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Gene Therapy Reverses Heart Failure in Animal Model of Barth Syndrome – BioSpace

By daniellenierenberg

Boston Children's Hospital researchers used an investigational gene therapy to treat heart failure in a mouse model of Barth syndrome. Barth syndrome is a rare genetic disorder in boys that results in life-threatening heart failure. It also causes weakness of the skeletal muscles and the immune system. The disease is caused by a mutation of a gene known as tafazzin or TAZ.

In 2014, William Pu and researchers at Boston Childrens Hospital collaborated with the Wyss Institute to develop a beating heart on a chip model of Barth syndrome. It used heart-muscle cells with the TAZ mutation that came from patients own skin cells. This was able to prove that TAZ was the cause of the cardiac problems. The heart muscle cells did not organize normally and the mitochondria, the cells energy engines, were disorganized, resulting in the heart muscle contracting weakly. By adding healthy TAZ genes, the cells behaved more normally.

The next step was an animal model. The results of the research were published in the journal Circulation Research.

The animal model was a hurdle in the field for a long time, Pu said. Pu is director of Basic and Translational Cardiovascular Research at Boston Childrens and a member of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute. Efforts to make a mouse model using traditional methods had been unsuccessful.

Douglas Strathdees research team at the Beatson Institute for Cancer Research in the UK recently developed animal models of Barth syndrome. Pu, research fellow Suya Wang, and colleagues characterized the knockout mice into two types. One had the TAZ gene deleted throughout the body; the other had the TAZ gene deleted just in the heart.

Most of the mice that had TAZ deleted throughout their whole bodies died before birth, likely from skeletal muscle weakness. Of those that survived, they developed progressive cardiomyopathy, where the heart muscle enlarges and is less able to pump blood. The heart also showed signs of scarring similar to humans with dilated cardiomyopathy, where the hearts left ventricle is dilated and thin-walled.

The mice that lacked TAZ only in their heart tissue that survived to birth had the same features. Electron microscopy indicated that the heart muscle cells and mitochondria were poorly organized.

Pu and Wang and their team then used gene therapy to replace TAZ in the newborn mice and in older mice, using slightly different techniques. In the newborn mice the engineered virus was injected under the skin; in the older mice it was injected intravenously. The mice who had no TAZ in their bodies and received the gene therapy survived to adulthood.

In the newborn mice receiving the gene therapy, the therapy prevented cardiac dysfunction and scarring. In the older mice receiving the therapy, it reversed the cardiac dysfunction.

The study also showed that TAZ gene therapy offered durable treatment of the cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells, but only when at least 70% of the heart muscle cells had taken up the gene via the therapy. Which the researchers point out that when the therapy is developed for humans, that will be the most challenging problem. You cant just scale up the dose because of inflammatory immune responses, and multiple doses wont work either because the body develops an immune response. Maintaining the gene-corrected cell is also a problem. In the heart muscles of the treated mice, the corrected TAZ gene stayed relatively stable, but slowly dropped in skeletal muscles.

The biggest takeaway was that the gene therapy was highly effective, Pu said. We have some things to think about to maximize the percentage of muscle cell transduction, and to make sure the gene therapy is durable, particularly in skeletal muscle.

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Gene Therapy Reverses Heart Failure in Mouse Model – Technology Networks

By daniellenierenberg

Barth syndromeis a rare metabolic disease caused by mutation of a gene calledtafazzinorTAZ. It can cause life-threatening heart failure and also weakens the skeletal muscles, undercuts the immune response, and impairs overall growth. Because Barth syndrome is X-linked, it almost always occurs in boys. There is no cure or specific treatment.

In 2014, to get a better understanding of the disease,William Pu, MD, and colleagues at Boston Childrens Hospital collaborated with the Wyss Institute to create a beatingheart on a chip model of Barth syndrome. The model used heart-muscle cells with theTAZmutation, derived from patients own skin cells.It showedthatTAZis truly at the heart of cardiac dysfunction: the heart muscle cells did not assemble normally, mitochondria inside the cells were disorganized, and heart tissue contracted weakly. Adding a healthyTAZgene normalized these features, suggesting that gene replacement therapy could be a viable treatment.

But to fully capture Barth syndrome and its whole-body effects, Pu and colleagues needed an animal model. The animal model was a hurdle in the field for a long time, says Pu, director of Basic and Translational Cardiovascular Research at Boston Childrens and a member of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute. Efforts to make a mouse model using traditional methods had been unsuccessful.

As described in the journalCirculation Research, most mice with the whole-bodyTAZdeletion died before birth, apparently because of skeletal muscle weakness. But some survived, and these mice developed progressive cardiomyopathy, in which the heart muscle enlarges and loses pumping capacity. Their hearts also showed scarring, and, similar to human patients with dilatedcardiomyopathy, the hearts left ventricle was dilated and thin-walled.

