevent electrolyte and water loss in DFUs. Among the many methods for clinical treatment of DFUs, the most successful one is therapy with gel dressings loaded with SCs. To accelerate DFU healing, gel wound dressings loaded with SCs are needed to promote the survival and migration of SCs and increase wound contraction. This review summarizes the research advancements regarding multifunctional gel wound dressings and SCs in the treatment of DFU to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of this combinational therapeutic strategy.

PMID:35035674 | PMC:PMC8748097

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Regenerative Medicine: The Promise Of Undoing The Ravages Of Time – Hackaday

By daniellenierenberg

In many ways, the human body is like any other machine in that it requires constant refueling and maintenance to keep functioning. Much of this happens without our intervention beyond us selecting what to eat that day. There are however times when due to an accident, physical illness or aging the automatic repair mechanisms of our body become overwhelmed, fail to do their task correctly, or outright fall short in repairing damage.

Most of us know that lizards can regrow tails, some starfish regenerate into as many new starfish as the pieces which they were chopped into, and axolotl can regenerate limbs and even parts of their brain. Yet humans too have an amazing regenerating ability, although for us it is mostly contained within the liver, which can regenerate even when three-quarters are removed.

In the field of regenerative medicine, the goal is to either induce regeneration in damaged tissues, or to replace damaged organs and tissues with externally grown ones, using the patients own genetic material. This could offer us a future in which replacement organs are always available at demand, and many types of injuries are no longer permanent, including paralysis.

Our level of understanding of human physiology and that of animals in general has massively expanded since the beginning of the 20th century when technology allowed us to examine the microscopic world in more detail than ever before. Although empirical medical science saw its beginnings as early as the Sumerian civilization of the 3rd millennium BCE, our generalized understanding of the processes and components that underlie the bodys functioning are significantly more recent.

DNA was first isolated in 1869 by Friedrich Miescher, but its structure was not described until 1953. This discovery laid the foundations for the field of molecular biology, which seeks to understand the molecular basis for biological activity. In a sense this moment can be seen as transformative as for example the transition from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics, in that it changed the focus from macroscopic observations to a more fundamental understanding of these observations.

This allowed us to massively increase our understanding of how exactly the body responds to damage, and the molecular basis for regenerative processes, as well as why humans are normally not able to regrow damaged limbs. Eventually in 1999 the term regenerative medicine was coined by William A. Haseltine, who wrote an article in 2001 on what he envisions the term to include. This would be the addressing of not only injuries and trauma from accidents and disease, but also aging-related conditions, which would address the looming demographic crisis as the average age of the worlds populations keeps increasing.

The state of the art in regenerative medicine back in 2015 was covered by Angelo S. Mao et al. (2015). This covers regenerative methods involving either externally grown tissues and organs, or the stimulating of innate regenerative capabilities. Their paper includes the biomedical discipline of tissue engineering due to the broad overlap with the field of regenerative medicine. Despite the very significant time and monetary requirement to bring a regenerative medicine product to market, Mao et al. list the FDA-approved products at that time:

While these were not miracle products by any stretch of the imagination, they do prove the effectiveness of these approaches, displaying similar or better effectiveness as existing products. While getting cells to the affected area where they can induce repair is part of the strategy, another essential part involves the extracellular matrix (ECM). These are essential structures of many tissues and organs in the body which provide not only support, but also play a role in growth and regeneration.

ECM is however non-cellular, and as such is seen as a medical device. They play a role in e.g. the healing of skin to prevent scar tissue formation, but also in the scaffolding of that other tantalizing aspect of regenerative medicine: growing entire replacement organs and body parts in- or outside of the patients body using their own cells. As an example, Mase Jr, et al. (2010) report on a 19-year old US Marine who had part of his right thigh muscle destroyed by an explosion. Four months after an ECM extracted from porcine (pig) intestinal submucossa was implanted in the area, gradual regrowth of muscle tissue was detected.

An important research area here is the development of synthetic ECM-like scaffolding, as this would make the process faster, easier and more versatile. Synthetic scaffolding makes the process of growing larger structures in vitro significantly easier as well, which is what is required to enable growing organs such as kidneys, hearts and so on. These organs would then ideally be grown from induced pluropotent stem cells (iPS), which are a patients own cells that are reverted back to an earlier state of specialization.

It should come as little surprise that as a field which brings together virtually every field that touches upon (human) biology in some fashion, regenerative medicine is not an easy one. While its one thing to study a working system, its a whole different level to get one to grow from scratch. This is why as great as it would be to have an essentially infinite supply of replacement organs by simply growing new ones from iPS cells, the complexity of a functional organ makes this currently beyond our reach.

Essentially the rule is that the less complicated the organ or tissue is, the easier it is to grow it in vitro. Ideally it would just consist out of a single type of cell, and happy develop in some growth medium without the need for an ECM. Attractive targets here are for example the cornea, where the number of people on a waiting list for a corneal transplant outnumber donor corneas significantly.

In a review by Mobaraki et al. (2019), the numerous currently approved corneal replacements as well as new methods being studied are considered. Even though artificial corneas have been in use for years, they suffer from a variety of issues, including biocompatibility issues and others that prevent long-term function. Use of donor corneas comes with shortages as the primary concern. Current regenerative research focuses on the stem cells found in the limbus zone (limbal stem cells, LSC). These seem promising for repairing ocular surface defects, which has been studied since 1977.

LSCs play a role in the regular regenerative abilities of the cornea, and provide a starting point for either growing a replacement cornea, or to repair a damaged cornea, along with the addition of an ECM as necessary. This can be done in combination with the inhibiting of the local immune response, which promotes natural wound healing. Even so, there is still a lot more research that needs to be performed before viable treatments for either repairing the cornea in situ, or growing a replacement in vitro can be approved the FDA or national equivalent.

A similar scenario can be seen with the development of artificial skin, where fortunately due to the large availability of skin on a patients body grafts (autografts) are usually possible. Even so, the application of engineered skin substitutes (ESS) would seem to be superior. This approach does not require the removal of skin (epidermis) elsewhere, and limits the amount of scar formation. It involves placing a collagen-based ECM on the wound, which is optionally seeded with keritanocytes (skin precursor cells), which accelerates wound closure.

Here the scaffolding proved to be essential in the regeneration of the skin, as reported by Tzeranis et al. (2015). This supports the evidence from other studies that show the cell adhesion to the ECM to be essential in cell regulation and development. With recent changes, it would seem that both the formation of hair follicles and nerve innervation may be solved problems.

It will likely still be a long time before we can have something like a replacement heart grown from a patients own iPS cells. Recent research has focused mostly on decellularization (leaving only the ECM) of an existing heart, and repopulating it with native cells (e.g. Glvez-Montn et al., 2012). By for example creating a synthetic scaffold and populating it with cells derived from a patients iPS cells, a viable treatment could be devised.

Possibly easier to translate into a standard treatment is the regrowth of nerves in the spinal cord after trauma, with a recent article by lvarez et al, (2021) (press release) covering recent advances in the use of artificial scaffolds that promotes nerve regeneration, reduces scarring and promotes blood vessel formation. This offers hope that one day spinal cord injures may be fully repairable.

If we were to return to the body as a machine comparison, then the human body is less of a car or piece of heavy machinery, and more of a glued-together gadget with complex circuitry and components inside. With this jump in complexity comes the need for a deeper level of understanding, and increasingly more advanced tools so that repairs can be made efficiently and with good outcomes.

Even so, regenerative medicine is already saving the lives of for example burn victims today, and improving the lives of countless others. As further advances in research continue to translate into treatments, we should see a gradual change from youll have to learn to live with that, to a more optimistic give it some time to grow back, as in the case of an injured veteran, or the victim of an accident.

