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Ulta Beautys Love Your Skin Event Is Here | January 2021 – Allure

By daniellenierenberg

I'm not the biggest fan of New Year's resolutions, but I like to think that as we enter the top of January there is no better time to try something new. If you haven't thought about what that something might be maybe I can inspire you. I look at every year as an opportunity to test out new products, specifically skin care because I'm always looking for ways to maintain a clear complexion.

While this task can seem like an easy one, it can also be pricey. Lucky for us, Ulta Beauty is starting 2021 with a sale that's all about treating our skin meet the Love Your Skin Event.

The epic skin-care sale has started and runs through January 23. The best part is that Ulta Beauty is sharing all the deals for each day early and, folks, this sale is so good. Products from brands like Zitsticka, Clinique, Philosophy, and more will be up to 50 percent off on certain days of the month. To make it easy for you, we organized every deal by day. Here's what's on sale this week, plus a peek at the rest of the month. Happy shopping!

ZitSticka's Killa Kit is a one-way ticket to clear skin. The bundle includes four Killa Spot Clarifying Microdart Patches, which have niacinamide to fade darkness and salicylic acid to diminish the zit, and four Cleana Cleansing Swabs that are soaked salicylic acid that can be dabbed on a pimple to help shrink it.

For brighter skin, check out the Clinique Endless Glow Moisture Surge Set. It holds the entire collection that includes a Moisture Surge 72-Hour Auto-Replenishing Hydrator, a Moisture Surge Hydrating Supercharged Concentrate, a Moisture Surge Eye 96-Hour Hydro-Filler Concentrate, and a Moisture Surge Hydrating Lotion. All of which have hyaluronic acid to ensure your skin is never dry.

Loaded with hyaluronic acid and ceramides, the It Cosmetics Confidence in A Neck Cream Anti-Aging Moisturizer works to smooth out any fine lines. And to soothe dry lips, try Becca Cosmetics' Hydra-Light Smoothing Lip Scrub. Its formula has moisturizing mango butter and coconut oil and natural sugars to exfoliate any dryness or flakiness.

The Juice Beauty Stem Cellular Anti-Wrinkle Overnight Cream & Eye Treatment is made with primrose oil, which reduces dark circles, and vitamin C to hydrate the eye area. If you're more of a mask person, the Este Lauder Perfectly Clean Multi-Action Foam Cleanser and Purifying Mask may be for you. It's a two-in-one cleanser and mask that unclogs pores using salicylic acid. Either wash it off right away like a face wash or let it sit for three minutes like a mask to prevent and calm any acne.

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Global Organ and Tissue Transplantation and Alternatives Market to 2024 – Impact Analysis of COVID-19 – Yahoo Finance

By daniellenierenberg

Dublin, Jan. 06, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The "Organ and Tissue Transplantation and Alternatives" report has been added to's offering.

This report offers forecasts, by product segment, from 2018 through 2024, including supporting analyses for projections. Product segments covered consist of the solid organ (e.g., kidneys, liver, heart-lung, pancreas, intestines) and the tissue transplantation (e.g., bone, skin, cornea, heart valve) markets, along with the pharmaceuticals that accompany each market.

Also included are experimental xenografts and artificial organs; tissue transplants; and cell transplants (e.g., bone marrow, cord blood, peripheral blood, islet cell). The report touches on the use of fetal cells, stem cells, and altered cancer cells.

The arrangement of this report offers an overview of the key elements in the transplantation process: tissue typing, procurement and preservation, immunosuppressants for solid organ and tissue transplants, and postoperative monitoring. International markets are discussed, and information is provided on industry structure and the regulatory environment.

Within each section are discussions of commercialization opportunities for each segment of the market. New or emerging devices, techniques, and pharmaceuticals are highlighted.

Profiles of leading companies involved with solid organ transplantation, tissue transplantation, and alternative technologies are included. The report provides information on company placement within the market and strategic analyses of the companies' available and emerging products.

An appendix featuring various terms and processes used in transplantation is provided at the end of the report.

This report cites autologous products only in relation to their impact on the market for allografts. It does not include blood products, except for peripheral and umbilical cord blood as a source of stem cells.

By geography, the market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World regions. Detailed analysis of the market in major countries such as the U.S., Germany, the U.K., Italy, France, Spain, Japan, China, India, Brazil, Mexico, GCC countries, and South Africa will be covered in the regional segment. For market estimates, data will be provided for 2019 as the base year, with estimates for 2020 and forecast value for 2024.

Story continues

Report Includes:

26 data tables and 37 additional tables

An overview of the global organ and tissue transplantation and alternatives market

Estimation of the market size and analyses of market trends, with data from 2018 to 2019, estimates for 2020, and projection of CAGR through 2024

Details about organ and tissue transplantation and alternatives, their pathophysiology and effects, and major advancement and latest trends

A look at the regulatory scenarios and initiatives by a government organization

Analysis of current and future market dynamics and identification of key drivers, restraints, and opportunities such as increasing incidence of organ donations, improved awareness about organ donations, side effects of organ and tissue transplantation, and antibiotic resistance infections

Coverage of emerging procedures and products in development and discussion on the prevalence of major chronic diseases which initiates organ damage or donation

Discussion on the role of the organ procurement organization and information on transplantation process and preparation and coverage of issues like black market donors

Impact analysis of COVID-19 on organ and tissue transplantation and alternatives market

Market share analysis of the key companies of the industry and coverage of events like mergers & acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborations or partnerships, and other key market strategies

Company profiles of major players of the industry, including Abiomed Inc., Bayer AG, F. Hoffmann-La Roche & Co., Johnson & Johnson, Novartis AG, Pfizer Inc., and XVIVO Perfusion

Growth of the global market is attributed to factors such as the growing prevalence of obesity, diabetes, cancer, and other chronic diseases which leads to organ damage, a strong product regulatory scenario, and strong investment in research and development activities by key market players including Abbott Laboratories, Cryolife Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb, Novartis Ag, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Medtronic, Arthrex Inc., Depuy Synthes (Johnson & Johnson), and Allosource.

Although various factors facilitate the global market for organ and tissue transplantation and alternatives, certain parameters such as challenges in HLA sequencing and gaps in supply and demand can constrain market growth. For instance, although there is an increasing need for organ transplants, the shortage of organs worldwide limits the number of transplant procedures performed, and in turn, creates an impact on transplant diagnostics procedures. An increasing number of candidates on the waiting list for organ transplant procedures worldwide further widens this gap of availability and requirement of organs for transplant purposes.

Successful organ and tissue transplantation began to arrive in the mid-1970s when tissue typing coupled with the use of cyclosporine provided more successful graft and patient survival. Today, patient and graft survival for kidney transplants is higher than 90% for the first year post-transplant, and often the success rate is 80% to 90% for five years post-transplant, with some recipients living more than 20 years after their transplant.

Continuing developments in organ procurement, organ preservation, tissue typing, and immunosuppressant use have bolstered successful transplantation surgical techniques. Evolving posttransplant drug and testing regimens have added to the success rate with close post-transplant monitoring and immunosuppressant dosage review.

Key Topics Covered:

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Summary and Highlights

Chapter 3 Market and Technology Background

Organ and Tissue Transplantation and Alternatives

Cost of Care

Solid Organ Preservation


Organ Transplantation Alternatives

Trends in Organ and Tissue Transplantation Techniques and Their Alternatives

3D Tissue Assembly

Nanotechnology for Tissue Regeneration

Innovation by Small Firms

Chapter 4 Market Dynamics

Market Drivers

Increasing Epidemiology of Different Diseases Influencing Organ Transplantations

Rise in the Geriatric Population

Rising Awareness of Importance of Organ and Tissue Donation

New Therapeutic Pathways for Organ Transplantation and Their Alternatives

Market Restraints

Challenges in Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Sequencing

Demand and Supply Gap

Market Opportunities

Growing Economic Benefits of Organ and Tissue Transplants

Improvement in Healthcare Infrastructure

Chapter 5 Market Breakdown by Product & Devices

Global Market for Organ and Tissue Transplantation and Alternatives

Alternative Technologies

Market Size and Forecast

Alternatives to Heart Transplantation



Total Artificial Heart

Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs)

Generations of Designs

Orthopedic Alternatives

Tissue Products

Market Size and Forecast


Market Size and Forecast

Solid Organ Preservation Solutions

Market Size and Forecast

Preservation Solutions in Development

Tissue Typing

Market Size and Forecast

Chapter 6 Market Breakdown by Region

Global Market for Organ and Tissue Transplantation and Alternatives by Region

North America

United States









Rest of Europe





Australia and New Zealand

Rest of Asia-Pacific

Rest of the World

Market Analysis


South Africa

Rest of the World Countries

Chapter 7 Impact of COVID-19


Impact on Kidney Transplant Program

Impact on Pharmaceutical Companies

Donor Testing

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A celebrity dermat’s tips for new moms on how to deal with postpartum hair and skin issues – VOGUE India

By daniellenierenberg

Ah, pregnancy. That wild, magical time when youre growing new life and all that, but also experiencing crazy symptoms of bodily change daily. Today, a fire-breathing dragon might be sending shooting flames of heartburn up your oesophagus, while tomorrow, pigmentation-induced maps of lost lands might appear overnight on your body. Its a game of Russian roulette because you never know what youre going to get.

A womans skin and hair are two of the areas that undergo massive change, and just like with other pregnancy side effects, you cant predict which ones youll get. Women whove never suffered a zit in their life can suddenly sprout a crop of hormonal acne, or find their bright, taut complexion is now droopy and sallow, while others are plagued by melasma and other pigmentation issues. These problems may be cosmetic, but they can be as unsettling and debilitating for women as other medical side effects, at a time when their bodies and minds are going through profound changes.

Dr Lara Devgan, a celebrity plastic surgeon in New York, shares the most common skin and hair concerns she sees in pregnant women and shares her top tips to safely alleviate them, using a combination of products and in-clinic procedures. Devgan also has six children of her own and is no stranger to post-baby skin and hair issues herself, so this advice is definitely doctor-vetted.

Hyperpigmentation and melasma are the most common skin complaints during and after pregnancy. An even skin tone is a marker of beauty, so hyperpigmentation can be quite unsettling. Melasma is so life-altering that it is sometimes referred to as the mask of pregnancy. Hyperpigmentation is multifactorialdue to genetics, hormonal fluctuations, environmental exposures like sun and heat, stress, trauma, and other unknown phenomena. The best way to address hyperpigmentation is multifactorial as well: topical skincare products like Vitamin C and E are safe to use during pregnancy and breastfeeding. After that, Devgan suggests adding a retinol or bakuchiol serum and considering microinfusion, micro-needling, peels, and lasers for more aggressive treatment of hyperpigmentation.

Pregnancy can often be associated with dullness, dryness, and loss of skin elasticity and lustre. Devgan recommends a hyaluronic serum for increased skin hydration during pregnancy. Postpartum, she suggests laser resurfacing; Its an amazing technique for rejuvenation of the skin, offering a complete skin reset to improve lustre, texture, discolouration and fine lines. She recommends the Erbium laser for a thorough resurfacing of the skins surface; it also has a much lower risk of post-laser hyperpigmentation in Indian skin tones.

Getting wrinkles and pimples at the same time can seem like the worst of both worlds for pregnant and nursing women. The best way to address acne during pregnancy is spot treatment with benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid-based treatments. It is also important to think about daily routines and habits like cleansing the face, regularly changing pillowcases, and sterilising cell phone screens, says Devgan. Once nursing is complete, in-office treatments can also help. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) can be used to selectively target the bacteria that causes acne. Prescription oral medications may also help. Often, when hormones normalise after delivery, the skin also tends more toward its baseline homeostasis, says Devgan.

Hair loss is one of the most distressing things to happen in the postpartum period. Because of a rapid decrease in progesterone as well as fluctuations in oestrogen levels, the thick, beautiful hair of pregnancy begins to shed shortly after delivery. Hair loss is a complex and multifactorial issue, with many solutions, says Devgan. A supplement rich in biotin, folate, and vitamin B derivatives can help boost growth by restoring the deficient cellular building blocks needed for hair growth. Topical sprays and foams such as minoxidil (Rogaine) can also help the survivalof hair follicles. Devgan also frequently performs Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections into the scalp to help boost growth factors and stem cells needed for hair growth.