Mice lackingTAZjust in their cardiac tissue, which all survived to birth, showed the same features. Electron microscopy showed heart muscle tissue to be poorly organized, as were the mitochondria within the cells.

Pu, Wang, and colleagues then used gene therapy to replaceTAZ, injecting an engineered virus under the skin (in newborn mice) or intravenously (in older mice). Treated mice with whole-bodyTAZdeletions were able to survive to adulthood.TAZgene therapy also prevented cardiac dysfunction and scarring when given to newborn mice, and reversed established cardiac dysfunction in older mice whether the mice had whole-body or heart-onlyTAZdeletions.

Thats where the challenge will lie in translating the results to humans. Simply scaling up the dose of gene therapy wont work: In large animals like us, large doses risk a dangerous inflammatory immune response. Giving multiple doses of gene therapy wont work either.

The problem is that neutralizing antibodies to the virus develop after the first dose, says Pu. Getting enough of the muscle cells corrected in humans may be a challenge.

Another challenge is maintaining populations of gene-corrected cells. While levels of the correctedTAZgene remained fairly stable in the hearts of the treated mice, they gradually declined in skeletal muscles.

The biggest takeaway was that the gene therapy was highly effective, says Pu. We have some things to think about to maximize the percentage of muscle cell transduction, and to make sure the gene therapy is durable, particularly in skeletal muscle."

Reference: Wang et al. (2020).AAV Gene Therapy Prevents and Reverses Heart Failure in A Murine Knockout Model of Barth Syndrome.Circulation Research.https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.315956.

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

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Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Market Insights, Future Trends, On-going Demand, Opportunities, Segmentation, and Forecast till 2027 – WhaTech…

By daniellenierenberg

The graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) market is segmented on the basis of product type, treatment type, and end user. Based on product type the market is segmented as corticosteroids, ATG therapies, IL2R (CD25) inhibitors, TNF inhibitors, Calcineurin inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, SOT therapies, anti-neoplastic therapies, stem cell treatments, extracorporeal photophoresis and other biologics. On the basis of treatment type the market is segmented into prophylaxis GVHD, chronic GVHD, acute GVHD. The end user segment is classified into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and online pharmacies.

An off-the-shelf report onGraft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Marketwhich has been compiled after an in-depth analysis of the market trends prevailing across five geographies (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle-East and Africa, and South America). Various segments of the market such as type/components/ application/industry verticals/ end-users are analyzed with robust research methodology which includes three step process starting with extensive secondary research to gather data from company profiles, global/regional associations, trade journals, technical white papers, paid databases.

followed by primary research (interviews) with industry experts/KOLs to gain their insights and views on current scenarios and future scope of the market as well as validating the secondary information, further internal statistical model is used to estimate the market size and forecasts till 2027.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a medical condition which occurs after transplant surgeries where the immune cells from the donor attack on the recipients organ tissues. This condition is a common side effect that is observed after an allogeneic bone marrow transplant (stem cell transplant).

The symptoms of the disease can be from mild to severe and life-threatening and often causes diseases like jaundice, skin inflammation and others.

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The key players influencing the market are:

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Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Market- Global Analysis to 2027 is an expert compiled study which provides a holistic view of the market covering current trends and future scope with respect to product/service, the report also covers competitive analysis to understand the presence of key vendors in the companies by analyzing their product/services, key financial facts, details SWOT analysis and key development in last three years. Further chapter such as industry landscape and competitive landscape provides the reader with recent company level insights covering mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborations, new product developments/strategies taking place across the ecosystem.

The chapters also evaluate the key vendors by mapping all the relevant products and services to exhibit the ranking/ position of top 5 key vendors.

Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Market is a combination of qualitative as well as quantitative analysis which can be broken down into 40% and 60% respectively. Market estimation and forecasts are presented in the report for the overall global market from 2018 2027, considering 2018 as the base year and 2018 2027 forecast period.

Global estimation is further broken down by segments and geographies such as North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East & Africa and South America covering major 16 countries across the mentioned regions. The qualitative contents for geographical analysis will cover market trends in each region and country which includes highlights of the key players operating in the respective region/country, PEST analysis of each region which includes political, economic, social and technological factors influencing the growth of the market.

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Stem cells to help the heart – Science Magazine

By daniellenierenberg

Shinya Yamanaka's 2006 discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) ignited a revolution in the field of stem cell biology (1). For the first time, nearly all human somatic tissues could be produced from iPSCs reprogrammed from blood or skin cells, in a process that took only weeks. This advance was particularly crucial for obtaining surrogate tissues from cell types that are otherwise difficult to procure and do not readily expand in vitro, such as cardiac or neural cells. Additionally, many ethical concerns are avoided, because this technology uses a patient's own genetic material to create iPSCs rather than relying on embryonic stem cells. In the aftermath of Yamanaka's discovery, entire biomedical industries have developed around the promise of using human iPSCs (hiPSCs) and their derivatives for in vitro disease modeling, drug screening, and cell therapy (2).