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University of Alberta study shows positive signs to get patients with diabetes off injected insulin – Global News

By daniellenierenberg

Editors note: This article has been updated to remove incorrect information provided by the University of Alberta.

Researchers at the University of Alberta say they have reached a milestone in the efforts to get people with diabetes off injected insulin for good.

A recent first-in-humans clinical trial is reporting early signs that pancreatic cells grown from stem cells can be safely implanted, and in some cases, begin to produce insulin.

The trial saw 17 adults with Type 1 diabetes at six centres in Canada, the United States and Europe receive implants of pluripotent stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm cells.

Each patient received implants of several small permeable devices filled with millions of cells each. The cells were derived from stem cells then chemically transformed into stem cells programmed to become islet cells.

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Of the 17 patients who received implants, U of A researchers said 35 per cent showed signs in their blood of insulin production after meals within six months of the implant. On top of that, 63 per cent had evidence of insulin production inside the implant devices when they were removed after a year.

This is a very positive finding, said James Shapiro, professor of surgery, medicine and surgical oncology in the University of Albertas Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry.

Its not the endgame, but its a big milestone along the road to success, demonstrating that stem cell-derived islet therapies are safe and can begin to show some signal of efficacy in patients in the clinic.

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Shapiro also led the team that developed the Edmonton Protocol in the 1990s, which developed a way to transplant donated islet cells, reducing their need for insulin. However, the U of A says patients continue to need anti-rejection drugs which can have side effects such as an increased risk of cancer and kidney damage. The number of donated islet cells is also limited.

Shapiro said the main goal of this phase of the trial was to ensure safety, but added at least one patient who had 10 devices implanted was able to significantly reduce her insulin dose, which indicates the potential effectiveness of the treatment.

Were seeing some improvement in the patients blood sugar, but these cells are being transplanted right now in only very small quantities, so were not expecting big changes in insulin requirement, Shapiro said.

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But we can see in about 65 per cent of devices that we take out from under the skin that there are human insulin-producing cells surviving, and in about a third of patients they have measurable insulin levels in the bloodstream. So its a really good first start with this treatment, Im very excited about it.

The ultimate goal of the new research is to develop an unlimited supply of islet cells that can be safely transplanted without the need for anti-rejection drugs.

Weve seen a lot of advances in the last 100 years since the Canadian discovery of insulin, Shapiro said. The race isnt over yet, but were on our last laps and I really do believe that we can cross that ribbon.

Cell-based therapies have the promise to deliver something far better than insulin therapy.

Again, were not expecting to be curing diabetes in the first wave of this, were trying to do safety testing for first patients. And we see that really is helping mankind in the future of diabetes rather than any particular one patient at this point, but it will change as we move forward.

The next step will try to determine how many stem cell-derived pancreatic cells are needed for transplant to optimize insulin production in patients with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

2022 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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The first successful pig heart transplant into a human was a century in the making – Popular Science

By daniellenierenberg

Last Friday, January 7, David Bennett went into the operating room at the University of Maryland Medical Center for a surgical procedure never performed before on a human. The 57-year-old Maryland resident had been hospitalized and bedridden for months due to a life-threatening arrhythmia. His heart was failing him and he needed a new one.

Bennetts condition left him unresponsive to treatments and ineligible for the transplant list or an artificial heart pump. The physician-scientists at the Baltimore medical center, however, had anotheralbeit riskyoption: transplant a heart from a genetically-modified pig.

It was either die or do this transplant, Bennett had told surgeons at the University of Maryland Medical Center a day before the operation. I want to live. I know its a shot in the dark, but its my last choice.

On Monday, the team reported that they completed the eight-hour procedure, making Bennett the first human to successfully receive a pigs heart. Its working and it looks normal. We are thrilled, but we dont know what tomorrow will bring us. This has never been done before, Bartley Griffith, M.D., physician and director of the cardiac transplant program at the University of Maryland Medical Center who led the transplant team, told the New York Times.

While its only been five days since the operation, the surgeons say that Bennetts new pig heart was, so far, functioning as expected and his body wasnt rejecting the organ. They are still monitoring his condition closely.

I think its extremely exciting, says Robert Montgomery, M.D., transplant surgeon and director of the NYU Langone Transplant Institute, who was not involved in Bennetts operation. The results of the procedure were also personally meaningful for Montgomery, who received a heart transplant in 2018 due to a genetic disease that may also impact members of his family in the future. Its still in the early days, but still the heart seems to be functioning. And that in and of itself is an extraordinary thing.

[Related: Surgeons transplanted a pig kidney into a person, and it worked like normal]

Pig heart transplant operations are still not officially approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but the agency granted emergency authorization for the surgery on December 31. The experimental procedure comes at a time of growing need for organ transplants. More than 100,000 people in the United States are on the list to receive one, while around 17 die each day waiting, according to the latest data from the federal governments The desperate demand far exceeds the number of human organ donors.

There arent enough organs, period, Montgomery says, who was part of the team that successfully transplanted a genetically modified pig kidney in a human in 2021. Of an estimated 800,000 patients on dialysis whove developed end-stage kidney disease, only 90,000 are on the list for a human organ transplant, he points out. Pig organ transplants give another potential way to to fill that gap between the supply and the demand.

The field of research and the techniques behind animal to human organ transplants has come a long way to reach this momentfrom myth and pseudoscience to sophisticated medical application. Xenotransplantation, or grafting and transplanting of organs and tissues between two species, has a long history, says Montgomery, who has been involved in this field for more than 30 years.

It has really been considered since the dawn of transplantation, he says. People were thinking about the use of animal organs for over a hundred years.

Throughout the 19th century, chickens, rats, dogs, frogs, and other animals were used for skin grafts. Researchers continued to encounter incompatibility issues between humans and animal organs and tissues. This was because many animal species have a cell membrane sugar called galactose-1,3-galactose, commonly referred to as alpha-gal. That sugar is also on the surface of bacteria, explains Montgomery. Humans are exposed to these bacteria from birth in the GI tract, which triggers the immune system to make antibodies against alpha-gal to prevent those bacteria from entering the blood. People have a huge reserve of these antibodies just circulating in our blood all the time, Montgomery says, and those antibodies will attack animal organs because they recognize alpha-gal as a target.

Around the 1960s, surgeons began to look towards closer relatives to humans: primates. Primates are obviously much closer to humans on the evolutionary scale, and so you dont have that immediate incompatibility with alpha-gal in some of the primates, Montgomery says. A surgeon at Tulane University in New Orleans transplanted chimpanzee kidneys into patients, one of whom survived for nine months. Most famously in 1984, Baby Fae, a newborn infant with an underdeveloped heart, received a baboon heart, but her body rejected it after 20 days.

By the 1990s, the public perception towards primates as organ donors had soured. Theyre much more scarce on the planet, says Montgomery. I was at a xenotransplant meeting in the 1990s and Jane Goodall was the keynote speaker At the end of that, it was really clear to all of us that primates were not going to be the organ donors we were going to use. Concerns over zoonosis, or the transmission of disease from animal to human host, were also rising, likely because of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, Montgomery adds.

[Related: Lab-grown pig lungs are great news for the future of organ transplantation]

The scientific stage was set for swine. Pigs became prime donor candidates because of their abundance, large litters, ease of breeding, rapid growth, and generally similar organ size to humans.

Plus, most people have a much different relationship with the animal as a longtime food staple, says Montgomery, though he expects ethical concerns to continue to rise as the field progresses, such as whether or not animals should be genetically modified for transplants.

But there were two big hurdles the research field had to jump over before pigs could be a viable option: the issues with alpha-gal and the potential cross transmission of viruses, particularly the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) discovered in 1997. Now, researchers have been able to genetically edit out the alpha-gal target from the pig genome. Today, people have undergone pig skin graft treatments for burns, have pig heart valves, or received pig cells, like those that help produce insulin, and have not experienced any diseases.