8 skincare rules you need to keep in mind during your pregnancy

All the skincare and wellness changes you need to make during pregnancy

Anushka Sharma on her experience of pregnancy: You are more connected to your body, to all that is happening

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FOREO UFO 2 Review: Is It Worth The Hype? – GLAMOUR UK

By daniellenierenberg

There's no better time than a national lockdown to test out the coolest new skincare/makeup/hair trends and snazzy innovations in beauty tech from the comfort of your own home. That said, there's nothing more frustrating than spending upwards of 100 on a snazzy new hair treatment or at-home facial system, only to find out it doesn't *actually* work.

Enter GLAMOUR Tries: the weekly Instagram series which sees GLAMOUR editors do all of the time-consuming (and expensive) work for you.

We've been busy trying out all of the (sometimes) wacky but always wonderful beauty crazes to take the internet by storm - from the hair pods seen backstage at Victoria Beckham during fashion week to Sarah Chapman's 138 Meso-Melt Infusion at-home facial and Ciate's nail stickers which promise an Instagram-ready manicure in minutes. These are the products that every veteran beauty sleuth is talking about - but that you want to do a bit of research into before buying.

Thanks to GLAMOUR Tries, you won't need to waste your hard-earned pennies on testing these innovations yourself. We're getting in their first, giving you the lowdown and making sure you invest in products that genuinely work. Like what you see? You can shop all of the products seen on GLAMOUR tries, with the click of a button, down below. Don't say we don't treat you.

This week, our Social Media Assistant Luca Wetherby-Matthews tried FOREO's UFO 2 LED Power Mask. Described as "the future of your weekly masking ritual", it's designed to supercharge your pampering sessions by offering you a range of treatments in one device to tackle your main skin concerns.

Condensing a 20-minute session into 90 seconds, it works in combination with the specially invented UFO-activated masks and each treatment incorporates a carefully chosen combination of temperature and pulsation intensity for maximum effect and soothing facial massage. It switches between thermotherapy (warm) to soften the skin to cryotherapy (cold) to lift and firm. That's the "Power Mask" part.

The light therapy part? The effects of the aforementioned treatments are boosted with a choice of eight light settings from antibacterial blue light to sunburn-soothing yellow LED. Of course, LED face masks are big news right now, thanks to their ability to reduce breakouts, pigmentation, rosacea symptoms, psoriasis and other side-effects of inflammation. If you don't suffer from the above complaints, LED light therapy can simply help to improve the appearance of your skin. It's a great time to invest.

Buy It Now: Cult Beauty Buy It Now: Foreo Buy It Now: John Lewis Buy It Now: LookFantastic

So, how did Luca get on? "It might seem a bit overwhelming, but something really impressive is that you can connect this to your FOREO app, and the app will guide you through your treatment based on the mask you use with it," Luca said. "It'll choose your LED settings and every other setting, doing all the hard work for you."

"My skin feels so good, and it was actually much more of a relaxing experience than I thought it was going to be. Just because it's such a quick treatment, I didn't know what to expect. But things like the cryotherapy just felt insane! So refreshing, really professional and the pulsations really relaxed my muscles. I love that you can just follow along on the app, which is so intuitive."

Buy It Now: Cult Beauty Buy It Now: Foreo Buy It Now: John Lewis Buy It Now: LookFantastic

Let us know your thoughts and check out our full review over on Instagram @glamouruk now.

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The Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Therapy Market to be synonymous to vertical growth between 2018 and 2026 – LionLowdown

By daniellenierenberg

Stem cells are biological cells which have the ability to distinguish into specialized cells, which are capable of cell division through mitosis. Amniotic fluid stem cells are a collective mixture of stem cells obtained from amniotic tissues and fluid. Amniotic fluid is clear, slightly yellowish liquid which surrounds the fetus during pregnancy and is discarded as medical waste during caesarean section deliveries. Amniotic fluid is a source of valuable biological material which includes stem cells which can be potentially used in cell therapy and regenerative therapies. Amniotic fluid stem cells can be developed into a different type of tissues such as cartilage, skin, cardiac nerves, bone, and muscles. Amniotic fluid stem cells are able to find the damaged joint caused by rheumatoid arthritis and differentiate tissues which are damaged. Medical conditions where no drug is able to lessen the symptoms and begin the healing process are the major target for amniotic fluid stem cell therapy. Amniotic fluid stem cells therapy is a solution to those patients who do not want to undergo surgery. Amniotic fluid has a high concentration of stem cells, cytokines, proteins and other important components. Amniotic fluid stem cell therapy is safe and effective treatment which contain growth factor helps to stimulate tissue growth, naturally reduce inflammation. Amniotic fluid also contains hyaluronic acid which acts as a lubricant and promotes cartilage growth.

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With increasing technological advancement in the healthcare, amniotic fluid stem cell therapy has more advantage over the other therapy. Amniotic fluid stem cell therapy eliminates the chances of surgery and organs are regenerated, without causing any damage. These are some of the factors driving the growth of amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market over the forecast period. Increasing prevalence of chronic diseases which can be treated with the amniotic fluid stem cell therapy propel the market growth for amniotic fluid stem cell therapy, globally. Increasing funding by the government in research and development of stem cell therapy may drive the amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market growth. But, high procedure cost, difficulties in collecting the amniotic fluid and lack of reimbursement policies hinder the growth of amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market.

The global amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market is segmented on basis of treatment, application, end user and geography:

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Rapid technological advancement in healthcare, and favorable results of the amniotic fluid stem cells therapy will increase the market for amniotic fluid stem cell therapy over the forecast period. Increasing public-private investment for stem cells in managing disease and improving healthcare infrastructure are expected to propel the growth of the amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market.

However, on the basis of geography, global Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Therapy Market is segmented into six key regionsviz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific Excluding China, China and Middle East & Africa. North America captured the largest shares in global Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Therapy Market and is projected to continue over the forecast period owing to technological advancement in the healthcare and growing awareness among the population towards the new research and development in the stem cell therapy. Europe is expected to account for the second largest revenue share in the amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market. The Asia Pacific is anticipated to have rapid growth in near future owing to increasing healthcare set up and improving healthcare expenditure. Latin America and the Middle East and Africa account for slow growth in the market of amniotic fluid stem cell therapy due to lack of medical facilities and technical knowledge.

Some of the key players operating in global amniotic fluid stem cell therapy market are Stem Shot, Provia Laboratories LLC, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. Mesoblast Ltd., Roslin Cells, Regeneus Ltd. etc. among others.

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2021: What are the best self-care products to buy in the new year? – The Jerusalem Post

By daniellenierenberg

Start the new year with a sweet treat, warm up your feet and dont forget to look glamorous even if all you do is stay home. Heres to 2021! We have high hopes for you...Lierac Paris's anti-aging premium La Cure Absolute. (Photo credit: Courtesy)28 DAYS TO NEW SKINRelatively new in Israel, the French cosmetic brand Lierac Paris launches its flagship product the anti-aging premium La Cure Absolute, a serum that really makes a difference. According to the company, this is a scientific breakthrough developed in their labs together with Harvard University after 25 years of research. The product has seven different registered patents inspired by anti-aging research and based on micro-emulsions and GDF 11 technology. The new technology promotes cell renewal of up to 50%. The rehabilitation is quick 28 days and the results are quite dramatic. We have been using the serum for a week and already see the difference. The product is especially effective in treating tired-looking skin and deep lines, giving skin a shot of energy and also treating pigmentation. Use morning and evening before your hydrating cream. NIS 599, available in clinics and beauty centers. For more information go to youth potion. (Photo credit: Courtesy)ALL THAT GLAMOpen the year looking more glamorous than ever with Hollywoods most glamorous brand, GlamGlow. Their latest launch is the Youthpotion Rejuvenating Peptide Serum, which promises to add glamour to your look from the first application. Thanks to raspberry stem-cells, hyaluronic acid and red seaweed, this light serum will add a youthful glow to your face and make you feel more glamorous, even if all you wear these days is pyjamas. The texture is light and serum absorbs quickly. Use morning and evening with hydrating cream. NIS 349, available in Superpharm, Mashbir, Be and April stores.

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2021: What are the best self-care products to buy in the new year? - The Jerusalem Post

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The Complete Guide to Laser Treatments for Hair and Skin | The Science of Beauty Podcast | Allure – Allure

By daniellenierenberg

More than 25 years ago, it was a patient with a port-wine stain who inspired Alster to learn more about the then-fledgling world of lasers. Alster accepted a fellowship in Boston, where her patient traveled to receive treatments. So in essence, I changed her life because I significantly lightened the birthmark to the point where she didn't need to cover it, says Alster. And she changed my life because I wouldn't have looked into lasers if it wasn't for her... I ended up opening up my own center in Washington, D.C. in 1990. And at that time it was the only freestanding laser center in the world.

Lasers and Scars

Lasers can treat many types of scars, including surgical scars, acne scars, and scars from injuries. They penetrate the epidermis to stimulate new, healthy skin cell growth. The most common lasers used in scar removal are ablative fractional carbon dioxide lasers, Nd:YAG, nonablative fractional lasers, and pulsed dye lasers.

Lasers and Hair Removal

Laser hair removal is a medical procedure that uses a concentrated beam of light to remove unwanted hair. The laser emits a light that is absorbed by the pigment (melanin) in the hair. The light energy is converted to heat, which then damages the hair follicles that produce hairs. This damage inhibits or delays future hair growth. With repeated treatments, laser hair removal can permanently reduce unwanted hair. While all hairs dont fall out immediately, they will shed within days to weeks of treatment.

But lasers arent only used for hair reduction. Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is a relatively new treatment that uses low-power lasers to stimulate hair growth. Its hypothesized that LLLT stimulates stem cells in the hair follicle and shifts the follicles in the anagen (growth) stage of the hair cycle.

How is LED different from lasers?

Commonly confused with lasers, light-emitting diodes (LED) can reduce fine lines, increase collagen production, and smooth skin by using varying color wavelengths of visible LED light. Lasers, on the other hand, often use a single wavelength, and the beam is ideal for stimulating changes that only respond to very specific wavelengths (hair removal, dark spot removal, etc.).

Can you combine lasers with other in-office treatments in the same session?

Short answer: Yes! Depending on the laser you and your dermatologist choose, you can get filler or Botox in the same treatment. Some experts will specifically recommend injectables with Fraxel within the same appointment since its considered safe and delivers a rather dramatic final result. Alster often combines non-ablative laser treatments with microneedling to amplify the effects.

Can you be too young for lasers?

When deciding whether or not to try a laser, your age shouldnt be a major deciding factor. It's more of a matter of the problem you want to fix, not how old you are. Many young people have rosacea, acne, sun spots, and sun damage all of which are treatable with lasers. Still, less-intensive therapies, such as chemical peels, are likely enough to repair young, relatively healthy skin (and are often less expensive).

Is it safe to laser your skin at home?

There are various options for at-home laser treatments that you can use safely. Typically, at-home devices have significantly lower power than those used in a medical setting, in order to reduce risks. Many lasers for wrinkles or acne are simply LED light products, like the Dr. Dennis Gross Skincare DRx SpectraLite mask. There are, however, a few at-home non-ablative fractional lasers available, like the Tria SmoothBeauty Laser.

Michelles Current Favorites

While everyones skin is different and your personal dermatologist knows whats best for you Michelle says she slathered her face with Aquaphor following a Fraxel treatment. You really do need to keep your skin moist [afterward], she says. And then it's all about sunscreen, sunscreen, sunscreen. Right now, Michelle is into Dr. Loretta Urban Antioxidant Sunscreen SPF 40, which has a slight tint.

Jennys Current Favorites

Like Michelle, Jenny used Aquaphor after getting Fraxel. She also used CeraVe Moisturizing Cream post-treatment to help speed up healing. And in order to cover up the sandpaper-like texture and small, dark dots that often arise after getting Fraxel, Jenny used Oxygenetix Oxygenating Foundation. A lot of dermatologists and plastic surgeons recommend it for people to use this when they're healing, she says. It's thicker than what I would normally use for foundation, but it gave a really seamless finish [and] got me through that week or two after [treatment].

Like many in-office treatments, lasers often come with some downtime. But good things come to those who wait: Lasers can have a huge impact on the look and health of your skin.