The hiPSC technology has had a particularly notable impact in cardiac regenerative medicine, a field where scientists and clinicians have been working to devise new methods to better understand how cardiovascular disease manifests and how to restore cardiovascular function after disease strikes (3). The heart is limited in its ability to regenerate lost cardiomyocytes (beating heart muscle cells), following an adverse event such as a heart attack (4). Cardiomyocytes derived from hiPSCs (hiPSC-CMs) may represent a potential replacement option for dead cells in such a scenario. However, certain issues remain to be addressed, such as whether hiPSC-CMs can integrate with host myocardial tissue in the long term (5).

While using hiPSC-CMs for in vivo cell therapy may become practical in the future, employing hiPSC-CMs for high-throughput drug discovery and screening is becoming a reality in the present (6). Cardiovascular diseases can be recapitulated in a dish with patient-specific hiPSC-CMs. For example, if a patient exhibits a cardiac arrhythmia caused by a genetic abnormality in a sarcomeric protein or ion channel, that same rhythm problem can be recapitulated in vitro (7). Thanks to advances in hiPSC differentiation protocols, hiPSC-CMs can now be mass-produced to study cardiovascular disease mechanisms in vitro (8).

My graduate thesis in the laboratories of Joseph Wu and Sean Wu at Stanford University focused on in vitro applications of hiPSC-CMs for cardiovascular disease modeling and for high-throughput screening of chemotherapeutic compounds to predict cardiotoxicity. I initially embarked on a project using hiPSC-CMs to model viral myocarditis, a viral infection of the heart, caused by the B3 strain of coxsackievirus (9). I began by demonstrating that hiPSC-CMs express the receptors necessary for viral internalization and subsequently found that hiPSC-CMs were highly susceptible to coxsackievirus infection, exhibiting viral cytopathic effect within hours of infection. I also identified compounds that could alleviate coxsackievirus infection on hiPSC-CMs, a translationally relevant finding, as there remains a shortage of treatments for viral myocarditis.

Using a genetically modified variant of coxsackievirus B3 expressing luciferase, I developed a screening platform for assessing the efficacy of antiviral compounds. Pretreatment with interferon-, ribavirin, or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate markedly suppressed viral replication on hiPSC-CMs by activating intracellular antiviral response and viral protein clearance pathways. These compounds alleviated viral replication in a dose-dependent fashion at low concentrations without causing cellular toxicity.

I next sought to use hiPSC-CMs to screen anticancer chemotherapeutic compounds for their off-target cardiovascular toxicities (10). Cardiotoxicity represents a major cause of drug withdrawal from the pharmaceutical market, and several chemotherapeutic agents can cause unintended cardiovascular damage (11). Using cultured hiPSC-CMs, I evaluated 21 U.S. Food and Drug Administrationapproved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), commonly prescribed anticancer compounds, for their cardiotoxic potential. HiPSC-CMs express the major tyrosine kinase receptor proteins such as the insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, lending validity to this cellular model.

Initially, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be produced by reprogramming skin or blood cells by nonviral or viral reprogramming methods. Cardiac differentiation protocols allow for the creation of cardiomyocytes derived from hiPSCs (hiPSC-CMs) for downstream applications, including in vitro disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative cell therapy.

With data from a battery of cellular apoptosis, contractility, electrophysiology, and signaling assays, I generated a cardiac safety index to help align in vitro toxicity data to clinical drug safety guidelines (12). From the safety index, I determined that a subclass of VEGF receptor 2/PDGF receptorinhibiting tyrosine kinase inhibitors, some of which exhibit toxicity clinically, also elicited cardiotoxicities in hiPSC-CMs. These manifested as substantial alterations in cellular electrophysiology, contractility, and viability when administered at clinically relevant concentrations. I also discovered that cotreatment with either IGF or insulin partially rescued TKI-induced toxicity by up-regulating antiapoptotic signaling pathways. This work could prove useful for groups aiming to develop effective screening platforms to assess new chemotherapeutic compounds for cardiotoxic side effects.

I also collaborated with the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) to send a sample of hiPSC-CMs to the International Space Station. As humankind ventures beyond our home planet, it is imperative that we better understand how the heart functions for long periods of time in microgravity. Analysis of these hiPSC-CMs revealed microgravity-induced alterations in metabolic gene expression and calcium handling (13).

In recent years, the stem cell field has experienced an explosion of studies using hiPSC-CMs as a model cellular system to study cardiovascular biology. As improvements in hiPSC-CM mass production continue, we will see a rise in studies using these cells for disease modeling and drug screening. Thus, although hiPSC-CM technology is in its infancy, it holds great potential to improve cardiovascular health.