The genetic modification, particularly now with CRISPR, has become pretty easy, Montgomery says. Almost 200 people have received pig cells, pig stem cells, pig tissue, and skin grafts without exposure to zoonoses, he says.

The genetically modified pigs used for organ donation are bred, studied, and cared for in extremely clean facilities, and theyre surveilled for potential pathogens. Its almost like an operating room, says Montgomery. They are very humanely treated.

Up until now, most experimental transplant procedures have been done between pigs and other animals. Taking it into a living human, thats the leap, Montgomery says about the University of Maryland Medical Centers transplant. The genie is out of the bottle. Now, we really need to understand what this is going to look like in humans, and start to work on optimizing the outcomes. But time is of the essence, lets move ahead boldly.

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Few Skincare Treatments That is Expected to Dominate in 2022 – News18

By daniellenierenberg

Though there are several skin care treatments available, people should look for the one which is most suitable for their skin and their bank balance (Image: Shutterstock)

If you are looking forward to taking extra care of your skin in the upcoming year, you should be well aware of the best products and treatments available in the market. When it comes to picking a product or a treatment for your face, people are very cautious and they want to go with a brand that has a good reputation in the market and has garnered good reviews. Though there are several skin care treatments available, people should look for the one which is most suitable for their skin and their bank balance. Dr Kiran Sethi Lohia, Integrative Aesthetic and Skin Specialist, who hails from New Delhi in a chat with ETimes, shared some trends that are likely to dominate the beauty industry in 2022.

Stem cells: Stem cells are new to the game, they are added post laser or through micro-needling or even injecting for anti-ageing. In case you have suffered an injury on the face, they are known for wound healing too. Stem cells promote cell turnover, and they also increase collagen production.

Patch-based skincare: We get patches to apply on zits to make them smaller, and soon you will be able to buy and apply patches with tiny microneedles.

Skin boosters: Skin boosters that use injections to hydrate the skin deeply will definitely become a big trend in 2020. As we get older our skin becomes weaker letting out hydration, hence it is difficult to stay hydrated by just drinking water and good skincare. These skin boosters keep our skin supple, elastic, moist, and also prevents aging!

Sculpsure: Sculpsure is the new treatment to lose fat in 2020. The side effect free Sculpsure is approved by the US FDA. It takes 25 minutes per area.

Read all the Latest News, Breaking News and Coronavirus News here.

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Exploring the potential of stem cell-based therapy for aesthetic and plastic surgery – Newswise

By daniellenierenberg


Over the last decade, stem cell-associated therapies are widely used because of their potential in self-renewable and multipotent differentiation ability. Stem cells have become more attractive for aesthetic uses and plastic surgery, including scar reduction, breast augmentation, facial contouring, hand rejuvenation, and anti-aging. The current preclinical and clinical studies of stem cells on aesthetic uses also showed promising outcomes. Adipose-derived stem cells are commonly used for fat grafting that demonstrated scar improvement, anti-aging, skin rejuvenation properties, etc. While stem cell-based products have yet to receive approval from the FDA for aesthetic medicine and plastic surgery. Moving forward, the review on the efficacy and potential of stem cell-based therapy for aesthetic and plastic surgery is limited. In the present review, we discuss the current status and recent advances of using stem cells for aesthetic and plastic surgery. The potential of cell-free therapy and tissue engineering in this field is also highlighted. The clinical applications, advantages, and limitations are also discussed. This review also provides further works that need to be investigated to widely apply stem cells in the clinic, especially in aesthetic and plastic contexts.

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K2bio Welcomes Ponce Therapeutics to Houston – PRNewswire

By daniellenierenberg

"We started speaking with Kieron Jones and Andrew Strong as we were funded and started to execute our R&D plan, and the rest is history. We appreciate the variety of support services K2bio offers in addition to rental lab space," stated Kevin Slawin, CEO of Ponce Therapeutics. Ponce Therapeutics was the first client to enter into a contract with K2bio.

"We are very excited to welcome Ponce Therapeutics to the K2bio family," said Kieron Jones, Co-founder, CEO, and President of K2bio. "Our goal is to build a collaborative environment That allows companies within our facility to focus on efficiently developing their product. For companies outside of our facility, we offer a suite of contracted services to support their in-vivo and in-vitro needs as a long-term partner built on quality and timeliness."

About K2bio K2bio is a state-of-the-art facility with a unique model of providing preclinical contract research services and an incubator environment. We provide a unique and flexible co-working facility for high-potential, early-stage life science companies, with experienced biotech research managers and staff, in addition to a mouse vivarium to allow companies access to the research environment that they need to progress at an affordable cost. We've created the concierge of biolabs, offering researchers the option to add or subtract services based on their individual needs.

For more information, visit

About Ponce Therapeutics - Ponce Therapeutics is currently developing a biotechnology platform to restore young cells in the skin, targeting p16-expressing senescent cells for elimination. While initially focused on skin, Ponce plans to develop a wide-ranging portfolio of anti-aging products, which could ultimately lead to new cancer treatments. The elimination of pro-inflammatory senescent cells has been shown to suppress cancer and rejuvenate tissues by restoring stem cell niches to their healthy state. Ponce is headquartered in Miami, Florida, with research facilities located in Houston, TX.

For more information, visit


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This Startup Is Makingand ProgrammingHuman Cells –

By daniellenierenberg

Our cells are packed with unrealized potential. Almost every human cell contains the genetic information it needs to become any other kind of cell. A skin cell, for example, has the same genes as a muscle cell or a brain neuron, but in each type of cell only some of those genes are switched on, while others remain silent. Its a little like making different meals out of the same ingredients cupboard. If we understand the recipe behind each type of cell, then theoretically we can use this information to engineer every single cell type in the human body.

That is Mark Kotters goal. Kotter is the CEO and cofounder of bit.bioa Cambridge, UK, based company that wants to revolutionize clinical research and drug discovery by producing precisely engineered batches of human cells. Basic scientific research into new drugs and treatments often starts with tests in mice, or in the most widely used human cell lines: kidney cells and cervical cancer cells. This can be a problem, because the cells being experimented on may have major differences to the cells that a candidate drug is supposed to target in the human body. A drug that works in a mouse may turn out not to work when it's tested in humans. There is no mouse on this planet that has ever suffered from Alzheimers, it just doesnt exist, Kotter says. But testing a potential Alzheimers drug on a human brain cell engineered to have signs of Alzheimers disease could give a much clearer indication of whether that drug is likely to be successful.

Every cell type has its own little program, or postcodea combination of transcription factors that defines it, says Kotter. By inserting the right program into a stem cell, researchers can activate genes that code for these transcription factors and turn a stem cell into a specific type of mature cell. Unfortunately, biology has a way of fighting back. Cells often silence these genes, stopping the transcription factors from being produced. Kotters solutiondiscovered as part of his research at the University of Cambridgeis to insert this program in a region of the genome thats protected against gene silencing, something Kotter refers to as a genetic safe harbor. currently sells two different reprogrammed cell lines: muscle cells and a specific kind of brain neuron, but the plan is to create bespoke cell lines for use in the pharmaceutical industry and academic research. What were doing with our partners in the industry now is to create genetic modifications that are relevant for diseases, Kotter says. He compares this approach to running software on a computer. By inserting the right bit of code into a cells genome, you can control how that cell behaves. That means that we can now run programs, and we can reprogram human cells, Kotter says. The cell reprogramming technology could also go well beyond model cell lines and help develop whole new kinds of treatment, such as cell therapy.

In some cell therapies, a patients own immune cells are grown outside of their body before being modified and inserted back into it to help fight a diseasea long and expensive process. One kind of cell therapy used to treat young people with leukemia costs more than 280,000 ($371,400) per patient. Bit.bios chief medical officer Ramy Ibrahim says that the firms technology could help drive down the cost of cell therapy and make it easier to manufacture immune cells at a large scale. Having abundant numbers of the right cell types that we can now make edits to, I think will be transformational, he says.