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The big scientific breakthroughs of 2020 – The Week

By daniellenierenberg

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Vaccines at warp speed

Only one breakthrough truly mattered this year: the creation of a COVID-19 shot. The previous record for the fastest vaccine development, for mumps, was four years. But on Dec. 8 11 months after research began a 90-year-old British grandmother became the first person in the world to receive Pfizer's new COVID vaccine outside of a clinical study. Like Moderna's new shot, which was approved in the U.S. last week, the two-dose vaccine is about 95 percent effective and uses an entirely new type of technology. In traditional vaccines, a patient is injected with dead viral material, which triggers the body to produce antibodies. Pfizer's and Moderna's shot use a synthetic version of coronavirus genetic material that leads human cells to produce copies of the virus' outer spike proteins. Those proteins spark an immune defense. Pfizer and Moderna together hope to deliver enough doses for 20 million people by Dec. 31. "The light at the end of the tunnel is getting a little brighter," says infectious-disease expert Dr. William Schaffner.

Solving a protein puzzle

An artificial intelligence program appears to have solved one of the biggest mysteries in biology. The "protein-folding problem" is important because most biological processes such as how insulin controls blood-sugar levels or how antibodies fight coronaviruses are driven by proteins. How the strings of amino acids that make up a protein twist and fold into a 3D shape determines its function. Trying to establish how proteins get their origami-like structure can take years of lab work. But AlphaFold, an artificial intelligence program developed by the Google-owned DeepMind lab, can do it in a matter of hours with a remarkable level of accuracy. Bioinformatics professor Janet Thornton says protein-folding was "a problem that I was beginning to think would not get solved in my lifetime."

Building living 'bots

American scientists have created the world's first living robots. The millimeter-wide "xenobots" were formed by scraping live stem cells from frog embryos and leaving them to incubate. The resulting skin and heart cells were then reshaped and combined into "body forms" designed by a supercomputer to complete certain tasks walking, for example, or swimming. The pulsing heart cells serve as a miniature engine that powers xenobots until their energy reserves run out after about 10 days at present. Study co-leader Michael Levin says these "living, programmable organisms" might one day carry out tasks such as removing plaque from artery walls.

Signs of life on Venus?

Scientists have found hints that life might exist on Venus a notoriously inhospitable planet where surface temperatures hit 860 degrees Fahrenheit. Using powerful telescopes, researchers detected traces of the gas phosphine in the Venusian atmosphere. On Earth, that gas is produced by human industry and by microbial organisms that live in oxygen-free environments. Phosphine is quick to react and disappear, so something must be replenishing its supply on Venus. Researchers say it's not implausible that single-celled life might survive in the Venusian atmosphere, floating in a region where liquid water exists. Study co-author Sara Seager says the only way to confirm this theory is by "actually going to Venus."

This article was first published in the latest issue of The Week magazine. If you want to read more like it, you can try six risk-free issues of the magazine here.

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Nociceptive neurons shown to boost hematopoiesis | 2020-12-28 – BioWorld Online

By daniellenierenberg

A U.S. study has shown for the first time that enhancing signals from the nociceptive nervous system could provide new approaches to improve the collection of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for treating cancers of the blood and bone marrow, the authors reported in the December 23, 2020, edition of Nature.

The findings may help cancer treatments, as "in a meaningful fraction of leukemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma patients, particularly those who have received anticancer treatment, the HSC mobilization yield can be insufficient," said study leader Paul Frenette.

"Therefore, more efficient HSC mobilization methods would allow the harvest of sufficient HSCs for life-saving transplantation," said Frenette, a professor and director of the Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York.

HSCs characteristically migrate to different hematopoietic sites during embryonic development and continue to be released from the adult bone marrow.

Most hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow, where different types of blood cells are derived from limited numbers of HSCs, which are multipotent and capable of extensive renewal.

The HSC migratory properties have facilitated their collection from the blood and transplantation as regenerative cancer treatment, although the mechanisms by which HSCs migrate out of the bone marrow remain largely unknown.

In tissues exposed to the external environment, such as the skin, lung and gut, nociceptors enable the rapid detection of external insults, including pain, cold or heat, in order to avoid organ damage.

Nociceptor sensory neurons detect these harmful stimuli and can regulate the immune response to them by releasing neurotransmitters and other regulatory molecules.

However, other than for pain perception, the role of nociceptors in a deep tissue, such as the bone marrow, is poorly understood.

In bone marrow, HSCs are found in specialized microenvironments or niches, which are complex regulatory environments influenced by multiple cellular constituents, including nerves.

Although sympathetic nerves are known to regulate the HSC niche, the role of nociceptive neurons in the bone marrow in this regard remains unclear.

"We have previously shown that nerves from the sympathetic nervous system promoted HSC mobilization in bone marrow, so we were curious to see whether nociceptive neurons might also be involved," Frenette told BioWorld Science.

In their new Nature study, the Frenette and his team showed that nociceptive neurons are required for HSC mobilization and that they interact with sympathetic nerves to maintain HSCs in the bone marrow.

Notably, nociceptor neurons were demonstrated to drive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced HSC mobilization via secretion of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP).

"Our findings may lead to more efficient mobilization methods in [blood and bone marrow cancer] patients in whom existing methods are insufficient," Frenette said.

For example, "we have shown that the CGRP pathway synergizes with G-CSF and plerixafor [(Mozobil, Genzyme), an immunostimulant used to mobilize HSCs into the bloodstream in cancer patients]." Unlike sympathetic nerves, which regulate HSCs indirectly via the bone marrow niche, CGRP was shown to act directly on HSCs via receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) and the calcitonin receptor-like receptor to promote HSC egress via Galphas/adenyl cyclase/cAMP signaling pathway activation.

This research identifies potential treatment targets for boosting HSC mobilization, since "we have shown that increasing the downstream signaling of the CGRP receptor RAMP1, by increasing cyclic AMP can enhance HSC mobilization," said Frenette.

Importantly, the Einstein researchers then showed that ingestion of food containing capsaicin, a natural component of chili peppers that can trigger the activation of nociceptive neurons, significantly enhanced HSC mobilization in mice.

"Capsaicin tablets are currently sold over-the-counter to 'help support cardiovascular and digestive function' at higher doses than that predicted by our studies in mice for stimulating HSC mobilization in humans," said Frenette.

"These relatively low concentrations of capsaicin have biological effects without seemingly causing obvious pain," he said.

Collectively, these findings therefore suggest that targeting the nociceptive nervous system could represent a novel strategy by which to improve the yield of HSCs for stem cell-based therapies. (Gao, X. et al. Nature 2020, Advanced publication).

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Getting to the root of why hair goes gray – messenger-inquirer

By daniellenierenberg

Marco Kaltofen was 11 when he noticed his first white hairs. As his hair grew whiter, his middle-school friends started calling him the professor. By his mid-30s, it was completely white, as it had been for three of his grandparents. His parents went white in their 40s, so I had no chance of avoiding this, Kaltofen says.

Now 61, he is a civil engineer who lives in Boston. He wears his white hair in a ponytail. White hair is part of my identity, and I am completely at peace with it, he says.

Then there is Joe Rees, 75, a retired customs attache who lives in Washington. He is balding, but the hair that remains on the sides and in the back is the same dark brown it always has been. He jokingly attributes this to clean living and a pure heart, although, like Kaltofen, it probably is genetic. His mothers black hair didnt start to go gray until she was in her 70s, and was 50/50 when she died at 88, he says.

Still, Id rather be gray than bald, he says. That way, I wouldnt have to worry about wearing a hat all the time.

To be sure, Rees and Kaltofen are exceptions, since most people start graying in their 50s and 60s. Nevertheless, their experiences are among the many mysteries of gray, white or silver-looking hair that scientists are exploring to learn more about aging. They want to know why some people turn gray early and others late or not at all and what this might signal about their health. They also want to understand the factors that hasten graying, and even whether gray hair is reversible which could be a boon to those allergic to hair dye, or who hate spending money to keep the gray away.

Most important, studying gray hair could point to new approaches in promoting healthier aging, says Candace Kerr, health scientist administrator in the National Institute on Agings Division of Aging Biology.

While graying is one of the markers of aging aging is the ultimate risk factor for why hair goes gray it highlights the need for better understanding of the mechanisms that drive aging and age-related diseases, she says. To be able to target these pathways will be critically important for our aging population to live longer and happier lives.

Hair that looks gray, white or silver actually is colorless. Hair color comes from melanin, a pigment produced by cells in the hair follicles. Over time, these cells suffer damage and become depleted, losing their ability to make melanin. This results in new hair without pigment meaning, no color.

People use gray, white and silver interchangeably to describe hair that is turning or has turned. Its appearance whether it looks, gray, white or silver depends on how much natural color, or pigment, remains, experts say. Hair that has lost all its color typically appears white.

Studies have identified a number of factors that also may speed up gray hair, including smoking, diet, stress and genetics.

Our hair color depends on a set of specialized stem cells called melanocyte stem cells, and every time a new hair grows, these melanocyte stem cells have to divide in two and make a new melanocyte, [or] pigment cells, explains Melissa Harris, assistant professor of biology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. These pigment cells stay in the base of your hair and their job is to produce pigment. These melanocytes reach out skinny arms, called dendritic processes, that shuttle the pigment to the hair shaft as it grows. So if all your melanocyte stem cells disappear, so do your melanocytes and so does your hair pigment. Thus gray hair.

Because stem cells directly influence hair color, studying gray hair can provide insights about why stem cells age and ultimately fail, offering important clues about the workings of other stem cells in the body for example, those found in muscles, bones and organs. In turn, these ultimately could point to whether gray hair could be a marker for disease, or the opposite, a longer life. Previous studies have not shown a relationship between life span and gray hair, including whether late onset of gray hair predicts longevity. Some research, however, indicates that gray or white hair can be a sign of early heart disease, regardless of age.

In some people, gray hair could potentially serve as indication of their health for instance when caused by stress, or a signal for those who may be developing cardiovascular disease, Kerr says. We still need to learn more about whether and, if so, how late onset of gray hair can signal better health and longevity in some people under certain circumstances, as well as whether early graying means stem cells might be aging.

There are many different stem cells in our body which may or may not age by different means, she says. How stem cells mark aging overall and how they could interact to promote aging is an important question.

This is why scientists who study gray hair regard it as a valuable research tool.

As gray hair researchers, we often have to defend why we study a cosmetic characteristic, rather than a life-threatening disease, Harris says. But what is very cool about gray hair from a scientific point of view is that we can see it with our own eyes, meaning we dont have to take invasive biopsies, and it doesnt kill you. We have asked a lot of important and interesting questions about stem cells by studying gray hair in mice. And, we are constantly on the lookout for gray-haired mice so we can use our scientific skills to find out what makes them gray.

A 2018 mouse study by Team Hair-Us (Harris nickname for her lab colleagues) found a connection between MITF (microphthalmia), a transcription factor (a protein involved in gene expression) important in managing pigment production, and the innate immune system, suggesting that some peoples hair may turn gray in response to serious illness or chronic stress. They discovered a relationship between genes involved in hair color and those that trigger an immune response to a viral infection, suggesting this interaction could increase the chances of developing gray hair.

MITF, in a sense, shields melanocyte stem cells from our own immune system, she says. Normally our immune system protects our bodies from infection. But for melanocyte stem cells, too much immune response is bad for their health, and this leads to their loss and to gray hair. Why melanocyte stem cells are so sensitive to our own natural means for protection, we still dont know.

Im very curious to see whether we see an uptick in individuals with gray hair due to coronavirus infection, she says. Unfortunately, we probably wont know because gray hair is rarely documented clinically, unless it is very extreme.

Scientists still dont know why some people turn gray early, late, or not at all, although they suspect genes, nutrients and possibly the immune system play a role in depleting melanocyte stem cells.

There is still much to learn about what regulates these stem cells and what may contribute to their loss, says Ya-Chieh Hsu, associate professor of stem cell and regenerative biology at Harvard University and principal faculty member of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute.

Among other things, Hsu studies the effect of stress on graying. Most of us are familiar with those before-and-after photographs of U.S. presidents most recently Barack Obama showing a striking increase in gray hair during their terms, even in relatively young presidents. Its known as the Marie Antoinette Syndrome, after the 18th-century French queen whose hair allegedly turned white overnight before she went to the guillotine and her death at age 38 during the French Revolution.

With the aging process, we gradually lose melanocyte stem cells one-by-one over a very long period of time, Hsu says. What we found in our research was that the stress can accelerate that process.

Hsu and her colleagues found that stress stimulates the same nerves that trigger the fight-or-flight response, which in turn causes permanent damage to the pigment-producing cells in hair follicles. The fight or flight response is thought to be a good thing in stressful situations because it can drive us and other organisms to respond to danger rapidly, Hsu says. This activation causes a spike in the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Norepinephrine raises our heartbeat and allows us to react quickly to danger without having to think about it.