PHOTO: COURTESY OF A. SHARMA

FINALIST

Arun Sharma

Arun Sharma received his undergraduate degree from Duke University and a Ph.D. from Stanford University. Having completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Harvard Medical School, Sharma is now a senior research fellow jointly appointed at the Smidt Heart Institute and Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. His research seeks to develop in vitro platforms for cardiovascular disease modeling and drug cardiotoxicity assessment. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/367/6483/1206.1

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New drugs are costly and unmet need is growing – The Economist

By daniellenierenberg

Mar 12th 2020

BEING ABLE to see all the details of the genome at once necessarily makes medicine personal. It can also make it precise. Examining illness molecule by molecule allows pharmaceutical researchers to understand the pathways through which cells act according to the dictates of genes and environment, thus seeing deep into the mechanisms by which diseases cause harm, and finding new workings to target. The flip side of this deeper understanding is that precision brings complexity. This is seen most clearly in cancer. Once, cancers were identified by cell and tissue type. Now they are increasingly distinguished by their specific genotype that reveals which of the panoply of genes that can make a cell cancerous have gone wrong in this one. As drugs targeted against those different mutations have multiplied, so have the options for oncologists to combine them to fit their patients needs.

Cancer treatment has been the most obvious beneficiary of the genomic revolution but other diseases, including many in neurology, are set to benefit, too. Some scientists now think there are five different types of diabetes rather than two. There is an active debate about whether Parkinsons is one disease that varies a lot, or four. Understanding this molecular variation is vital when developing treatments. A drug that works well on one subtype of a disease might fail in a trial that includes patients with another subtype against which it does not work at all.

Thus how a doctor treats a disease depends increasingly on which version of the disease the patient has. The Personalised Medicine Coalition, a non-profit advocacy group, examines new drugs approved in America to see whether they require such insights in order to be used. In 2014, it found that so-called personalised medicines made up 21% of the drugs newly approved for use by Americas Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 2018 the proportion was twice that.

Two of those cited were particularly interesting: Vitrakvi (larotrectinib), developed by Loxo Oncology, a biotech firm, and Onpattro (patisiran), developed by Alnylam Pharmaceuticals. Vitrakvi is the first to be approved from the start as tumour agnostic: it can be used against any cancer that displays the mutant protein it targets. Onpattro, which is used to treat peripheral-nerve damage, is the first of a new class of drugssmall interfering RNAs, or siRNAsto be approved. Like antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), siRNAs are little stretches of nucleic acid that stop proteins from being made, though they use a different mechanism.

Again like ASOs, siRNAs allow you to target aspects of a disease that are beyond the reach of customary drugs. Until recently, drugs were either small molecules made with industrial chemistry or bigger ones made with biologynormally with genetically engineered cells. If they had any high level of specificity, it was against the actions of a particular protein, or class of proteins. Like other new techniques, including gene therapies and anti-sense drugs, siRNAs allow the problem to be tackled further upstream, before there is any protein to cause a problem.

Take the drugs that target the liver enzyme PCSK9. This has a role in maintaining levels of bad cholesterol in the blood; it is the protein that was discovered through studies of families in which congenitally high cholesterol levels led to lots of heart attacks. The first generation of such drugs were antibodies that stuck to the enzyme and stopped it working. However, the Medicines Company, a biotech firm recently acquired by Novartis, won approval last year for an siRNA called inclisiran that interferes with the expression of the gene PCSK9thus stopping the pesky protein from being made in the first place. Inclisiran needs to be injected only twice a year, rather than once a month, as antibodies do.

New biological insights, new ways of analysing patients and their disease and new forms of drug are thus opening up a wide range of therapeutic possibilities. Unfortunately, that does not equate to a range of new profitable opportunities.

Thanks in part to ever better diagnosis, there are now 7,000 conditions recognised as rare diseases in America, meaning that the number of potential patients is less than 200,000. More than 90% of these diseases have no approved treatment. These are the diseases that personalised, precision medicine most often goes after. Nearly 60% of the personalised medicines approved by the FDA in 2018 were for rare diseases.

Zolgensma is the most expensive drug ever brought to market.

That might be fine, were the number of diseases stable. But precision in diagnosis is increasingly turning what used to be single diseases into sets of similar-looking ones brought about by distinctly different mechanisms, and thus needing different treatment. And new diseases are still being discovered. Medical progress could, in short, produce more new diseases than new drugs, increasing unmet need.

Some of it will, eventually, be met. For one thing, there are government incentives in America and Europe for the development of drugs for rare diseases. And, especially in America, drugs for rare diseases have long been able to command premium prices. Were this not the case, Novartis would not have paid $8.7bn last year to buy AveXis, a small biotech firm, thereby acquiring Zolgensma, a gene therapy for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Most people with SMA lack a working copy of a gene, SMN1, which the nerve cells that control the bodys muscles need to survive. Zolgensma uses an empty virus-like particle that recognises nerve cells to deliver working copies of the gene to where it is needed. Priced at $2.1m per patient, it is the most expensive drug ever brought to market. That dubious accolade might not last long. BioMarin, another biotech firm, is considering charging as much as $3m for a forthcoming gene therapy for haemophilia.