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The 37 Best Beauty Products Of 2021 – British Vogue

By daniellenierenberg

I first dismissed this as a fancy version of those old heat patches you can get in the chemist, but I couldnt have been more wrong. Embedded within the lightweight but stretchy plaster-type fabric is enough clove and safflower to help get your blood flowing, as well as borneol to reduce inflammation and pain. And they really work.

15, available at

Jones Road The Best Pencil in Ultra Opaque

You cant go wrong with this one-style-fits-all eye pencil from make-up maverick Bobbi Browns newest cosmetic venture, which can outline, graphic line, feline line, smoky smudge line, whatever you choose. Point it at your lids and it pretty much does the rest by itself, its the very definition of fuss-free for those who dont like to overthink their eyeliner.

20, available at

Ffern Organic Seasonal Fragrance

This is as small batch and as sustainable as it gets. Its also highly exclusive as you have to sign up for each new-season limited-edition release. But youll be happy you did, with each perfume created by master perfumer Francois Robert and his protg Elodie Durande, and delivered in entirely sustainable packaging. My favourite this year was Spring 2021, which had top notes of ginger underpinned by neroli, jasmine sambac absolute and orange absolute.

Available at

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20 of the best retinol creams & serums for every skin type – VOGUE Paris

By daniellenierenberg

The question really, is what should you be using retinol with. Hydrating ingredients like glycerin, peptides, ceramides, when sandwiched with your retinol, all help to support the integrity of the skin.

Ultimately, you should listen to your skin and let it be your guide. Ayodele advises keeping a diary noting any changes and taking pictures of your skin, comparing week one to week six. And remember: it is crucial to use SPF every day with retinol.

From the best formula for dark spots to products that are perfect for mature skins, heres Vogues edit of the best retinol creams and serums to try now:

The Best Retinol For Sensitive Skin: La Roche-Posay Retinol 0.3% + Vitamin B3 Serum

La Roche Posay - Retinol B3

La Roche Posay via

La Roche-Posay knows its way around an excellent skincare product this serum is just one among many. Combining vitamin B3 with 0.3 per cent retinol, its a gentle one, and good for even the most sensitive skins.

Best Affordable Retinol: The Ordinary Granactive Retinoid 2% in Squalane

The Ordinary - mulsion de Granactive Retinoid* 2%

The Ordinary via

The Ordinary is renowned for bringing us premium ingredients at affordable prices, and this product comes in at well under 10. High potency, minimal irritation, low price whats not to love?

Retinol for Beginners: REN's Organic Retinoid Youth Serum for Sensitive Skin.

REN - Srum Jeunesse Bio Retinoid

Concerned about dryness and irritation? This REN formula is suitable for even the most sensitive skin, especially those that have previously reacted to retinol. The formula's unique delivery system allows for effective cell renewal without causing irritation.

Best Retinol Serum: Institut Esthederm Intensive Retinol Face Serum

Institut Esthederm - Intensive Retinol


Institut Esthederm via

Perfect for deep-set wrinkles, this emollient-rich retinol serum effectively locks in moisture while working hard to bring plumpness back to the most sullen skin.

Best Retinol Booster: Paulas Choice 1% Retinol Booster

Paula's Choice - Boost Retinol 1%

Paula's Choice via

Designed to be added to your favourite serum or moisturiser, Paulas Choice 1% Retinol Booster offers a more customisable approach to retinol use, making it perfect for beginners.

Best Retinol Overnight Mask: Allies of Skin 1A Retinal and Peptides Overnight Mask

Allies of Skin - 1A Retinal + Peptides Overnight Mask

Allies of Skin via

This antioxidant-rich formula delivers a jolt of nourishment to thirsty mature skin. Fortified with Ally-R, an encapsulated form of time-release retinaldehyde (a vitamin A even more powerful than retinol), this moisture barrier-maintaining formula helps promote firmness and smoothness in lacklustre skin.

Best Retinol For Acne: Lixir Night Switch Retinol 1%

Lixir Skin - Srum pour le visage Night Switch Retinol 1%

Lixir Skin via

Lixirs Night Switch range is based on the idea that using too many active ingredients at once can confuse the skin. Instead, it advocates the frequent switching up of products. Night Switch Retinol 1% refines skin texture and boosts plumpness and firmness.

The most nourishing: Ideal Resource Youth Oil Concentrate with retinol by Darphin

Darphin - Ideal Resource Concentr huile jeunesse au retinol


Darphin via

Thanks to micro-encapsulated retinol, these mini-doses accelerate cell renewal and reinforce collagen production, helping to fight the signs of aging. Each one also contains a blend of plant oils that nourish the face and plump the eye area.

Fastest results: Este Lauder Perfectionist Pro

Este Lauder - Perfectionist Pro


Este Lauder via

Only 28 days to see visible results on the skin: that's the promise of this express treatment by Este Lauder. The result is smoother, softer, supple skin and a more radiant complexion. A must-have.

The best face cream: A-Passioni Retinol Cream by Drunk Elephant

Drunk Elephant - Crme A-Passioni Retinol

Drunk Elephant via

Specially designed for sun-damaged skin, this cream combines 1% retinol with a cocktail of fruit extracts such as passion fruit, apricot and winter cherry to reduce the appearance of fine lines and deep wrinkles.

The Best Retinol Cream Available Over The Counter: SkinCeuticals Retinol 0.3% Cream

SkinCeuticals - Retinol 0.3 Peeling De Nuit Rides & Imperfections

SkinCeuticals via

The SkinCeuticals formula utilises encapsulation technology, to minimise irritation and allow the chamomile-derived bisabolol to counter any that does occur.

Best Retinol Night Oil: Sunday Riley Luna Sleeping Night Oil

Luna - Huile de nuit Sunday Riley

Luna via

Sunday Rileys bestselling Luna Sleeping Night Oil combines retinoid oil with blue tansy and cold-pressed chia, grape seed and avocado oils to renew the skins surface overnight. A celebrity favourite.

Best Retinol For Wrinkles: Elizabeth Arden Retinol Ceramide Capsules Line Erasing Night Serum

Elizabeth Arden - Retinol Ceramide Capsules


Elizabeth Arden via

By combining retinol with skin-loving ceramides, Elizabeth Arden allows you to swerve any flaking. The capsule format means you wont apply too much, and also keeps the formula fresh.

Best Retinol For Dullness: Medik8 R-Retinoate Intense

Medik8 - Crme rajeunissante intense r-Retinoate

Medik8 via

Suffering from dull skin? Look no further than Medik8s ultimate time-defying treatment. Combining retinol with clinical-strength retinoic acid, as well as nourishing peptides, ceramides, and hyaluronic acid, this miracle cream works overnight to plump and smooth the skin, firming it up and leaving it brighter and more replenished.

Best Retinol For Mature Skin: LOral Paris Pure Retinol Revitalift Laser Night Serum

L'Oral - Revitalift Laser Srum Nuit Rtinol Pur

For those in need of some extra TLC, LOrals powerhouse serum is formulated with a high concentration of pure retinol. One of the brands most potent blends, it targets fine lines and wrinkles, while added hyaluronic acid replenishes the skin with moisture.

Best Retinol Alternative: The Inkey List Bakuchiol Moisturiser

The Inkey List - Bakuchiol Moisturiser

The Inkey List via

If youre finding retinol too harsh, there is a gentler alternative: bakuchiol, a plant-based super ingredient. Powered by bakuchiol, this moisturiser works to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and smooths uneven skin, without causing irritation. Meanwhile added squalane, glycerin and sach inchi oil provide hydration and nourishment.