But norepinephrine also tells melanocyte stem cells to pump up their activity and proliferate, and too much norepinephrine, in this case triggered by stress, causes the melanocyte stem cells to burst into so much activity it leads to rapid depletion of the stem cell reservoir, she says. If all the stem cells are depleted, no more pigment-producing cells can be produced anymore, and the hair turns gray.

Other stress hormones, ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) for example, can cause melanocyte stem cells to migrate away from the hair follicle before they can produce the melanocytes needed for hair and skin color, according to research. Such hormones are known to increase in the body after stress, and may have the potential to promote the loss of these cells, regardless of age, says study author Mayumi Ito, associate professor in the departments of cell biology and dermatology at the New York University Grossman School of Medicine.

Hsu believes the connection between stress and hair color could reveal additional information about how stress affects other biological processes. How stress affects our tissues is still poorly understood, and one of the powerful aspects about the melanocyte is that it provides a visible and highly trackable system to study stress, she says.

Ito also found that certain cell signaling proteins called endothelins (substances known to constrict blood vessels and raise blood pressure) bind to melanocyte stem cells and, in doing so, keep them healthy. Interrupting the process causes cell loss and early graying in mice. They are studying whether the same happens in human hair follicles, hoping to find ways to preserve or regenerate the key stem cells that give hair its color.

All of this raises the intriguing possibility that scientists could discover ways to prevent or reverse gray hair.

Team Hair-Us recently published a paper describing a topical drug combination that increased melanocyte stem cells in gray mice, ridding them of their gray and restoring their original fur color perhaps for good. Because the treatment originally developed to regrow hair replenished pigment-producing stem cells, the effects could be long-lasting, Harris says.

We didnt keep the mice forever so we dont know, says Harris, who plans more studies. This has made us very interested in whether gray hair really is permanent, and if we can do something about it. We really want to know and so does everyone else we talk to is whether and when we can bring this to humans.

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What causes chafing rash? Remedies, treatment, and prevention – Medical News Today

By daniellenierenberg

Chafing occurs when the skin rubs against something, such as clothing, for a prolonged period. The friction can cause a painful rash that typically resolves when the chafing stops.

A person can experience chafing on any part of the body that encounters friction. The resulting rash is often minor, but there are some possible complications.

In this article, we look at what causes chafing rash and how to treat it. We also look at how a person can prevent chafing from occurring.

A chafing rash occurs anywhere on the body where the skin is rubbing against clothing or other skin.

Mild chafing rashes tend not to be too painful, but more serious rashes could bleed, crust, or blister. Chafing can occur anywhere where there is friction, but some areas of the body are more prone to chafing than others.

Areas where chafing is most likely to happen are generally moist or generate friction. They include the:

The direct cause of chafing is the skin is rubbing against something for a prolonged period. This could happen, for instance, when someone is walking and their inner thighs are rubbing together.

Chafing is more likely to occur in particular areas of the body, and it tends to happen during physical activity, such as running.

Others causes of chafing include:

Additionally, an infant or toddler wearing a diaper may experience chafing due to the added moisture and movement in the area.

Learn more about the types of diaper rash here.

Chafing causes a burning or stinging rash to occur where the skin is rubbing against something. The rash will not spread to other areas.

Possible complications of chafing rashes include:

Bacteria could enter through the broken or damaged skin around a chafing rash and cause an infection. For that reason, a person should make sure that they take care of the rash and keep it clean. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) list several symptoms of a skin infection, which include:

Chafing rashes will typically clear up within a few days if a person stops the activity causing the chafing or takes action to prevent further chafing.

Excessive moisture and skin friction may lead to skin breakdown. Patting the skin dry to remove excess moisture may prevent complications of chafing rash.

A person may also wish to consider applying shea butter lotion to the rash. A 2012 study found that shea butter has anti-inflammatory properties, which could make it a good option for people who want to soothe a chafing rash with cream.

For pain, a person can try applying aloe vera to the skin, as it may soothe sore skin and help prevent infections.

People have also traditionally used a range of other plant oils, including olive oil and coconut oil, to treat skin-related issues. Further research is necessary to confirm the benefits of each of these oils.

Unless the skin becomes infected, doctors do not have a standard way of treating chafing rash. A person should avoid the activity that caused the chafing. If they cannot avoid the activity, they should take steps to prevent further chafing from occurring.

If a person needs treatment, a doctor may prescribe or recommend a corticosteroid cream or ointment to help reduce the inflammation resulting from the rash.

It is not always possible to prevent chafing from occurring, but a person can take certain steps to reduce the risk.

According to the American Academy of Dermatology Association, these steps include:

Other steps a person can take to help prevent chafing include:

Additionally, the findings of an older study suggest that a person can apply petroleum jelly to the skin to minimize friction and prevent chafing rash.

If a person develops a rash that spreads, it is likely not a chafing rash. A person should consider seeing their doctor if the rash does not go away within a few days of home treatment.

A person should also talk to their doctor if they suspect that their rash has become infected. A doctor can examine the rash and determine whether additional treatment is necessary.

A chafing rash is often a mild rash that occurs when skin rubs against clothing or other areas of skin. Many cases are mild and will go away when a person stops the activity causing the chafing.

A possible complication of chafing rash is a skin infection. A person should speak with their doctor if the rash is severe or they think that it has become infected.

At-home treatments for chafing rash include aloe vera and other soothing ointments. A person can take preventive steps to reduce the risk of a rash forming, such as wearing moisture-wicking clothing and applying petroleum jelly to areas prone to chafing.

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Rash on black skin: Pictures, symptoms, and treatments – Medical News Today

By daniellenierenberg

Rashes can appear differently on different skin tones. For example, a heat rash on darker skin may look like a series of gray or white spots, while many medical sources describe them as red.

It is crucial for medical professionals to understand how health issues can present on the full range of skin tones. A lack of this understanding can lead to misdiagnoses.

It is generally advisable to contact a doctor about any rash that lasts longer than a week. The Skin of Color Society offer a database of dermatologists in the United States who have experience treating conditions in people of color.

In this article, we explore what rashes can look like on skin of color. We also describe the symptoms and treatments of specific issues.

The appearance of a rash varies with skin tone. On skin of color, a rash may be purple, gray, or white while medical texts often simply describe these rashes as red. Some redness may appear, but typically not very much.

This is due to melanin, a molecule that gives the skin and hair their color. Generally, the more melanin a person has in their skin, the darker their skin tone. It affects how the skin reacts to sunlight, damage, and health conditions that cause rashes.

Some doctors are unaware of how skin conditions present on darker skin. A 2018 study of four major medical textbooks found that darker skin tones were underrepresented in the imagery.

The studys authors report that while, at the time, 20.4% of the U.S. population was Black, only 4.5% of the photographs in the textbooks showed people with dark skin. They suggest that this is likely an example of racial bias in the healthcare system.

Below, we explore how various health issues can appear in skin of color.

Heat rash, sweat rash, and prickly heat are all common names for miliaria, a skin condition that occurs when the skins sweat ducts become blocked.

The symptoms of heat rash include:

On darker skin, the blisters may be gray or white.

This rash often occurs due to heat and humidity, but intense exercise, nonbreathable clothing, and medical dressings can also cause it. The condition typically improves within 12 days.

Cooling down, wearing more breathable clothing, and changing or, if recommended, removing dressings can help.

Eczema causes patches of dry, itchy skin, and the affected area may also be flaky or scaly. If the skin is very dry, it may crack or bleed.

In darker skin tones, patches of eczema may be red, pink, magenta, or darker than surrounding skin.

Eczema is also more likely to form in specific ways in people of color. For example, there is a higher chance that the rash may be papular, characterized by a series of small bumps like goosebumps.

There are several types of eczema, including:

This occurs when the skin comes into contact with an irritant, such as poison ivy, nickel, or fragrance. The skin may itch, sting, burn, or blister.

People with certain jobs have a higher risk of contact dermatitis. These jobs may involve regular contact with chemicals, food, or water. People with a higher risk may include:

Avoiding contact with the trigger, such as a specific chemical, is the best approach. A dermatologist can also describe products that can help and perform skin allergy testing to identify the trigger.

Atopic dermatitis is eczema with no clear cause. The condition often begins in childhood and may not last into adulthood. In the U.S., it appears to be more common among African Americans, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders than other groups.

There is no cure for atopic dermatitis, but there are ways of alleviating and preventing the rash from forming.

This typically involves using a non-irritating moisturizer regularly, after bathing or showering. It is also important to avoid fragranced products, food allergens, and irritating fabrics, such as wool. In addition, a person may need a topical corticosteroid, which a doctor can recommend or prescribe.

Learn more about eczema on black skin and its treatments.

Psoriasis is a long-term inflammatory condition that causes thickened patches of skin. On skin of color, these patches may be red or violet and have a top layer of silver or gray scales.

In the U.S., psoriasis is more common in white people than Black people. However, in Black people, it may be more likely to cover larger areas of the body.

Psoriasis can affect the nails as well as the skin, and a significant portion of people with psoriasis also have arthritis.

There is no cure, but it is possible to manage the symptoms. Among the range of options are:

Learn more about psoriasis on black skin and its treatments.

Lichen planus causes a series of bumps to form on the skin. Each bump is shiny, raised, and has a flat top. On skin of color, these bumps may be gray-brown or purple.

The most commonly affected areas are the back, neck, lower legs, ankles, and the insides of the wrists. In 20% of cases, lichen planus causes no symptoms beyond the bumps, but in others, it causes intense itching.

Lichen planus can last for months or years, and there is no known cure. Treatments that can relieve the symptoms include:

Learn more about the causes and treatments of lichen planus.

Vitiligo is a condition that causes patches of skin to lose its color, or become depigmented. If the condition affects areas with hair, the hair may turn white, too.

The condition occurs when the immune system attacks melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin. Scientists are not sure why this happens, but they believe that it could stem from an autoimmune response.

Areas commonly affected by vitiligo include:

Vitiligo can affect anyone, but it is more noticeable in people with darker skin. People with vitiligo are more likely to have a family history of autoimmune disorders.

The depigmentation often stops or slows over time. Treatments focus on reducing the spread of depigmentation and restoring color to the skin. This may include the use of medicated creams or light therapy.

Shingles is caused by the same virus as chickenpox. Anyone who has had chickenpox can develop shingles later on. One symptom that most people with shingles develop is a rash of small blisters.

The symptoms of shingles are:

Some people also experience a fever, headaches, muscle aches, stomach pain, or nausea and vomiting.

On highly pigmented skin, a shingles rash may be red, the same color as the skin, or slightly darker. The scabs may be grey.

While the rash often heals within 24 weeks, it is important for anyone with shingles symptoms to see a doctor for treatment within 23 days. This is because shingles can cause long-term complications.

The doctor can prescribe antiviral medication, which can reduce the risk of complications and shorten the healing time.

Ringworm is a fungal infection of the skin. It often causes a round or ring-shaped rash with a raised border, though the rash may be shaped differently on certain areas, such as the feet or hands.

On darker skin, the ringworm rash is often gray or brown.

Ringworm is contagious, so it is important to seek treatment right away and avoid touching the rash, even if it is itchy.

Other names for this infection include:

Treatment may involve antifungal cream or, if the rash covers a large area, oral medication.

The best approach to treatment at home depends on the cause of the rash. But there are some general strategies for preventing further irritation, such as:

It is also important to protect the skin from sun damage with a product that contains SPF 30 or higher. UV light can also worsen skin irritation for people with certain conditions.

In some cases, a rash signals a medical emergency. Seek urgent medical attention if a rash:

Anyone who may have shingles or ringworm should see a doctor promptly to prevent transmission. For shingles, a person should wait no more than 23 days.

Otherwise, it is generally a good idea to contact a doctor if any rash lasts longer than a week.

The Skin of Color Society provide a database of dermatologists in the U.S. who have experience treating conditions in people of color.

In skin of color, a rash may be red, brown, purple, or gray.

Some doctors may misdiagnose skin issues in people of color due to a lack of awareness. Skin of color is often underrepresented in medical texts.

A dermatologist who understands how rashes present in the full range of skin tones is best prepared to provide the right treatment.

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Everything You’ve Ever Wanted to Know About Body Hair – Allure

By daniellenierenberg

As for your lips, we dont grow hair there because our lips are made up of a different type of cell, as theyre considered to be an extension of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, says Mariwalla.