Drug firms say such treatments are economically worthwhile over the lifetime of the patient. Four-fifths of children with the worst form of SMA die before they are four. If, as is hoped, Zolgensma is a lasting cure, then its high cost should be set against a half-century or more of life. About 200 patients had been treated in America by the end of 2019.

But if some treatments for rare diseases may turn a profit, not all will. There are some 6,000 children with SMA in America. There are fewer than ten with Jansens disease. When Dr Nizar asked companies to help develop a treatment for it, she says she was told your disease is not impactful. She wrote down the negative responses to motivate herself: Every day I need to remind myself that this is bullshit.

A world in which markets shrink, drug development gets costlier and new unmet needs are ceaselessly discovered is a long way from the utopian future envisaged by the governments and charities that paid for the sequencing of all those genomes and the establishment of the worlds biobanks. As Peter Bach, director of the Centre for Health Policy and Outcomes, an academic centre in New York, puts it with a degree of understatement: if the world needs to spend as much to develop a drug for 2,000 people as it used to spend developing one for 100,000, the population-level returns from medical research are sharply diminishing.

And it is not as if the costs of drug development have been constant. They have gone up. What Jack Scannell, a consultant and former pharmaceutical analyst at UBS, a bank, has dubbed Erooms lawEroom being Moore, backwardsshows the number of drugs developed for a given amount of R&D spending has fallen inexorably, even as the amount of biological research skyrocketed. Each generation assumes that advances in science will make drugs easier to discover; each generation duly advances science; each generation learns it was wrong.

For evidence, look at the way the arrival of genomics in the 1990s lowered productivity in drug discovery. A paper in Nature Reviews Drug Discovery by Sarah Duggers from Columbia University and colleagues argues that it brought a wealth of new leads that were difficult to prioritise. Spending rose to accommodate this boom; attrition rates for drugs in development subsequently rose because the candidates were not, in general, all that good.

Today, enthused by their big-science experience with the genome and enabled by new tools, biomedical researchers are working on exhaustive studies of all sorts of other omes, including proteomesall the proteins in a cell or body; microbiomesthe non-pathogenic bacteria living in the mouth, gut, skin and such; metabolomessnapshots of all the small molecules being built up and broken down in the body; and connectomes, which list all the links in a nervous system. The patterns they find will doubtless produce new discoveries. But they will not necessarily, in the short term, produce the sort of clear mechanistic understanding which helps create great new drugs. As Dr Scannell puts it: We have treated the diseases with good experimental models. Whats left are diseases where experiments dont replicate people. Data alone canot solve the problem.

Daphne Koller, boss of Insitro, a biotech company based in San Francisco, shares Dr Scannells scepticism about the way drug discovery has been done. A lot of candidate drugs fail, she says, because they aim for targets that are not actually relevant to the biology of the condition involved. Instead researchers make decisions based on accepted rules of thumb, gut instincts or a ridiculous mouse model that has nothing to do with what is actually going on in the relevant human diseaseeven if it makes a mouse look poorly in a similar sort of way.

But she also thinks that is changing. Among the things precision biology has improved over the past five to 10 years have been the scientists own tools. Gene-editing technologies allow genes to be changed in various ways, including letter by letter; single-cell analysis allows the results to be looked at as they unfold. These edited cells may be much more predictive of the effects of drugs than previous surrogates. Organoidsself-organised, three-dimensional tissue cultures grown from human stem cellsoffer simplified but replicable versions of the brain, pancreas, lung and other parts of the body in which to model diseases and their cures.

Insitro is editing changes into stem cellswhich can grow into any other tissueand tracking the tissues they grow into. By measuring differences in the development of very well characterised cells which differ in precisely known ways the company hopes to build more accurate models of disease in living cells. All this work is automated, and carried out on such a large scale that Dr Koller anticipates collecting many petabytes of data before using machine learning to make sense of it. She hopes to create what Dr Scannell complains biology lacks and what drug designers need: predictive models of how genetic changes drive functional changes.

There are also reasons to hope that the new upstream drugsASOs, siRNAs, perhaps even some gene therapiesmight have advantages over todays therapies when it comes to small-batch manufacture. It may also prove possible to streamline much of the testing that such drugs go through. Virus-based gene-therapy vectors and antisense drugs are basically platforms from which to deliver little bits of sequence data. Within some constraints, a platform already approved for carrying one message might be fast-tracked through various safety tests when it carries another.

One more reason for optimism is that drugs developed around a known molecule that marks out a diseasea molecular markerappear to be more successful in trials. The approval process for cancer therapies aimed at the markers of specific mutations is often much shorter now than it used to be. Tagrisso (osimertinib), an incredibly specialised drug, targets a mutation known to occur only in patients already treated for lung cancer with an older drug. Being able to specify the patients who stand to benefit with this degree of accuracy allows trials to be smaller and quicker. Tagrisso was approved less than two years and nine months after the first dose was given to a patient.