Best Retinol For Brightening: StriVectin Super-C Retinol Brighten & Correct Vitamin C Serum

Strivectin - Super-C Retinol Srum Illuminateur & Correcteur Vitamine C

Strivectin via

With two hardworking actives vitamin C and retinol this lightweight serum is a multi-tasking wonder. Expect it to brighten, smooth, ease fine lines and strengthen the skin barrier, too.

Best Retinol For Tackling Signs Of Ageing: Sarah Chapman Skinesis Retinol Oil

Combining plant stem cells, platinum peptide delivery and time-release retinol, Sarah Chapmans Skinesis Platinum Stem Cell Elixir is a true super serum, acting on fine lines and wrinkles, increasing collagen synthesis, and improving skin elasticity.

Available at

Best Retinol For Wrinkles: Murad Retinol Youth Renewal Serum

Murad Cosmetic - Resurgence Renewing Eye Cream

Murad Cosmetic via

With clever three-part retinol technology, which comprises a fast-acting retinoid, a time-released retinol and a retinol booster, expect uneven texture (and the like) to be addressed from all angles with the help of this Murad serum.

The best night cream with retinol: Lancme Corrective Night Concentrate

Lancme - Concentr nuit correcteur

Lancme via

A powerful treatment, rich in retinol, vitamin A and hyaluronic acid, which moisturizes and firms the skin while reducing the appearance of wrinkles. However, we recommend avoiding it if you have sensitive skin.

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Mesoblast has long been the one poster child for stem cell therapy. Now Cynata and other ASX stocks have e … – Stockhead

By daniellenierenberg

Stem cell therapy, sometimes called regenerative medicine, is one of the most exciting areas of the life sciences sector right now.

Since the pandemic, the sector has emerged into the publics spotlight with new developments in mRNA-based vaccines and therapies.

Nasdaq is the obvious breeding ground for world-class stem cell companies with the likes of Moderna and BioNTech, and lesser known names like Anavex and Enochian.

In Australia, Mesoblast (ASX:MSB) has long been the local poster child for the regenerative medicine industry.

Mesoblast has developed a platform of innovative cellular medicines, but the company has struggled since the FDA rejected its drug in October last year.

Now, other ASX companies like Cynata Therapeutics (ASX:CYP)are making rapid progress to take over the mantle from MSB in this hot field.

Cynata is developing a mesenchymal stem cells (or MSC) technology, which it says has huge therapeutic potential for numerous unmet medical needs.

This includes asthma, heart attack, sepsis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which all add up to a market opportunity worth $46bn, says the company.

According to CEO Dr Ross Macdonald, who spoke to Stockhead today, MSC is the hottest segment of stem cell therapy at the moment, and has gained a lot of attention recently.

There is a huge interest, and theres been more than 1000 clinical trials conducted around the world using MSC, Dr Macdonald told Stockhead.

He explains that the humans immune system controls many of the bodys functions responsible for repairing tissue after injury or disease, and defending against invading germs like viruses or bacteria.

And just like an orchestral conductor, MSC seems to be playing a central role in that coordination within our immune system.

We now have a firm understanding of how those cells coordinate the bodys responses, and can use that knowledge to enhance those processes that they control, Dr Macdonald explained.

In short, MSC therapies work by expressing a variety of chemokines and cytokines that aid in repair of degraded tissue, restoration of normal tissue metabolism and, most importantly, counteracting inflammation.

And because MSCs play that co-ordination role within the immune system, they can be used to treat different diseases.

However theres one big problem with cell-based therapies, and its not to do with the safety and efficacy.

Its how to manufacture these products on a mass scale, that is the greatest challenge right now, says Dr Macdonald.

Unlike aspirin where it can be synthesised in a chemical lab and produced in bulk, manufacturing a living drug like a cell is a whole lot more complicated.

But that big challenge is the exact area of strength and competitive advantage that Cynata has, Dr Macdonald told Stockhead.

He says Cynata has a technology platform which allows it to manufacture essentially limitless quantities of MSCs, consistently and economically.

Dr Macdonald explains there are two approaches to using cell therapy, the autologous and the allogeneic approach.

The autologous approach is where the patient themselves serves as their own donor.

This is obviously bespoke and inefficient, because the drug can only be manufactured for that one patient, and is obviously not an industrialised process, he said.

But by taking an allogeneic approach, Cynata has the ability to start with a one time donation of cells from one single donor.

Well never have to go back to that human donor ever again, so our process of producing cells has become a very much more typical industrialised process.

The company has a patent for this, with two clinical trials underway and two more under preparation.

A Phase 3 clinical trial for osteoarthritis which is funded by a NHMRC grant has progressed the furthest, while a Phase 2 trial in COVID-19 is ongoing.

Meanwhile a Phase 1 study in GvHD, which was published in prestigious journal Nature Medicine, is probably the closest to commercialisation according to Dr Macdonald.

GvHD is a challenging disease which occurs in patients who have had a bone marrow transplant as part of their chemotherapy treatment for cancer.

Chemo is still very much a sledgehammer therapy where you use very toxic drugs that do kill the cancer cells, but they also kill the surrounding healthy cells that grow hair and bone marrow.

Unfortunately for many patients, the bone marrow transplant reacts against their body and starts to attack all of the tissues in the body, and its ultimately fatal.

Its a horrible death, destroying the lungs, liver, intestines and the skin, Macdonald explains.

Cynatas MSC therapy has been shown to reset that reaction, so the patient can recover from the GvHD, and also recover from their underlying cancer.

With all these clinical trials concurrently under way, Macdonald believes there is a clear significant upside potential for Cynata, particularly given its small market cap of $70m compared to other similar plays like Mesoblast ($1 billion market cap).

Osteopore (ASX:OSX) focuses in bones and specialises in the production of 3D printed bioresorbable implants that are used in surgical procedures to assist with the natural stages of bone healing.

The 3D bio-printer makes a scaffold that mimics bone, with a patented micro-architecture which traps the patients own stem cells.

Orthocell (ASX:OCC) develops collagen medical devices and cellular therapies for the repair and regeneration of human tendons, bone, nerve and cartilage defects.

Its flagship product, the CelGro, is a naturally derived collagen medical device for tissue repair.

Aroa Biosurgery (ASX:ARX) develops FDA-approved medical devices for wounds and tissue repair using its extracellular matrix (ECM) technology, mainly in the United States.

Recent study shows 100% success rates from the use of its Myriad product when patients underwent surgical reconstruction of exposed vital structures such as bone and tendon.

Regeneus (ASX:RGS) Progenza is a cellular therapy targeting pain and inflammation which uses Secretome to improve not only the resident tissue, but the MSCs themselves.

It fills a gap in the current treatment market for osteoarthritis, by providing disease modification and pain relief to address patient symptoms.

Anteris Technologies (ASX:AVR) claims that its Adapt Technology is the first and only bio-scaffold technology that completely re-engineers xenograft tissue into a pure collagen scaffold.

A recent study indicated that Adapt-treated tissue has superior anti-calcification attributes compared with tissues used in competitor valves.

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Mesoblast has long been the one poster child for stem cell therapy. Now Cynata and other ASX stocks have e ... - Stockhead

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Syrian refugee is thriving five years after last-gasp gene therapy – STAT – STAT

By daniellenierenberg

In the summer of 2015, a 7-year-old named Hassan was admitted to the burn unit of the Ruhr University Childrens Hospital in Bochum, Germany, with red, oozing wounds from head to toe.

It wasnt a fire that took his skin. It was a bacterial infection, resulting from an incurable genetic disorder. Called junctional epidermolysis bullosa, the condition deprives the skin of a protein needed to hold its layers together and leads to large, painful lesions. For kids, its often fatal. And indeed, Hassans doctors told his parents, Syrian refugees who had fled to Germany, the young boy was dying.