If having hair is so crucial to the function of our bodies, why have we been removing it for hundreds of years? Well, we have no one to blame but ourselves. We have, through communication with one another, established a globalized practice of removing hair to make women especially look very smooth and have baby-like skin; and for men to retain their body hair, says Jablonski. We tend to think, Oh, these signals are very ancient. These practices are very ancient. They're not. This is a pretty recent obsession. Jablonski estimates the practice of body hair removal started about only 500 years ago.

While modern societal standards of what femininity and masculinity are still very much linked to hairiness or lack of hairiness, weve begun to see a shift in the acceptance and normalization of body hair, thanks in part to social media, which has even helped us celebrate body hair for the first time. (Remember #freeyourpits?)

It's really wonderful when people examine those social norms and say, hold on, who started this? This is a bunch of nonsense, says Jablonski. And they realize, Hey, I can be a beautiful person inside and out without following these practices. It is tremendously liberating.

That sense of celebration seems to be more prevalent than ever before, as were living through a pandemic, which has put physical interactions between people on pause. Because of this, many of the performances we put on for others, like body hair removal, have become one-woman shows, with one-woman audiences.

So then you realize, in your heart of hearts, this is a waste of time, says Jablonski. Why should I take this time to do this thing that is socially acceptable and allows me to cleave towards a social norm? I'm doing just fine. People feel a lot of freedom now.

Of course, if you do choose to remove your body hair and thats fine too! depending on the location of the hair, there are a number of methods that will get the job done, says Mariwalla.


For starters, theres shaving, the act of removing hair with a razor. When you shave the hair on your body (typically on the legs, underarms, and face), youre removing hair from above the top layer of skin, says Mariwalla. She recommends shaving with a cream or gel to keep the skin hydrated. The process of shaving is almost like exfoliating that top layer of skin, she says. So, it's like a two for one.


Tweezing, on the other hand, pulls the hair directly from the follicle. When you think about a hair follicle, it's like the little house that your hair lives in, explains Mariwalla. Any time you pull a hair from a follicle, it's always going to grow back. But its going to take longer than when you only remove it from above the skin.

Waxing and Sugaring

Waxing and sugaring use the same mechanism as tweezing but with warm substances (i.e. wax and sugar) that sit on top of the skin and around the hair to coax it out of the follicle. Its a process that is trying to warm the skin, so that the hair follicle opens up a little bit and the wax solidifies around the hair, says Mariwalla. When you remove the wax you basically rip the hair out of the follicle as you're doing it.

Depilatory Cream

There are also depilatory creams. Instead of grabbing onto the hair and pulling it, you're putting on a chemical that's dissolving the hair at the root, explains Mariwalla. So then you basically then just wipe it away.

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2020 in Neuroscience, Longevity, and AIand What’s to Come – Singularity Hub

By daniellenierenberg

Covid-19 sucked most of the oxygen out of science this year. But we still had brilliant wins.

The pandemic couldnt bring rockets or humans down: multiple missions blasted off to the red planet in the summer of Mars. Two astronauts launched to the International Space Stationand made it safely backin a game-changer for commercial space travel. NASA released dozens of findings on how space travel changes our bodies, paving the way to keep us healthy in orbitor one day, on Mars and beyond.

Back on Earth, scientists scoured mud ponds and fished out a teeny-tiny CRISPR enzyme that packs a massive punch for genome editing. AI and neuroscience became even more entwinedsometimes literally. Biological neurons got hooked up to two silicon-based artificial neurons, across multiple countries, into a fully-functional biohybrid neural network. Others tapped dopaminethe main messenger for the brains reward systemto unite electricity and chemical computing into a semi-living computer. While still largely a curiosity, these studies take brain-inspired computers to another level by seamlessly incorporating living neurons into AI hardware. Now imagine similar circuits inside the brainNeuralink sure is.

More abstractly, biological and artificial brains further fed into each other in our understandingand craftingof intelligence. This year, scientists found mini-computers in the input tree-like branches of neurons. Like entire neural networks, these cables were capable of performing complex logical calculations, suggesting our brain cells are far brainier than we previously thoughtsomething AI can learn from. On the flip side, a hotshot algorithm inspired by the brain called reinforcement learning pushed neuroscientists to re-examine how we respond to feedback as we learn. AI also helped build the most dynamic brain atlas to date, a living map that can continuously incorporate new data and capture individual differences.

As we leave 2020 behind, two main themes percolate in my mind, not just for what theyve accomplished, but as indicators of what lies ahead. These are the trends Ill be keeping my eyes on in the coming year.

Why we age is extremely complex. So are methods that try to prevent age-related diseases, or slow the aging process itself. This nth-dimensional complexity almost dictates that longevity research needs to self-segregate into lanes.

Take probing the biological mechanisms that drive aging. For example, our cells energy factory spews out bullet-like molecules that damage the cell. The genome becomes unstable. Cells turn zombie-like. Working stem cells vanish. Tissue regeneration suffers. Scientists often spend entire careers understanding one facet of a single hallmark of aging, or hunting for age-related genes. The lucky ones come up with ways to combat that one foefor example, senolytics, a family of drugs that wipe out zombie cells to protect against age-related diseases.

But aging hallmarks dont rear their heads in isolation. They work together. An increasing trend is to unveil the how of their interactions workcrosstalk, in science-speakwith hopes of multiple birds with one stone.

This year, longevity researchers crossed lanes.

One study, for example, took a stem cell playbook to rejuvenate eyesight in aged mice with vision loss. They focused on a prominent aging hallmark: epigenetics. Our DNA is dotted with thousands of chemical marks. As we age, these marks accumulate. Using gene therapy, the team introduced three superstar genes into the eyes of aged mice to revert those marks and reprogram cells to a younger state. Youve probably heard of those genes: theyre three of the four factors used to revert adult skin cells into a stem-cell-like state, or iPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells). Resetting the epigenetic clock was so powerful it improved visual acuity in old mice, and the team has now licensed the tech to Life Biosciences in Boston to further develop for humans.

Another study combined three main puzzle pieces in agingzombie cells, inflammation, and malfunctioning mitochondriainto a full picture, with the surprise ending that senolytics has multiple anti-aging powers in cells. Talk about killing two birds with one stone. Finally, one team (which I was a part of) combined two promising approaches for brain rejuvenationexercise and young bloodto begin pushing the limits of reigniting faltering memory and cognition due to aging.

Longevity research has long been fragmented, but its starting to coalesce into a multidisciplinary field. These crossovers are just the start of a rising trajectory to combat the multi-headed Hydra thats aging. More will come.

If youre looking for a sign that AI is leaving the digital realm of Atari games and heading into the real world, this year was it.

In biotech, theres no doubt of AIs promise in drug discovery or medical diagnoses. In late 2019, a team used deep learning and generative modelssimilar to AlphaGo, the DeepMind algorithm that trounced humans at Go and wiped the Atari libraryto conjure over 30,000 new drug molecules, a feat chemists could only dream of. This year, the viral hurricane thats Covid-19 further unleashed AI-based drug discovery, such as screening existing drugs for candidates that may work against the virus, or newlydesigned chemicals to fight off SARS-CoV-2 infectionthe virus that causes Covid-19.

For now, we dont yet have an AI-designed drug on the market, an ultimate test for the technologys promise. However, although AI wasnt able to make a splash in our current pandemic battle, the scene is set for tackling the next oneand drug discovery as a whole.

In contrast, AI-based medical diagnosis had a resounding win. This year, the FDA approved a software that uses AI to provide real-time guidance for ultrasound imaging for the heart, essentially allowing those without specialized training to perform the test. The approval brings a total of 29 FDA-approved AI-based medical technologies to date. Even as the debate on trust, ethics, and responsibility for AI doctors cranked up in temperature, the Pandoras box has been opened.

Medicine aside, deep learning further honed its craft in a variety of fields. The neuroscience-AI marriage is one for the ages with no signs of fracture. Outside the brain, AI also gave synthetic biology a leg up by parsing the interactions between genes and genetic networksa mind-bending, enormously complex problem previously only achieved through trial and error. With help from AI, synthetic biologists can predict how changes to one gene in a cell could affect others, and in turn, the cells biochemistry and behavior. Bottom line: it makes designing new biological circuits, such as getting yeast to pump out green fuels or artificially hoppy beer, much easier.

But the coup de grce against AI as an overhyped technology is DeepMinds decimation of a 50-year-long challenge in biology. With a performance that shocked experts, DeepMinds AlphaFold was able to predict a proteins 3D structure from its amino acid sequencethe individual components of a proteinmatching the current gold standard. As the workhorses of our bodies, proteins dictate life. AlphaFold, in a sense, solved a huge chunk of the biology of life, with implications for both drug discovery and synthetic biology.

One more scientific brilliance this year is the use of light in neuroscience and tissue engineering. One study, for example, used lasers to directly print a human ear-like structure under the skin of mice, without a single surgical cut. Another used light to incept smell in mice, artificially programming an entirely new, never-seen-in-nature perception of a scent directly into their brains. Yet another study combined lasers with virtual reality to dissect how our brains process space and navigation, mentally transporting a mouse to a virtual location linked to a reward. To cap it off, scientists found a new way to use light to control the brain through the skull without surgerythough as of now, youll still need gene therapy. Given the implications of unauthorized mind control, thats probably less of a bug and more of a feature.

Were nearing the frustratingly slow, but sure, dying gasp of Covid-19. The pandemic defined 2020, but science kept hustling along. I cant wait to share what might come in the next year with youmay it be revolutionary, potentially terrifying, utterly bizarre* or oddly heart-warming.

* For example, Why wild giant pandas frequently roll in horse manure. Yes thats the actual title of a study. Yes, its a great read. And yes, its hilarious but has a point.

Image Credit: Greyson Joralemon on Unsplash

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Hair loss, body odor, irregular periods: Covid-19 isolation does weird things to our bodies –

By daniellenierenberg

I am seeing tons of hair loss, Mona Gohara says.

Patients come to Gohara, a dermatologist and professor at the Yale School of Medicine, for all kinds of reasons from skin cancer screenings to cosmetic procedures. But this year more than ever, theyre worried about their hair.

Its not a coincidence. Stress like, say, that brought on by living through a deadly pandemic is known to cause hair loss. Ordinarily, 90 percent of the hairs on our head are in the growing cycle; 10 percent are in the shedding cycle, Gohara explained. But when were subject to some type of physiologic or emotional stress, that cycle shifts to where the shed outweighs the grow. The result: people notice a massive, massive shed.

And those stray hairs are part of a bigger trend. At this point, millions of Americans have spent nine months living through a public health nightmare and an unprecedented economic crisis at the same time. They have also had to cope with all this while avoiding gatherings, limiting physical contact, and, when possible, staying inside their homes. Put together, the isolation and anxiety of life in 2020 have brought with them numerous side effects. For one, they might be doing weird things to our bodies.

If youve noticed your menstrual cycle is more irregular this year, for example, youre not alone: More patients are reporting irregular periods since the pandemic began, Mary Jane Minkin, an OB-GYN who teaches at the Yale School of Medicine, told Vox. The likely culprit, as with hair loss, is the anxiety of living in such a difficult and uncertain time. When stressors come into play, Minkin said, we end up with screwy periods.

If youve spotted more gray hairs on Zoom calls, there may be a pandemic-related explanation for that too. And according to some, life in lockdown may even be changing peoples body odor.

Those are just some of the smaller effects. Some experts are also concerned because isolation has documented effects on health, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and even death. Humans are considered a social species, Julianne Holt-Lunstad, a professor of psychology and neuroscience at Brigham Young University who studies the impact of social relationships on health, told Vox. When we lack proximity to others, and particularly trusted others, this creates a heightened state of alert or stress which, over time, can have harmful effects on our bodies.

To be clear, none of this is an argument for getting rid of pandemic-related restrictions after all, the effects of Covid-19 on the body can be far more severe than the effects of isolation.

But the rise of pandemic periods, weird smells, and other bodily indignities are a reminder that Americans are going through something right now that most of us have never experienced before. And that takes its toll in a lot of ways some of them stranger than others.

Lets talk about periods first. Trend pieces about menstrual changes either irregularity or worsened symptoms like cramps began popping up in the spring. A couple of weeks into the stay-at-home order in Washington State, where I live, I woke up in the middle of the night with the worst cramps Ive ever had, Colleen Stinchcombe wrote at Self in May.