With efforts to improve the validity of models of disease and validate drug targets accurately gaining ground, Dr Scannell says he is sympathetic to the proposal that, this time, scientific innovation might improve productivity. Recent years have seen hints that Erooms law is being bent, if not yet broken.

If pharmaceutical companies do not make good on the promise of these new approaches then charities are likely to step in, as they have with various ASO treatments for inherited diseases. And they will not be shackled to business models that see the purpose of medicine as making drugs. The Gates Foundation and Americas National Institutes of Health are investing $200m towards developing treatments based on rewriting genes that could be used to tackle sickle-cell disease and HIVtreatments that have to meet the proviso of being useful in poor-country clinics. Therapies in which cells are taken out of the body, treated in some way and returned might be the basis of a new sort of business, one based around the ability to make small machines that treat individuals by the bedside rather than factories which produce drugs in bulk.

There is room in all this for individuals with vision; there is also room for luck: Dr Nizar has both. Her problem lies in PTH1R, a hormone receptor; her PTH1R gene makes a form of it which is jammed in the on position. This means her cells are constantly doing what they would normally do only if told to by the relevant hormone. A few years ago she learned that a drug which might turn the mutant receptor off (or at least down a bit) had already been characterisedbut had not seemed worth developing.

The rabbit, it is said, outruns the fox because the fox is merely running for its dinner, while the rabbit is running for its life. Dr Nizars incentives outstrip those of drug companies in a similar way. By working with the FDA, the NIH and Massachusetts General Hospital, Dr Nizar helped get a grant to make enough of the drug for toxicology studies. She will take it herself, in the first human trial, in about a years time. After that, if things go well, her childrens pain may finally be eased.

This article appeared in the Technology Quarterly section of the print edition under the headline "Kill or cure?"

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Worldwide Cell Therapy Market Projections to 2028 – The Largest Expansion Will Be in Diseases of the Central Nervous System, Cancer and Cardiovascular…

By daniellenierenberg

DUBLIN, March 12, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Cell Therapy - Technologies, Markets and Companies" report from Jain PharmaBiotech has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

The cell-based markets was analyzed for 2018, and projected to 2028. The markets are analyzed according to therapeutic categories, technologies and geographical areas. The largest expansion will be in diseases of the central nervous system, cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Skin and soft tissue repair as well as diabetes mellitus will be other major markets.

The number of companies involved in cell therapy has increased remarkably during the past few years. More than 500 companies have been identified to be involved in cell therapy and 309 of these are profiled in part II of the report along with tabulation of 302 alliances. Of these companies, 170 are involved in stem cells.

Profiles of 72 academic institutions in the US involved in cell therapy are also included in part II along with their commercial collaborations. The text is supplemented with 67 Tables and 25 Figures. The bibliography contains 1,200 selected references, which are cited in the text.

This report contains information on the following:

The report describes and evaluates cell therapy technologies and methods, which have already started to play an important role in the practice of medicine. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is replacing the old fashioned bone marrow transplants. Role of cells in drug discovery is also described. Cell therapy is bound to become a part of medical practice.

Stem cells are discussed in detail in one chapter. Some light is thrown on the current controversy of embryonic sources of stem cells and comparison with adult sources. Other sources of stem cells such as the placenta, cord blood and fat removed by liposuction are also discussed. Stem cells can also be genetically modified prior to transplantation.

Cell therapy technologies overlap with those of gene therapy, cancer vaccines, drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Pharmaceutical applications of stem cells including those in drug discovery are also described. Various types of cells used, methods of preparation and culture, encapsulation and genetic engineering of cells are discussed. Sources of cells, both human and animal (xenotransplantation) are discussed. Methods of delivery of cell therapy range from injections to surgical implantation using special devices.

Cell therapy has applications in a large number of disorders. The most important are diseases of the nervous system and cancer which are the topics for separate chapters. Other applications include cardiac disorders (myocardial infarction and heart failure), diabetes mellitus, diseases of bones and joints, genetic disorders, and wounds of the skin and soft tissues.

Regulatory and ethical issues involving cell therapy are important and are discussed. Current political debate on the use of stem cells from embryonic sources (hESCs) is also presented. Safety is an essential consideration of any new therapy and regulations for cell therapy are those for biological preparations.

Key Topics Covered

Part I: Technologies, Ethics & RegulationsExecutive Summary 1. Introduction to Cell Therapy2. Cell Therapy Technologies3. Stem Cells4. Clinical Applications of Cell Therapy5. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Disorders6. Cell Therapy for Cancer7. Cell Therapy for Neurological Disorders8. Ethical, Legal and Political Aspects of Cell therapy9. Safety and Regulatory Aspects of Cell Therapy

Part II: Markets, Companies & Academic Institutions10. Markets and Future Prospects for Cell Therapy11. Companies Involved in Cell Therapy12. Academic Institutions13. References

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Worldwide Cell Therapy Market Projections to 2028 - The Largest Expansion Will Be in Diseases of the Central Nervous System, Cancer and Cardiovascular...