The doctors tried one last thing to save him. They cut out a tiny, unblistered patch of skin from the childs groin and sent it to the laboratory of Michele de Luca, an Italian stem cell expert who heads the Center for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. De Lucas team used a viral vector to ferry into Hassans skin cells a functional version of the gene LAMB3, which codes for laminin, the protein that anchors the surface of the skin to the layers below.


Then the scientists grew the modified cells into sheets big enough for Ruhr University plastic surgeons Tobias Hirsch and Maximilian Kueckelhaus to graft onto Hassans raw, bedridden body, which they did over the course of that October, November, and the following January.

It worked better than the boys doctors could have imagined. In 2017, de Luca, Hirsch, Kueckelhaus, and their colleagues reported that Hassan was doing well, living like a normal boy in his lab-grown skin. At the time though, there was still a big question on all their minds: How long would it last? Would the transgenic stem cells keep replenishing the skin or would they sputter out? Or worse could they trigger a cascade of cancer-causing reactions?


Today, the same team is out with an update. Five years and five months after the initial intervention, Hassan is still, for the most part, thriving in fully functional skin that has grown with the now-teenager. He is attending school, and playing sports with his friends and siblings, though he avoids swimming due to blistering in the areas that werent replaced by the lab-grown skin. One of his favorite activities is a pedal-powered go kart. There are no signs his modified stem cells have lost their steam, and no traces of tumors to be found.

The encouraging follow-up data has been instrumental in moving forward a larger clinical trial of the approach, offering hope to the 500,000 epidermolysis bullosa patients worldwide currently living without treatment options.

We were astonished by the speedy recovery, Kueckelhaus, now at University Hospital Muenster, told STAT via email. But experience from skin transplantation in other settings made him and his colleagues wary of the grafts failing as the months and years wore on. Thankfully, wrote Kueckelhaus, those fears never materialized. We are very happy to be able to prove that none of these complications appeared and the genetically modified skin remains 100% stable. The chances are good that he will be able to live a relatively normal life.

Over the last five years, Hassans team of doctors and researchers has put his new skin through a battery of tests checking it for sensitivity to hot and cold, water retention, pigmentation and hemoglobin levels, and if it had developed all the structures youd expect healthy skin to have, including sweat glands and hair follicles. Across the board, the engineered skin appeared normal, without the need for moisturizers or medical ointments. The only flaw they found was that Hassans skin wasnt as sensitive to fine touch, especially in his lower right leg. This mild neuropathy they attributed not to the graft itself, but to how that limb was prepared doctors used a more aggressive technique that might have damaged the nerves there.

The team also used molecular techniques to trace the cells theyd grown in the lab as they divided and expanded over Hassans body. They found that all the different kinds of cells composing the boys new skin were being generated by a small pool of self-renewing stem cells called holoclone-forming cells, carrying the Italian teams genetic correction.

This was quite an insight into the biology of the epidermis, said de Luca. Its an insight he expects will have huge consequences for any efforts to advance similar gene therapies for treating other diseases affecting the skin. You have to have the holoclone-forming cells in your culture if you want to have long-lasting epidermis, he said.

The approach pioneered by de Lucas team will soon be headed for its biggest clinical test yet, after nearly a decade of fits and starts. They expect to begin recruiting for a multi-center Phase 2/3 trial sometime next year.

De Luca first successfully treated a junctional EB patient in 2005. But then a change to European Union laws governing cell and gene therapies forced his team to stop work while they found ways to comply with the new rules. It took years of paperwork, building a manufacturing facility, and spinning out a small biotech company called Holostem to be ready to begin clinical research again. Hassan came along right as they were gearing up for a Phase 1 trial, but data from the boys case, which was granted approval under a compassionate use provision, convinced regulators that the cell grafts could move to larger, more pivotal trials, according to de Luca.

We didnt cure the disease, he told STAT. But the skin has been restored, basically permanently. We did not observe a single blister in five years. The wound healing is normal, the skin is robust. From this point of view, the quality of life is not even comparable to what it was before.

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In This Issue –

By daniellenierenberg

Inbreeding and wild tigers at risk of extinction

As habitat fragmentation increases worldwide, wild animal populations are shrinking and becoming more isolated, thus facing a heightened risk of inbreeding and extinction. The extent to which the viability of small, isolated populations could be improved by purging deleterious alleles through natural selection is unclear. Anubhab Khan et al. analyzed whole-genome sequences from 57 wild Bengal tigers from either a small, isolated population or large, connected populations in India. The results revealed evidence of partial purging of highly detrimental variants across populations. However, the small, isolated population showed genomic signs of greater inbreeding and a higher overall frequency of deleterious alleles, compared with two large populations. On average, pairs of individuals from the small, isolated population shared approximately 40% of their genomes in tracts at least 1 megabase long, whereas pairs from the large, connected populations shared approximately 1525% of their genomes. Together, the findings suggest that purging may not eliminate all detrimental alleles and inbreeding-associated fitness costs in small, isolated populations. According to the authors, the findings highlight the need for genetic rescue strategies that enhance the fitness of inbred populations by decreasing the frequency of harmful mutations and increasing genetic variation. J.W.

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How The Overlap Between Artificial Intelligence And Stem Cell Research Is Producing Exciting Results – Forbes

By daniellenierenberg

Passage Of California Stem Cell Proposition Boosts Research

For the last decade and more, Stem Cell research and regenerative medicine have been the rave of the healthcare industry, a delicate area that has seen steady advancements over the last few years.

The promise of regenerative medicine is simple but profound that one day medical experts will be able to diagnose a problem, remove some of our body cells called stem cells and use them to grow a cure for our ailment. Using our body cells will create a highly personalized therapy attuned to our genes and systems.

The terminologies often used in this field of medicine can get a bit fuzzy for the uninitiated, so in this article, I have relied heavily on the insights of Christian Drapeau, a neurophysiologist and stem cell expert.

Drapeau was one of the first voices who discovered and began to speak about stem cells being the bodys repair system in the early 2000s. Since then, he has gone on to discover the first stem cell mobilizer, and his studies and research delivered the proof of concept that the AFA (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) extract was capable of enhancing repair from muscle injury.

Christian Drapeau is also the founder of Kalyagen, astem cell research-based company, and the manufacturers of Stemregen. This stem cell mobilizer combines some of the most effective stem cell mobilizers Drapeau has discovered to create an effective treatment for varying diseases.

How exactly do stem cell-based treatments work? And how is it delivering on its promise of boosting our abilities to regenerate or self-heal?

Drapeau explains the concept for us;

Stem cells are mother cells or blank cells produced by the bone marrow. As they are released from the bone marrow stem cells can travel to any organ and tissue of the body, where they can transform into cells of that tissue.Stem cells constitute the repair system of the body.

The discovery of this function has led scientists on a long journey to discover how to use stem cells to cure diseases, which are essentially caused by cellular loss. Diseases like Diabetes and age-related degenerative diseases are all associated with the loss of a type of cell or cellular function.

However, what Drapeaus research has unearthed over the last few decades is that there are naturally occurring substances that show a demonstrated ability to induce the release of stem cells from the bone marrow. These stem cells then enter the bloodstream, from where they can travel to sites of cell deficiency or injury in the body to aid healing and regeneration. This process is referred to as Endogenous Stem Cell Mobilization (ESCM).

Stemregen is our most potent creation so far, explains Drapeau, and it has shown excellent results with the treatment of problems in the endocrine system, muscles, kidneys, respiratory systems, and even with issues of erectile dysfunction.

Despite the stunning advancements that have been made so far, a concern that both Drapeau and I share is how this innovation can be merged with another exciting innovation; AI.

Is it even a possibility? Drapeau, an AI enthusiast, explains that AI has already been a life-saver in stem cell research and has even more potential.