And while its likely too soon for any published research on the impact of the pandemic on menstruation, Minkin isnt the only one to see increased reports of irregularity among her patients. Its common for us to see patients with changes in their menstrual cycle, but anecdotally, it seems like its been happening more over the last six months, Beth Schwartz, an OB-GYN at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia, told the Washington Post in August.

These changes arent necessarily surprising, Minkin told Vox. Most people think that the ovaries and the uterus regulate periods, she said. But actually, the boss is sitting in our brain.

Specifically, its the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland that control the ovaries, regulating their hormone production, which in turn regulates the menstrual cycle. Its our nice, regular hormonal activity from the hypothalamus and the pituitary which stimulate the ovaries to do their thing appropriately and get us nice, regular periods, Minkin said.

And when were under stress, that can disrupt the functioning of the hypothalamus and pituitary, leading to irregularity. Researchers have noticed a similar effect among young people who go away to college and often experience irregular periods as they adjust to a new environment and a new set of worries and pressures.

The good news, Minkin said, is having an irregular period generally isnt dangerous. When her patients report irregularity, shell typically test their thyroid function and levels of certain hormones to rule out conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome, but as long as everythings normal, no treatment is needed. If the irregularity is especially bothersome, people can take hormonal contraception to regulate their periods, Minkin said. Once we get through things and peoples lives get back toward normal, most folks are probably going to regulate themselves just fine.

But irregular periods arent the only strange symptom people are reporting after months of reduced contact with others. Another is body odor some say theyve started to smell worse, or just different, since the pandemic began.

I am a man who prides himself on smelling fresh and fancy free at all times, Joseph Lamour wrote at Mic in July. But during the pandemic summer, he became so limburger-esque that my own odor woke me up in the middle of the night.

As with periods, theres not yet published research on changes in body odor during the pandemic. But anecdotal reports of the issue have gotten back to Julie Horvath, head of the Genomics and Microbiology Research Lab at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences and a professor at North Carolina Central University. An expert in primate genetics who expanded into studying microbes and odor (I never thought I would be the armpit researcher, she says), Horvath explains that a big factor in the way we smell is our skin microbiome, or the mix of bacteria, fungi, and viruses that live on our skin.

When youre in your home, youre now coming into contact more with maybe your pets and your family, who you didnt see as many hours a day, she told Vox. This means were exchanging microbes with a different group of people (and animals) than usual, which could affect our smell. Spending more time indoors can also affect the microbiome, as can wearing different types of clothes synthetic fabrics can host different kinds of microbes than cotton, for example. And a lot of people have changed their style (if you can call it that anymore) during the pandemic. When I talk to people, maybe theyre wearing a nice shirt, but now they have jeans or sweatpants on, Horvath said.

Stress can also affect the microbiome, Horvath said. A specific set of glands, the apocrine glands, release sweat when youre nervous. That sweat contains different compounds from sweat that comes from the ecrine glands, which get to work when youre too hot. And if your apocrine glands found in the armpit and a few other places on the body are highly active, then they are providing a different food source to some of those microbes there, and maybe youre promoting the growth of some that smell different than what they wouldve before, Horvath said.

But the microbiome doesnt just affect the way we smell. Beneficial bacteria on our skin create a protective barrier, Horvath explained. If you have these good, beneficial microorganisms that are on your skin, eating oil or sweat and living there happily, theyre taking up residence, she said. Then, if something lands on your skin that can make you sick a staph bacterium, for example then it cant take hold very quickly, because your beneficial organisms are going to outcompete it for resources.

Washing your hands with soap and water just washes away the lop layer of microbes, potentially allowing some of the good ones to stick around. But hand sanitizer kills the microorganisms on your skin, the good along with the bad, Horvath said. Thus, using too much hand sanitizer during the pandemic could leave us more vulnerable to staph, acne, or other infections down the road.

Airborne spread of the coronavirus in close contact is the main danger in the pandemic, but we still need to wash our hands, too. Horvath recommends using soap and water when possible to help maintain a healthy microbiome. Beyond that, habits like eating a healthy diet could be good for your microbial balance, though they may or may not help you smell better. Spending time outside if you can is also a good idea, Horvath said. Certain organisms that are outside in the soil are actually beneficial for your overall body.

Beyond weird smells and irregular periods, the isolation of this year has brought with it other physical changes for many. In addition to hair loss, a proliferation of gray hair is a common complaint one that can also likely be pinned on stress, as Deanna Pai reports at Medium. While the mechanism by which stress causes graying isnt fully understood, one recent study in mice found that stress led to the death of stem cells that produce melanocytes, the cells in hair follicles that produce pigment.

Gray hair isnt reversible (except with dye), Pai points out, but managing stress as much as anyone can during a pandemic can help slow the process.

Stress could also be making our skin look worse, Gohara, the dermatologist, said. It causes an increase in the hormone cortisol, which wreaks cosmetic havoc on your skin and can lead to anything from dryness to puffy eyes, she explained. Everything just looks worse with a surge in cortisol.

An increase in stress can also lead to more acne, something also exacerbated by the friction of wearing a mask (hence the 2020 neologism maskne, or breakouts on the lower part of the face linked to mask-wearing). Luckily, unlike gray hair, much of this is reversible you can combat maskne by washing masks in the same gentle cleanser you use for your face, Gohara said, and using a product with salicylic acid or benzoyl peroxide. For hair loss, meanwhile, she sometimes prescribes supplements, but also reassures patients that when it comes to shedding, eventually the cycle is going to re-equilibrate itself and your hair will be back on track.

While things like hair loss are typically harmless, if annoying, the way we live in 2020 could be causing more serious issues too.

Researchers have long known that isolation the condition of having little or no contact with other people and loneliness the subjective feeling of being alone, regardless of how much contact with people one has can be harmful, Holt-Lunstad, the psychologist, said. For example, in one 2015 analysis, she and her coauthors found that isolation was associated with a 29 percent increased likelihood of mortality, while loneliness was associated with a 26 percent increase.

There are a couple of ways that loneliness can potentially hurt our health. For one, friends and loved ones can influence us to take better care of ourselves having someone who encourages you to get to bed, or eat fruits and vegetables, or quit smoking, is good for our health, Holt-Lunstad said.

But many studies actually control for lifestyle factors like smoking and diet, and still find that loneliness and isolation have a negative effect. One reason, some researchers believe, is that our brains have adapted to expect proximity to others, and particularly trusted others, Holt-Lunstad said. When they arent around, the brain signals other parts of the body to go into a heightened state of alert. That can lead to changes in heart rate and blood pressure that could increase our risk of cardiovascular disease. But it could also lead to systemic inflammation in the body, which in turn has been linked to a host of mental and physical problems, Holt-Lunstad said, from Alzheimers disease to, troublingly, increased susceptibility to viruses.

These impacts are especially concerning because some early research has found high rates of loneliness and isolation during the pandemic. In an August survey, for example, two-thirds of adults reported social isolation, and more than 7 in 10 said the pandemic had made it harder to connect with friends.

Luckily, there are ways to reduce isolation, even during a time of social distancing. In a study this summer sponsored by the neighborhood-focused social network Nextdoor, Holt-Lunstad and her colleagues found that performing small acts of kindness for neighbors, such as bringing them groceries or checking in on them over the phone, was associated with a significant drop in loneliness 1 in 10 participants felt lonely at the beginning of the study, while just 1 in 20 felt the same at the end.

But it cant all be on individuals to fix their isolation during this very lonely time. Instead, Holt-Lunstad has advocated for policymakers to pay more attention to peoples social needs throughout the pandemic and recovery, including increased funding to help students and older people, who may be especially vulnerable to loneliness right now. And while funding for anything remains a fraught subject in Congress, Holt-Lunstad writes at Health Affairs that decisions should be based on scientific evidence of benefits and drawbacks to our well-being, not solely on economic costs and convenience.

Some of the smaller effects of pandemic living may dissipate naturally when this time in our lives is over. When it comes to issues like irregular periods, for example, the biggest takeaway is dont panic, Minkin says. We will get back to normal.

But for other, larger problems, like isolation and its serious effects on the body, the pandemic could be a wake-up call. My hope is now that we have all experienced, in some degree or another, this feeling of isolation and loneliness, that there may be greater awareness and less stigma, Holt-Lunstad said.

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In April, Vox launched a way for readers to support our work with financial contributions and we've been blown away by the response. This year, support from our founding contributors has helped us create projects that millions relied on to understand a year of chaos, and to keep their families safe. Support from our readers helps us rely less on advertising, and keep our resource-intensive work free for everyone who needs it. We want to add 2,020 more founding contributors to our supporter base by the end of the year. Help us reach our goal by making a contribution to Vox today, from as little as $3.

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Scientists have restored youth to aging eyes in mice – Massive Science

By daniellenierenberg

Following the harassment of Christian Cooper in Central Park in May 2020, Black birders created #BlackBirdersWeek to celebrate Black nature enthusiasts and highlight their belonging in outdoor spaces. Since then, dozens of campaigns have emerged to amplify and appreciate Black academics, scientists, and naturalists.

Next up is #BlackInMarineScienceWeek, running from November 29th to December 5th.Led by founder Dr. Tiara Moore and organizers Amani Webber-Schultz, Dr. Camille Gaynus, Carlee Jackson, Al Troutman, Jasmin Graham, Jeanette Davis, Kris Howard, Leslie Townsell, Kaylee Arnold, and Jaida Elcock, this week represents an opportunity for community building and improved representation.

There are few Black folks in ecology and even fewer in marine ecology, says Arnold, a science communicator and disease ecologist. The network that Ive gained through organizing this week is phenomenal. Meeting other Black marine scientists and showing that to the world, especially young Black folks, is a way to say we exist, were here. We have a full day dedicated to young kids, which is unique and exciting.

The organizers hope that the week will help normalize Black folks doing marine research, inspire younger generations, and remind everyone to check their preconceived notions.

"When I say I study sharks people seem concerned about my swimming or my hair, [and] sometimes respond with 'Oh, thats super interesting'... I dont know if that's because it's unusual for people to study sharks or because Im Black and I study sharks, recalls Elcock, an elasmobranch movement ecologist, science communicator, and co-founder of Minorities in Shark Science. Science is for everybody. People say there isn't diversity because [Black] people arent interested... thats clearly not true theres a whole week dedicated [to it]."

Discussion this week will address the fact that exclusion, not lack of interest, led to todays lack of representation. Centuries of segregation and underinvestment in Black neighborhood pools led to, and are perpetuated by, these incorrect and harmful ideas.

My grandparents and my mom said there were just no pools for her to go to... I had a very different experience. Despite people trying to push us out of the water and science, we persevered, and now we get to break down those stereotypes, notes Arnold.

Black in Marine Science Week is here to do just that, showcasing organizers and participants from every imaginable marine science niche, all shaping how society views the oceans and its inhabitants.

There's more Black folks than even we know and are showcasing. I hope that if the media picks up on the number of us as well, and has better representation. Seminar series are extremely white, and now you have a resource of people you can invite instead, emphasizes Arnold, pointing to the necessity of non-Black marine scientists to step up and ensure representation continues beyond this joyous and educational week.

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The Adrenomyeloneuropathy Treatment Market to grow on an emphatic note from 2019 to 2029 –

By daniellenierenberg

Adrenomyeloneuropathy is a rare genetic neuro-degenerative disease. Adrenomyeloneuropathy is the adult onset of adrenoleukodystrophy caused by the mutation in ABCD1 gene occurs usually in young boys. Adrenomyeloneuropathy disease affect the nerve cells in the spine and brain and the adrenal glands. Adrenomyeloneuropathy symptoms includes stiffness, weakness and pain in the legs. Adrenomyeloneuropathy is also known as progressive spastic paraparesis. Damage to the nerves of the legs which causes unsteadiness and fall, also the bladder, bowel and sexual organs are affected by the adrenomyeloneuropathy. Rare diseases affect vast numbers of people, with current data representing 30 million sufferers in the EU alone and 30 million affected in the US. There is no cure to Adrenomyeloneuropathy. However some treatment might stop the progression of Adrenomyeloneuropathy such as stem cell transplants. Blood testing, MRI test, vision screening and Skin biopsy and fibroblast cell culture are done for the diagnosis for the adrenomyeloneuropathy. Continued advances in the treatment of adrenomyeloneuropathy will further propel the adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market.