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Meet the women racing to save the northern white rhino from extinction – KAKE

By daniellenierenberg

(CNN) -

There are only two northern white rhinos left on the planet, and they're both female. Unless scientists can make a dramatic breakthrough, the entire species will die with those two individuals.

In a nondescript building just north of San Diego, California, the fight to save the northern white rhino is coming down to the wire. However, the battleground here looks less like a scene from a wildlife documentary and more akin to something out of a science fiction novel.

At the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, an army of scientists armed with liquid nitrogen, microscopes, and ultrasound machines is working around the clock to create an unprecedented first in the conservation world: they are looking to turn frozen rhino skin cells into baby rhinos.

It's not just the science that is groundbreaking, but also the team looking to save this species. Composed mostly of women, the lab is a rarity in a field traditionally dominated by men.

Find out more about Call to Earth and the extraordinary people working for a more sustainable future

The first step in this conservation effort began more than four and a half decades ago in 1975 when scientists established the institute's "Frozen Zoo." In a small room measuring no more than 36 square meters the skin cells of more than 10,000 individuals across 1,100 species sit in giant steel tanks suspended in time, frozen in liquid nitrogen.

Among the collection are the skin samples of 12 northern white rhinos. These are vital to the group's efforts because there is such a small gene pool of living northern whites.

The population has been decimated by poachers, who target rhinos because of the belief in parts of Asia that their horns can cure various ailments. The two surviving females both live under guard at the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. Even thoughembryos have been producedin an Italian lab using eggs extracted from the pair, any future descendants from this kind of embryo would carry the genes of those two females.

That may not be enough genetic diversity to maintain a stable population. The hope is that the skin samples of those 12 individuals at the Frozen Zoo contain enough diversity to sustain the northern white species long-term.

The arduous task for these scientists is to create a rhino population from those samples.

Marlys Houck is curator of the Frozen Zoo. She graduated high school in 1979, the same year the Frozen Zoo froze its very first northern white rhino skin cell. She later joined the institute to work on the rhino project.

"I was hired specifically to try to make the cells of the rhinos grow better because they were one of the most difficult to grow cell lines," she told CNN.

Since then, she's figured out how to successfully grow and freeze the skin cells of the northern white.

The impact of this work is not lost on her. "We're losing species so rapidly," she said. "One of the things we can do is save the living cells of these animals before it's too late."

"We're at the forefront of science today," she added. "If we do everything right ... these cells should be here 50 years from now being used for purposes that we can't even imagine today."

Marisa Korody is one of the four scientists tasked with turning these frozen cells into new life. They have to reprogram the frozen skin cells into pluripotent stem cells. In layman's terms, Korody explains that "stem cells can become any cell type in the body if they're given the right signals."

Read: Former war zones turn into wildlife 'paradise'

The aim is to ultimately turn the stem cells into sperm and eggs. The ambitious feat has only been achieved in animals by Japanese scientists. While Korody and her team have looked to that research as a road map, she admits that doing the same with rhinos is uncharted territory. "We don't really know what twists and turns we need to take in order to get from A to B," she said.

"They haven't even figured out how to do this in humans," she added. "We have as much information as we possibly can about humans. We have a fraction of that for rhinos."

Korody says being at the forefront of this kind of science has been a dream job. "This was really the first project that's trying to apply this type of science to conservation as a whole," she said.

She may spend most of her time at work looking through the lens of a microscope, but her mind is always on the final goal for the rhinos: "We want to be able to put them back into the wild one day and have them living free."

Because the remaining two female northern white rhinos can't carry a pregnancy, even if the team can create embryos, the last obstacle is finding rhinos who can carry them to term.

The woman tasked with that job is Barbara Durrant. As the director of reproductive sciences, she's spent four years studying the reproductive systems of six female southern white rhinos at the institute's sister facility, the Nikita Kahn Rhino Rescue Center.

Though the rhinos at the center are a different species, Durrant says they are the closest relative to the northern white. The aim is to eventually have them be surrogates for northern white embryos.

On any given day, Durrant can be found conducting ultrasounds to help her understand each rhino's distinct reproductive cycle. In 2019, two of the center's females gave birth to southern white babies. Both were conceived via artificial insemination, giving Durrant and the teams working on the rhino project hope for the future.

Durrant believes one reason the project works so well is because there are so many women involved. "Women are naturally collaborative with each other," she said. "Because we have so many obstacles along the way and challenges and setbacks, we support each other and we have sympathy for each other."

Read: Rare bird brought back from extinction in the wild

Houck says women tend to be naturally nurturing. "The cells are living little organisms that we're growing and tending almost every day, and I think women are drawn to taking care of something and growing it into something more."

"It's wonderful leading a team of women, and I really think they're changing the world," she added. "People are going to look back and see it was this amazing group of women who quietly, unrecognized, work at this and just get better and better."