On closer observation, there are a few areas in which AI has greatly benefited stem cell research and regenerative medicine.

One obstacle that scientists have consistently faced with delivering the full promise of regenerative medicine is the complexity of the available data.Cells are so different from each other that scientists can struggle with predicting what the cells will do in any given therapeutic scenario. Scientists are faced with millions of ways that medical therapy could go wrong.

Most AI experts believe that in almost any field, AI can provide a solution whenever there is a problem with data analysis and predictive analysis.

Carl Simon, a biologist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Nicholas Schaub recentlytested this hypothesiswhen they applied Deep Neural Networks (DNN), an AI program to the data they had collected in their experiments on eye cells. Their research revolved around causes and solutions for age-related eye degeneration. The results were stunning; the AI made only one incorrect prediction about cell changes out of 36 predictions it was asked to make.

Their program learned how to predict cell function in different scenarios and settings from annotated images of cells. It soon could rapidly analyze images of the lab-grown eye tissues to classify the tissues as good or bad. This discovery has raised optimism in the stem cell research space.

Drapeau explains why this is so exciting;

When we talk about stem cells in general, we say stem cells as if they were all one thing, but there are many different types of stem cells.For example, hair follicle and dental pulp stem cells contain neuronal markers and can easily transform into neurons to repair the brain. Furthermore, the tissue undergoing repair must signal to attract stem cells and must secrete compounds to stimulate stem cell function. A complex analysis of the tissue that needs repair and the conditions of that tissue using AI, in any specific individual, will help select the right type of stem cells and the best cells in that stem cell population, along with the accompanying treatment to optimize stem cell-based tissue repair.

Christian Drapeau

Ina study published in Februaryof this year inStem Cells, researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) reported that their AI system, called DeepACT, had successfully identified healthy, productive skin stem cells with the same accuracy that a human could. This discovery further strengthens Drapeaus argument on the potentials of AI in this field.

This experiment owes its success to AIs machine learning capabilities, but it is expected that Deep Learning can be beneficially introduced into regenerative medicine.There are many futuristic projections for these possibilities, but many of them are not as far-fetched as they may first seem.

Researchers believe that AI can help fast-track the translation of regenerative medicine into clinical practice; the technology can be used to predict cell behavior in different environments. Therefore, hypothetically, it can be used to simulate the human environment. This means that researchers can gain in-depth information more rapidly.

Perhaps the most daring expectation is the possibility of using AI to pioneer the 3D printing of organs. In a world where organ shortage is a harsh reality, this would certainly come in handy. AI algorithms can be utilized to identify the best materials for artificial organs, understand the anatomic challenges during treatment, and design the organ.

Can stem cells actually be used along with other biological materials to grow functional 3D-printed organs? If this is possible, then pacemakers will soon give way to 3D-printed hearts. A 3D-printedheart valvehas already become a reality in India, making this even more of an imminent possibility.

While all of these possibilities excite Drapeau, he is confident that AIs capabilities with data analysis and prediction, which is already largely in use, would go down as its most beneficial contribution to stem cell research;

It was already shown that stem cells laid on the connective tissue of the heart, the soft skeleton of the heart, can lead the entire formation of a new heart. Stem cells have this enormous regenerative potential. AI can take this to another level by helping establish the conditions in which this type of regeneration can be orchestrated inside the body.But we have to be grateful for what we already have, over the last 20 years, I have studied endogenous stem cell mobilization and today the fact that we have such amazing results with Stemregen is testament that regenerative medicine is already a success.

As AI continues to scale over industry boundaries, we can only sit back and hope it delivers on its full potential promise. Who knows? Perhaps AI really can change the world.

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Dr Pengyi Yang wins National Stem Cell Foundation Metcalf Prize – News – The University of Sydney

By daniellenierenberg

Dr Pengyi Yang uses computational expertise to build virtual cells.

DrPengyiYanghasreceived one of two annual $55,000 Metcalf Prizes from the National Stem Cell Foundation of Australia inrecognition of his leadership in the field.

DrYangholds a joint position with the University of SydneySchool of Mathematics & Statistics, theCharles Perkins Centreand theChildren's MedicalResearch Institute. His work aims toremove much of the guesswork from stemcell science and eventually stemcell medicine.

Todays stem cell treatmentshave beenthe product of trial anderror, DrYang said.

My virtual stem cell will allow us to understand whats happening inside a single stem cell that makes it decide what type of cell it will becomesuch as, but not limited to,hair, skin, muscle, nerveorbloodcells.

He is mapping the many, complex influencescontrollingstem cells andthe waythey specialise into different cell types.

Stem cells are amazing because they can produce any kind of cell in the body. Theyre fundamental toregenerative medicine,DrYang said.

But, when theircontrols fail,rogue stem cells can lead to cancer.

Allhumanlifestartsas a single stem cell. It goes on to produce cells that eventually become every type of tissue and organ of the human body. Even in adulthood, stem cellsrepairandreplacetissue all the time.

People are excited about the potential of stem cell medicine, but thereality is extremely complicated. Thousands of genes, complex gene networks, environmental factors, and an individuals own health are all involved in pushing stem cells to become specific cell types,DrYang said.

DrYang, a computerscientist turned stem cell researcher, uses computational science and statistics to understand how stem cells function at a fundamental level work that will be useful forthe entire stem cell field ofresearch.

We need a computermodel to bring all of these influences togetherso we can identify the specific gene networks that drive the stem cells towards each cell type,he said.

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SC21- 21st century cellular medicines specialists – The Thaiger

By daniellenierenberg

Sponsored Article

Although stem cells are known to work wonders, there is still a lot of misunderstanding about what they are, what they do, and how they work.

The good news is that StemCells21 can clear everything up for you. SC21 produces all of its cellular medications in-house, and all of its treatments are performed at its cutting-edge medical centre in Bangkok. Its a one-stop shop that adheres to high-quality standards.

This company will be on display at the Thailand International Boat Show, which will be hosted at Royal Phuket Marina from January 6 to 9 next year. Staff from StemCells21 will be on hand to walk you through the producers, pricing, and techniques.

StemCells21s laboratory is a full-scale culture & analysis laboratory specialising in the production & treatment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (StemCells21), and Natural Killer Cells (ImmuneCells21). It has also launched a new generation of regenerative medicine called Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC21), which hold great potential for impacting chronic diseases in the quest for anti-ageing.

The lab has seven scientists & stem cell researchers, a couple of who have worked with Professor Shinya Yamanaka, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2012 for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent (iPS cells).

Photo Via: Stemcells 21

Before StemCells21 was created, Managing Director Paul Collier and co-founder Sergei Dmitrievs experienced the power of stem cells either first hand or through the treatment of someone close to them. They knew that stem cells could deliver positive health results, and also knew stem cell treatmentsand the clinics that administered themhad room for improvement.

After deep laboratory investigation, they came to see that most clinics utilised relatively low-quality stem cells and incomplete treatments. While these clinics could deliver a certain level of positive results, they were only scratching the surface of the promise that stem cell treatments could deliver.

Furthermore, the clinics themselves frequently provided a less-than-ideal patient experience. Clinics were generally hectic, unprofessional, and unwelcoming. Patients were often administered a single treatment and sent on their way, unsure if they had experienced an efficacious treatment or if they had travelled and paid for nothing.

StemCells21 was created to offer superior results and give you a welcoming experience. It was set up to provide the global community with access to treatments that few people are aware of, and to offer health benefits that are superior to what most people ever imagined were possible.

The SC21 complex in Bangkok houses the StemCells21, ImmuneCells21, and IPS21 laboratories, as well as the premium 5* IntelliHealth+ (IH+) Clinic.

IntelliHealth+ is a state-of-the-art medical centre licensed by the Thai medical authorities. The luxurious design, efficient workflow layouts, and modern treatments make it the ideal choice for customers seeking a premium level of healthcare in 5* settings.