Growing cases of rare disease and development of new and advanced treatment for rare disease is expected to boost the adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market. Growing preference for healthy lifestyle and favorable government regulation spur the Adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market in the forecast period. Development of new technology and devices for the diagnosis of genetic disorders will propel the adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market. Rising focus on the research and development of new therapeutic and drug treatment and growing government funding for the orphan drug is expected to drive the adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market.

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However, stringent regulations for the drug development and high cost of associated with the treatment is expected to hinder the adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market.

The global adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market is segmented on basis of disease type, drug type and end user and geography.

Development of novel drugs and undergoing clinical trial for the rare disease is expected to boost adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market. More than 3,000 drugs are in active development for one of the rare disease. Progress in genomics and biomedical science for the development of rare disease drug is expected to spur the adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market. Various pharmaceutical companies are focusing on developing drug for the low prevalence disease types and rising funding and collaboration among the key players and government is expected to spur the adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market.

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The North America market for adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment is expected to retain its dominance, owing to increasing patient pool for rare disease, increasing government funding to accelerate the research and development for rare disease. According to Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center, more than 25 million Americans are suffering from rare disease in United States.Europe is expected to account for the second largest share in the global adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market owing to growing clinical trial funding programs for orphan drug development and high prevalence of adrenomyeloneuropathy and high treatment seeking rate. Asia Pacific is expected to show significant growth, owing to increasing diagnosis rate and improvement in healthcare infrastructure. China is expected to show significant growth in the adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market, due to rising population improving R&D capability, increasing per capita heath spending. Latin America and Middle East & Africa is expected to show growth owing to lack of diagnosis and inadequate healthcare facilities and lack of skilled physicians for Adrenomyeloneuropathy Treatment market.

Examples of some of the key manufacturer present in the global adrenomyeloneuropathy treatment market are Ascend Biopharmaceuticals, Novadip Biosciences, Eureka Therapeutics, Human Longevity, Regeneus, Allogene Therapeutics, BioRestorative Therapies, Immatics Biotechnologies, NewLink Genetics, Cytori Therapeutics, Talaris Therapeutics among others.

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To support companies in overcoming complex business challenges, we follow a multi-disciplinary approach. At PMR, we unite various data streams from multi-dimensional sources. By deploying real-time data collection, big data, and customer experience analytics, we deliver business intelligence for organizations of all sizes.

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At 14.6% CAGR, Cell Banking Outsourcing Market 2020 Industry Analysis of Current Trends and Opportun –

By daniellenierenberg

Pune, Maharashtra, India, December 18 2020 (Wiredrelease) Brandessence Market Research and Consulting Pvt ltd :Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market is valued at USD 7122.6 Million in 2019 and expected to reach USD 18489.6 Million by 2026 with the CAGR of 14.6% over the forecast period.

Rising prevalence of cancer and infectious chronic disorders couples with growing demand for research and development in therapy viral cell banking and viral cell banking safety testing are expected to propel the growth of the Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market.

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Scope of Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market Report

The cell banking outsourcing is an ability that stores cells of specific genome for the purpose of future use in a product or medicinal needs to use of gene therapy, stem cell therapy, biopharmaceutical production that target on novel active sites. They are frequently containing expansive amounts of base cell material that can be utilized for various projects. The cell banking outsourcing can be used to generate detailed characterizations of cell lines and can also help mitigate cross-contamination of a cell line. Hence, the cell banking outsourcing is commonly used within fields including stem cell research and pharmaceuticals with cryopreservation being the traditional method of keeping cellular material intact. However, the cell banking is most generally used in stem cell research and therapy. The similar types of cell banking include master cell banks and working cell banks. Although, the master cell banks are expanded to form working cell banks consist of pure cells from are replicated whereas working cell banks consist of thawed cells that are replicated in cell culture.

Additionally, it is a process of replicating and storing cells for the purpose of future use. This storage of these cell samples can be utilized for research purposes and for surgical reconstruction of damaged body structures. However, the bank storage in cell banking encompasses preservation of both master and working cell banking, and their respective safety testing. The cell banking outsourcing expected to witness lucrative growth over the forecast period owing to the presence of increased research in cell line development coupled with the presence of market players providing outsourcing services for cell banking and cell line storage to different hospitals and clinical research organizations.

Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market report is segmented on the basis of type, application, and by regional & country level. Based on type, global cell banking outsourcing market is classified as the master cell banking, viral cell banking and working cell banking. Based upon application, global cell banking outsourcing is classified into bank storage, working cell bank storage, master cell bank storage cell storage stability testing, bank preparation, bank characterization & testing and others.

The regions covered in this cell banking outsourcing market report are North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. On the basis of country level, market of cell banking outsourcing is sub divided into U.S., Mexico, Canada, U.K., France, Germany, Italy, China, Japan, India, South East Asia, GCC, Africa, etc.

Cell Banking Outsourcing Manufacturers:

Some major key players for Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market are,

BioReliance Covance Global Stem Inc BSL Disservice Clean cells Charles River Laboratories Lonza Toxikon Corporation Cryobanks International India Wuxi Apptec Reliance Life Sciences Life Cell International Pvt. Ltd BioOutsource (Sartorious) CordLife PXTherapeutics SA SGS Life Sciences Texcell Cryo-Cell International Inc. Others

Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market Dynamics

The rapidly increasing awareness for stem cell banking in the developing countries, and increasing governments initiatives that promote awareness for stem cell isolation and related benefits are some of the major factors driving the market growth during the forecast period. In addition, increasing application of stem cells for developing personalized medicines to minimize the spread of various chronic diseases and also the association of aging with the inability of the body to maintain tissue turnover and hemostasis has helped researchers to focus on this target population for providing relative therapies that would act effectively on the damaged cells. These factors are also supplementing the market growth. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 globes about 18.1 million new cancer cases about 17.0 million excluding no melanoma skin cancer and 9.6 million cancer deaths in 2018. Furthermore, the master cell banks are useful for the preparation of working cell banks and thus find applicability in various research and development perspectives for stem cell therapy and gene therapy thereby resulting to section growth. The occurrence of favorable government initiatives pertaining to the R&D for development of stable cell lines, the opening of new technology for storage and description of cell lines are among the critical factors predictable to advance market growth over the forecast period.

However, the high cost associated with storing these cells in cell banks is a major challenge faced by this market which may hamper the growth of cell banking outsourcing market. In addition, the various legal challenges associate with banking a variety of cells, especially considering stem cells banking, are expected to restrain market growth. The advanced technologically cryopreservation techniques are expected to fuel the growth of this market throughout the forecast period. In spite of that, the increase in the average life expectations due to advanced medical research and improved general lifestyle of the population and straightforward regulations for the stem cell researchers are expected to create significant potential for this market in coming few years. Increasing number of adipose tissue banking can offer various opportunities of the cell banking outsourcing market.

Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market Regional Analysis

North America is expected to dominate the global cell banking outsourcing drug market due to the highest market share owing to the increasing number biopharmaceutical companies & manufacturers and increasing awareness for the use of stem cells as therapeutic proteins and antibiotics in this region. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Cancer Society epidemiologists, at least 42% of newly diagnosed cancers in the U.S. about 729,000 cases are potentially avoidable, including 19% that are caused by smoking and 18% that are caused by a combination of excess body weight, physical inactivity, excess alcohol consumption, and poor nutrition. In addition, presence of regulatory authorities that promotes continuous R&D activities is also supplementing the market growth in North America.

The Asia Pacific is expected to witness significant growth in demand over the forecast period owing to increase in number of supportive government initiatives pertaining to investments in biotechnology sector in this region. In addition, the ongoing R&D activities for cancer treatment and fertility preservation facilitate the demand for cell banking services in this region.

Key Benefits for Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market Report

Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market report covers in depth historical and forecast analysis.

Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market research report provides detail information about Market Introduction, Market Summary, Global market Revenue (Revenue USD), Market Drivers, Market Restraints, Market opportunities, Competitive Analysis, Regional and Country Level.

Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market report helps to identify opportunities in market place.

Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market report covers extensive analysis of emerging trends and competitive landscape.

Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market Segmentation:

By Type:Master Cell Banking, Viral Cell Banking, Working Cell Banking

By Application:Bank Storage, Working Cell Bank Storage, Master Cell Bank Storage, Cell Storage Stability Testing, Bank Preparation, Bank Characterization & Testing

Regional & Country AnalysisNorth America, U.S., Mexico, Canada , Europe, UK, France, Germany, Italy , Asia Pacific, China, Japan, India, Southeast Asia, South America, Brazil, Argentina, Columbia, The Middle East and Africa, GCC, Africa, Rest of Middle East and Africa

Table of Content

1. Chapter Report Methodology1.1. Research Process1.2. Primary Research1.3. Secondary Research1.4. Market Size Estimates1.5. Data Triangulation1.6. Forecast Model1.7. USPs of Report1.8. Report Description

2. Chapter Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market Overview: Qualitative Analysis2.1. Market Introduction2.2. Executive Summary2.3. Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market Classification2.4. Market Drivers2.5. Market Restraints2.6. Market Opportunity2.7. Cell Banking Outsourcing Market: Trends2.8. Porters Five Forces Analysis2.9. Market Attractiveness Analysis

3. Chapter Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market Overview: Quantitative Analysis

4. Chapter Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market Analysis: Segmentation By Type

5. Chapter Global Cell Banking Outsourcing Market Analysis: Segmentation By Application


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At 14.6% CAGR, Cell Banking Outsourcing Market 2020 Industry Analysis of Current Trends and Opportun -

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The Definitive Guide to All Things Vegan By Drunk Elephant – LIVEKINDLY

By daniellenierenberg

Launched in 2013, cruelty-free skincare brand Drunk Elephant has captured the attention of beauty experts, brands, and a strong customer following.

The company, founded by former stay-at-home mom Tiffany Masterson, is one of the fastest-growing skin care brands in the industry. According to Fashionista, this is largely thanks to its philosophy. Masterson is a believer in clean beauty, an ethos thats reflected in Drunk Elephants product line-up. Speaking to how the company came to be, Masterson said, I came up with these criteria: It has to be nontoxic or low-hazard and it has to be bioavailable, meaning able to get into your skin.

As such, all Drunk Elephant products are formulated without what Masterson deemed the Suspicious Six, ingredients that she believed her company could do without: essential oils, silicones, sodium lauryl sulfate aka SLS, drying alcohols, silicones, chemical screens, and fragrances and dyes. When it comes to ingredients, Drunk Elephant goes by the philosophy of If theres any DOUBT, its OUT.

I determined that the six ingredients I wanted to avoid, which I realized were largely there [in competitors products] for marketing, Masterson explained. Silicones make a product feel better; dyes make a product look better; essential oils and fragrance make a product smell better; SLS is a cleansing agent that penetrates your skin and irritates and strips it.

She wanted her brand to be as clean and non-irritating as possible. She even helped formulate the products herself: We went through, ingredient by ingredient, and we swapped out a couple that canceled each other out or that did the same thing, but the resulting ingredient decks were very similar to the ones I first wrote down for every product.

For Masterson, it was a perfect storm of her desire to make a clean beauty brand and evolving consumer shopping habits. Consumer mistrust in companies is on the rise, but for good reason. Last July, Johnson & Johnson was told to pay $4.7 billion to families who claimed that using its talcum powder products caused their ovarian cancer.

While natural and clean beauty are on the rise, Vox points out that the terms are not regulated by the FDA nor the Federal Trade Commission. This means that any company can use the terms for their products and define it as they wish. Clean beauty is still finding favor with consumers its a trend thats been highlighted by Whole Foods Market. People are also becoming concerned over animal ingredients in skincare and makeup, which has helped lead to the rise of vegan beauty, according to The New York Times.

But Drunk Elephants ingredients list shows that Masterson takes her all-natural ethos seriously. In addition to being clean, all products are made in the US.

The company has also resonated with customers Masterson hasnt done any traditional marketing or influencer partnerships. But, she was able to build her brand to the point where she landed in Sephora the TLC Sukari Babyfacial was actually one of the stores top-selling products of 2017.

Drunk Elephant is a cruelty-free brand, but not all products are vegan. The company uses honey in certain formulas. However, it currently offers 12 products formulated without any animal ingredients.

Drunk Elephants A-Passioni Retinol Cream combines vegan retinol with skin-nourishing ingredients like peptides, vitamin F, and plant-based ingredients like passionfruit, apricot, marula and jojoba oils, and kale. This vegan face cream was formulated to diminish the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and sun damage while evening your skin tone and texture for a younger-looking complexion. Its free from essential oils, silicones, and fragrance.