The centre treats patients from all over the world and has staff who speak fluent English, Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Thai and Spanish.

Furthermore, SC21s come from all corners of the globe for these cutting edge treatments. Many VIPs travel to the clinic including presidents, prime ministers, sports stars, football managers, bank owners and heads of major corporations, many of whom return every six to twelve months and have been doing so for years.

Recently, SC21 treated a ten-year-old British boy who had Ewing sarcoma develop in his arm, which then spread to other areas. He had tried every treatment option in the UK. His trip and treatment were sponsored by UK football teams and the public. Since he started treatment hes put on weight, hes vibrant, and his demeanour has totally changed. Various tests and scans have shown he is responding very well to the immunotherapy course and will perform another round in a few months time.

SC21 focuses on three main areas: anti-ageing and longevity; orthopaedic and muscular-skeletal issues (knee, hip, back & shoulder); and chronic diseases (diabetes, liver cirrhosis, lung, respiratory, hearing & vision disorders). Aside from that, the clinic can also help with chronic fatigue and burn-out syndrome.

Outpatient services for anti-ageing, immunotherapy and regenerative medicine are available at the centre. The anti-ageing clinic has a cutting-edge approach to skin rejuvenation, dermatology, detoxification, and wellbeing. A youthful appearance, more energy, improved mental capacity and mobility, reduced aches and pains, and a stronger immune system are among the benefits.

Photo Via: Stemcells 21

The high level of traditional medicine and the unique protocols designed by the IH+ teams give patients real therapeutic benefits and longevity.

According to Paul Collier, a client typically receives two sessions of stem cell injections during a treatment intravenous for systemic and local to the target and is required to stay in Bangkok for two days following their procedure to monitor any complications that may arise. Then theyre given a two-month take-home kit that comprises self-administered injections (similar to insulin) that target specific growth factors in organs or tissues that need to be repaired. These can also be taken orally, but they are less effective.

He goes on to say that stem cells are the foundation of the human body. They split over and over to produce humans from an embryo at the start of our lives. They restore cells in your blood, bone, skin, and organs throughout your life to keep you alive and functioning. Stem cells have two distinct properties that distinguish them from other types of cells in our bodies.

First, they can self-renew (mitosis), which is a stage of the cell cycle in which replicated chromosomes are divided into two new nuclei. As a result, identical duplicated cells are produced.

Secondly, they have the ability to differentiate into specialized cells such as cartilage, heart cells, liver cells, and neurons. No other cell in the body has the natural ability to generate new cell types.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are at the core of StemCells21s regenerative programs. They are multipotent stem cells derived from various adult and fetal tissues. A large number of studies have shown the beneficial effects of MSC-based therapies to treat different pathologies, including neurological disorders, cardiac ischemia, diabetes, and bone and cartilage diseases.

StemCells21 also has arthritis treatment, which reduces inflammation & joint pain, increases cartilage growth, improves mobility & joint stability and lessens dependence on medication. The clinics degenerative spine treatments help discs regenerate and stabilize the spine.

On top of that, it provides lung & liver disease treatment as well as treatments for autism, cerebral palsy, diabetes, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis and immune disorders.

Theres even eye treatment, which reduces blurred vision & field of vision defects, improves night vision & enhances colour texture.

Photo Via: Stemcells 21

SC21 can even help with certain types of cancer by taking a clients blood and growing their natural killer cells (immunotherapy) over a 21-day period. Through various stimuli, their cytotoxicity is increased which kills cancer and virally-affected cells.

Paul says stem cell therapy should be looked at before undergoing any kind of invasive surgery. The type of medicine should certainly be an intervention before surgery. If you are looking at knee replacement, why not consider an injection of a biologic that would only take a couple of days and has the potential to remodel the cartilage, because once you perform surgery there is no going back.

SC21 also produces a wide range of stem-cell extract-based cosmetics and nutritional supplements, which are available at their medical centres and online under the brand SC21 Biotech.

The Thailand International Boat Show will feature Paul Collier and his team. Theyll be able to answer any of your questions about the cost, procedure, and treatment. On top of that, they will also assist you in educating yourself and managing your expectations so that you do not expect more than stem cell therapy can provide. If you want to get treatment, they will also provide you with a complete report on all treatments. SC21 is fully compliant with international regulations and guidelines.

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What Are New Medical Solutions That Can Help Treat Patients? – iLounge

By daniellenierenberg

The biomedical field is constantly working to make new medical solutions that can help treat patients with various illnesses and conditions. Today, there are numerous medical solutions used today to help ease medical treatment for patients. These solutions include new medical devices, implants, software used to run medical equipment, and information technology systems.

The following are some of the most popular medical technologies that are used today:

Information technologies are another type of technology used today in medicine. For example, imaging systems let doctors examine patients like never before by allowing them to see inside a persons body without performing surgery first. One famous example of this type of medical solution is 3-D imaging software that uses pictures taken with an X-ray machine to give doctors a model to track health changes over time. Another example includes using information technology systems to control medical equipment or devices through smartphone computer programming or apps.

This type of technology allows doctors to use medical equipment with greater accuracy and helps make their work easier. For example, different types of imaging software help provide more transparent images for radiologists when they read X-rays and MRIs. This helps with making a diagnosis quicker. Thats why most hospitals would prefer to work with Wound Care, a web-based EHR tool. Such tools help record patient vitals and wound assessments to track each patients progress and provide better treatment.

These products can be used as medical solutions for people who want to check their health but dont want to visit a doctors office. Wearable health technologies include everything from smartwatches that measure heart rate and blood pressure functions to fitness trackers that help wearers monitor daily activity levels. Even Google has made its smart contact lenses that can track glucose levels for people with diabetes. However, these devices are designed specifically for individuals suffering from chronic diseases such as arthritis or Parkinsons disease in many cases.

Synthetic biology and genetic engineering tools are a technology used to treat illnesses or conditions that affect organs in the body. For example, if a patient has heart disease, they may need a new heart valve. In this case, doctors can use synthetic biology and genetic engineering tools to create a different kind of heart valve from those typically made from cow tissue. These valves have been tested on animals, and now researchers are testing them on humans as well.

Laboratory-grown organs are another medical solution used to help treat patients who need transplants for certain diseases or conditions that may have caused organ failure. A typical example is how stem cells taken from bone marrow can be turned into blood cells and then used to help treat patients with leukemia. Other types of laboratory-grown organs being tested in clinical trials today include partially functional livers and lungs grown from stem cells.

Medical equipment is another technology doctors can use when treating patients. For example, medical imaging devices like CT scanners and MRI machines help provide images of the bodys internal structures for diagnosis so doctors can see problems most other methods cannot detect. Another type of medical equipment includes surgical robots that can be moved by a computer program to perform surgery on a patient. This reduces the need for an incision since some procedures only require small openings or ones that heal very well without stitches or staples closing them up afterward.

Stem cells and stem cell therapies are a type of medical solution used to treat patients who have conditions that can be life-threatening or cause other severe complications. For example, patients with leukemia may need transplanted blood cells from healthy donors. In this case, doctors can use stem cells to develop those types of blood cells that will provide the best chance of curing the patients cancer without harming their body.

Other examples include using cord blood stem cells from newborns to make different kinds of healthy blood and immune system cells for older children and adults with certain diseases or using skin or other non-embryonic stem cells to make insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells for people diagnosed with diabetes Type 1.

Overall, biomedical technologies have been beneficial in making it easier for doctors to diagnose and treat their patients. Thanks to these technologies, many patients can live long, healthy lives with their illnesses or conditions under control. As technology continues advancing over time, even more, advanced solutions will come out, which should further help improve patient care. However, the use of new medical solutions must be approved by a doctor before being used on a patient.

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