Check it out here.

Drunk Elephants C-Tango Multivitamin Eye Cream was specially formulated for the sensitive skin around your eyes. This rich, cruelty-free cream features eight peptides, five different kinds of vitamin C and cucumber extract that are said to make skin stronger. According to the company, its rich in antioxidants, ceramides and plant oils that restore and refresh appearance. It can be used in the morning or at night. This cruelty-free formula was named editors choice by Womens Health magazine.

Check it out here.

Described as a retro-style moisturizer, the Lala Retro Whipped Cream is formulated for dull, dry skin. The cream, which has a light, airy texture, is formulated with six African oils that help keep moisture locked in. It contains plantain extract to brighten and sodium hyaluronate crosspolymer that hydrates all day long. Like other Drunk Elephant products, it contains antioxidant-rich ingredients like green tea, which soothes the skin and fights signs of aging. Although its rich, the light airy texture keeps it from feeling heavy on the skin, plus it has a skin friendly pH level of 5.5.

This cream is also a three-time consecutive winner of Allures Readers Choice Awards as well as the 2017 winner of InStyle magazines Readers Choice Beauty Awards.

Check it out here.

Drunk Elephant calls the B-Hydra Intensive Hydration Gel a cool glass of water for your thirsty skin.With a light texture, this gel moisturizer was designed to brighten skintone and improve texture with provitamin B and pineapple ceramide, which helps your skin retain moisture. A blend of watermelon rind, apple, and lentil is said to provide hydration for up to 24 hours. It was designed with molecular size and pH level in mind, resulting in a bio-available moisturizer that keeps your skin looking healthy without irritating it.

Check it out here.

With a breakthrough formula, Protini Polypeptide Cream contains a proprietary lend of peptides, amino acids, and pygmy waterlily that improves skin tone, texture, and firmness. According to Drunk Elephant, the protein-rich formula reduces the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and sun damage they say its like adding a shot of plant-based protein to your smoothie. Its ideal for all skin types.

This cruelty-free and vegan moisturizer also won the 2018 Healthy Skin Award from Womens Health and the 2018 Skin Award from Cosmopolitan.

Check it out here.

The Shaba Complex Eye Serum is a satiny moisturizer made to tackle fine lines, wrinkles, and sun damage in the skins delicate undereye area. With ingredients like black tea ferment and copper peptides, this vegan eye serum helps smooth skin and is said to slow down the signs of aging. It also contains edelweiss stem cells and niacinamide, which work to reduce wrinkles. The antioxidant-rich ingredient Co-Q10 helps prevent premature signs of aging and fades age spots.

Check it out here.

The Beste No 9 Jelly Cleanser gets your skin clean without harsh ingredients. A blend of surfactants and emollients gets rid of makeup, excess oil, dirt, and pollution and leaves skin feeling soft when rinsed away. Free from SLS and essential oils, its ideal for all skin types, including sensitive.

This cruelty-free and vegan jelly cleanser was a winner of the 2018 Total Beauty Awards, the 2018 Cosmopolitan Skin Awards, and the 2018 Self Healthy Beauty Awards.

Check it out here.

The three-in-one Juju Bar cleanses, exfoliates, and moisturizes your skin without harsh ingredients. This mild vegan soap bar is formulated with thermal mud and bamboo powder, which help create a lather that helps get rid of dirt and oil. Its also said to minimize the appearance of your pores A superfood blend of acai and goji extracts also help fight the signs of aging while marula oil provides moisture. Its also fragrance-free and wont dry your skin out like conventional bar skin.

Check it out here.

The D-Bronzi Anti-Pollution Sunshine Serum delivers a bronzed look without the long-term consequences of sun damage. This vegan bronzer is made with a chronopeptide that is said to mimic the antioxidant effects of vitamin D, marula oil, and black currant seeds while vitamin F moisturizes and protects. Antioxidant-rich ingredients like raw cocoa powder and white tea also help protect your skin against environmental stressors like pollution while giving your skin a sun-kissed glow.

According to Drunk Elephant, a little bit goes a long way, so it should be mixed with a serum or moisturizer. Its free from fragrance, essential oil, and silicones.

Check it out here.

The T.L.C. Framboos Glycolic Night Serum is a 12 percent AHA/BHA moisturizer that helps refine and resurface skin for a more radiant complexion while reducing the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and discoloration. Its said to help boost the performance of other products. This cruelty-free serum is formulated with a blend of glycolic, lactic, tartaric, citric, and salicylic acids plus raspberry extract to deliver chemical exfoliation without harshness. It also contains horse chestnut and white tea to sooth the skin. While AHAs can be sensitizing, plant extracts help keep it balanced.

This vegan and cruelty-free night serum was a winner of the 2018 Shape Editor Pick, the 2018 Real Simple Road Test, and was the product winner of New Beautys Beauty Choice Awards.

Check it out here.

The T.L.C. Sukari Babyfacial is an AHA/BHA, cruelty-free and vegan facial in a bottle. Formulated with every skin type in mind, its made from a blend of glycolic, tartaric, lactic, citric, and salicylic acids that gently exfoliate. Antioxidants like matcha, apple, and milk thistle sooth while sodium hyaluronate crosspolymer and plant-based oils hydrate and nourish. It also contains chickpea flour, which brightens and balances. Niacinamide aka vitamin B3 fights the signs of aging and passion fruit seed oil combats redness. This hydrating facial is said to brighten and tone while minimizing the appearance of pores and fine lines and leaving your skin feeling baby-soft.

A customer favorite, this was a winner of the 2018 Essence Black Beauty Awards, the 2019 Teen Vogue Acne Awards, was featured in Glamour, and it was named on the Into the Gloss Top 25 list.

Check it out here.

Drunk Elephants Virgin Marula Luxury Facial Oil is a luxury moisturizer made from the antioxidants tocopherol (vitamin E), tocotrienol, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids, plus omegas 6 and 9. Described as being like rehab for your skin,this facial oil nourishes your skin to provide a youthful glow. The virgin marula oil featured is extracted from the pip of the fruit and is left pure, without fragrance or added ingredients. This quick-absorbing oil helps reverse the skins of aging, redness, and blotchiness while improving elasticity. Its also naturally anti-microbial and ideal for all skin types.

According to Drunk Elephant, its Virgin Marula Luxury Facial oil is cold-pressed using unheated water extraction, which ensures that the oil stays fresher longer. Its free from fragrance, essential oils, and silicone.

Check it out here.

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The Definitive Guide to All Things Vegan By Drunk Elephant - LIVEKINDLY

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The facts about the danger of melanoma – The Hudson Reporter

By daniellenierenberg

Dr. Faye Yin

Dr. Faye Yin

Melanoma is a serious and life-threatening form of cancer that begins in the skin but can spread rapidly if not treated early. We sat down with board-certified oncologist Dr. Faye Yin, an oncologist at Jersey City Medical Center, to learn more about this disease, its causes and risk factors, and why its important to protect yourself from excessive sun exposure even during the cold winter months.

What are the main risk factors for developing melanoma?

Ultraviolet, or UV, light exposure is the major risk factor. Melanoma is associated with both UVB rays, which are present in sunlight, and UVA rays, which are generated by tanning beds. Other risk factors include the presence of moles on the skin. Most are benign, but those with excessive moles should consult a dermatologist, especially if they observe any changes. Often, a mole will be removed as a precautionary measure. Age is also a risk factor; the older the person, the higher the risk. People with fair skin, freckles, and lighter hair are also more susceptible, which is why melanoma is more common in white and light-skinned people. Other risk factors include family history and the presence of a weakened immune system. Those with xeroderma pigmentosum, or XP, a rare genetic disorder, are particularly at risk because the condition affects the ability of skin cells to repair themselves after UV light exposure.

What should people do if they have any of these risk factors?

As with most risk factors impacting health, there are things you can change, and things you cannot. You cant change your skin color or family history, and you cant avoid getting older. But you can limit your exposure to UV rays. A popular catchphrase that I tell my patients, which has been promoted by the American Cancer Society, is Slip, Slop, Slap, and Wrap. Slip on a shirt, slop on some sunscreen, slap on a hat, and wrap on some sunglasses. I also recommend that people avoid using tanning beds and sun lamps. Teaching children about sun safety is especially important, because they tend to spend more time outdoors and can burn more easily. It is also important for people with risk factors to pay closer attention to their skin. Keep an eye out for abnormal moles or other skin features that appear to be unusual or changing over time, and consult a dermatologist if necessary.

Can sunlight still be dangerous during winter?

Yes whether youre skiing or just going for a walk, it is great to enjoy the sun and being outdoors in the winter, but its just as important to protect yourself from excess sun exposure in winter as it is in summer. Harmful ultraviolet rays are present year-round. They can even filter through dark cloud coverage to reach your skin, increasing your risk of melanoma. Some people may experience a bad sunburn on a winter vacation, especially if they ski in high altitudes, because UV rays are usually more intense in higher regions with a thinner atmosphere. When youre outside, any uncovered areas of your body are exposed to UV rays. So, its important to wear sunscreen even in the winter months.

Is smoking a risk factor for developing melanoma, and if so, is it mostly if youre currently smoking (for instance, what if you smoked for years and stopped?)

As an oncologist, every day I tell my patients: dont smoke! Smoking is a contributing factor for many cancers, and I believe that it also affects overall skin health; I can often look at someones skin and tell whether they smoke. That having been said, we dont have evidence that smoking directly contributes to melanoma. But I always encourage patients not to smoke to stay healthy and minimize their cancer risk.

Why does having a weakened immune system count as a risk factor for melanoma?

Having a weakened immune system increases the risk of melanoma and other cancers. I have worked with many patients whose immune systems have been compromised, either by illness or in some cases due to medical treatment for other conditions. For example, immunosuppressive drugs are used after stem cell and organ transplants, to prevent the body from rejecting the transplant. Certain diseases also compromise the immune system, such as HIV. A weakened immune system increases cancer risk for two reasons. First, because the body has less ability to detect and destroy cancer cells. And secondly, because the body is more susceptible to infections that may lead to cancer.

Is gender a risk factor? If so, do we know why?

In the United States, men typically have a higher rate of melanoma than women, though this varies by age. Before age 50, the risk is higher for women, and after age 50, the risk is higher in men. We believe that this discrepancy relates to the fact that men are likely to spend more time in the sun over the course of their lifetimes. I also think that women are more likely to wear sunscreen than men, so this may play a role. In addition, men tend to have thicker skin with less fat beneath it and more collagen, and some research shows that this can make the skin more susceptible to sunlight damage. Also, some studies have shown that estrogen, which is more prevalent in women, can increase resistance to melanoma.

Are older people at higher risk for melanoma?

The risk of melanoma increases as you age. The average age for a melanoma diagnosis is age 65. But melanoma is not uncommon even among those younger than age 30. In fact, it is one of the most common cancers in young adults, especially young women. Melanoma is also more common in younger people whose families have a history of melanoma.

How does having a family history of having melanoma impact someone?

Family history is definitely a melanoma risk factor; the risk is higher among those who have one or more first-degree relatives who have had melanoma. About 10 percent of people diagnosed with melanoma have a family history. Families tend to have shared lifestyle habits, such as more frequent sun exposure, and in addition they typically have similar skin types and share certain genetic characteristics. You cant change your skin color or your genes, but you can change some factors. If you know that you are higher risk, and have a family history, pay close attention to your skin. Avoid excessive sunlight and tanning beds, and consult a dermatologist if you have concerns.

Why is UV light exposure a risk factor?

Numerous studies have shown that sun and UV light exposure is a major melanoma risk factor, especially for children and teens. Research shows that early sun exposure can damage the DNA in skin cells. Melanocytes are the cells that produce melanin, which gives skin its pigmentation, and damaging these cells can start the path to melanoma. Melanoma commonly occurs on the thighs of women, and on the trunks of men, as well as on arms and faces, which are the areas that most often receive chronic sun exposure in young people. In addition to limiting UV light exposure, people should also examine their own skin at least monthly, especially if there are high risk factors. If you see something unusual, such as a large mole or a spot youre not sure about, I will often encourage patients to take a photograph of it. You might not notice small changes over time because you get accustomed to them. But if you take a picture of a spot on your skin and compare it a month or a few months later, and you see a change, you should see a dermatologist.

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The facts about the danger of melanoma - The Hudson Reporter

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