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Made-in-space organs could soon be reality – ETHealthworld.com

By daniellenierenberg

Astronauts are growing the beginnings of new organs on board the International Space Station.

The experiment is an attempt to grow human tissue by sending adult human stem cells into space, and allowing them to grow in space.

Eventually, it is hoped, the stem cells will develop into bone, cartilage and other organs. If that is successful, the discoveries could be used to try and grow organs for transplant, the scientists involved say.

The experiment uses weightlessness as a tool, according to Cara Thiel, one of the two researchers from the University of Zurich. The lack of gravity on board the ISS will be used to encourage the stem cells to grow into tissue in three dimensions, rather than the single-layer structures that form on Earth.

It is being conducted by the astronauts on board the ISS using a mobile mini-laboratory that was sent on a SpaceX rocket last week. The experiment will last for a month, during which scientists will watch to see how the stem cells grow.

If it is successful, they hope to switch from a small laboratory to bigger production. From there, they could use the process to generate tissue for transplants by taking cells from patients, or generating organ-like material, either ensuring that it works for a specific patients or reducing the number of animals used in experiments.

On Earth, tissue grows in monolayer cultures: generating flat, 2D tissue. But investigations both in space and Earth suggest that in microgravity, cells exhibit spatially unrestricted growth and assemble into complex 3D aggregates, said Oliver Ullrich, who is also leading the research.

Previous research has involved simulated ad real experiments, mostly using tumour cells, and placing real human stem cells into microgravity simulators. But for the next stage of the research there is no alternative to the ISS, he says, as 3D tissue formation of this kind requires several days or even weeks in microgravity.

After the month-long experiment, the scientists will get the samples back and expect to see successful formation of organoids smaller, more simple versions of organs inside the test tubes.

Scientists are still not sure why the conditions of the ISS lead to the assembly of complex 3D tissue structures. Scientists are still continuing to research how the gravitational force and the molecular machinery in the cell interact to create new and different kinds of tissue on Earth and in space.

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How to build a body from scratch, Altered Carbon-style – SYFY WIRE

By daniellenierenberg

The world of Netflix's Altered Carbon is one where consciousness is no longer tethered to the physical body. It can be, and regularly is, uploaded into "cortical stacks," which are implanted at the base of the neck. In the event of death, a persons consciousness can be reloaded into a new body, known as a "sleeve." For those less fortunate, like protagonist Takeshi Kovacs, that might mean receiving a body thats not your own. In one particularly existential example from the series first episode, it might even mean a young child being uploaded into the body of an adult.

For those with means, however, the mind can be placed into a swiftly made, identical clone, allowing them to return to their lives with little interruption. We've covered what it might take to create a digital copy of a persons mind before (spoiler: it wouldnt be easy), but Altered Carbon's techno-immortality requires a second piece: the swift creation of replacement bodies.

One of the major hurdles that has kept real-world cloning from being the game changer everyone suspected it might be after the birth of Dolly, the first successfully cloned mammal, is the relatively slow development of human bodies. If you wanted to clone a 50-year-old human and get them back to the same stage of development, it would take you 50 years. That's a little too slow to make use of in the same way science fiction does.

We don't have the means to artificially age a body at a rapid pace, but what if we were able to shortcut these limitations to put it plainly, what would it take to build an adult body from scratch?

BONES

If you want to build a person from scratch, you must first make the universe. Carl Sagan said something like that, I think. Just after that, though, youll need a skeleton. Without bones, youll be left with little more than a Cronenbergian nightmare, cool in its own way, but not what were shooting for.

Today, if you have trouble with your bones, your options are limited. The first option, and in most cases the best one, is to let the bone heal itself. Your body is pretty resilient and capable of repairing most day-to-day injuries, even the ones accompanied by a sickening crack. If the injury is really bad, things get a little more medieval. Surgeons might use a series of metal plates and screws to hold your bones in place and give them time for your bodys healing processes to do their work. But those solutions only work for relatively minor injuries where the bone tissue is at least moderately intact.

When it comes to bone replacements, things are a little tougher.

Again, we can return to metal. Like the Wolverine, you might have part of your skeleton replaced or covered over with metal. This might be sufficient in specific cases, but it all feels a little crude.

Ramille Shah, Ph.D., headed a team out of Northwestern's McCormick School of Engineering to create a new material capable of instigating rapid bone regeneration. The team used 3D printers (the invention that never stops giving) and a mixture of 90 percent hydroxyapatite, a natural element of human bones, and 10 percent medical polymer to build bone constructs.

The result is a bit of artificial bone modeled in whatever shape the patient needs. It is porous, allowing for blood vessels and other tissues to easily integrate. The elastibone (perhaps the worst superhero name, trademark pending) stimulates bone regeneration and degrades over time. The intent is for the artificial structure to dissipate, leaving actual bone in its place. A technology like this would go a long way to repairing complex bone defects in all manner of patients, but is particularly promising in pediatrics, where the patients are still growing.

But, in order to truly build a bone from scratch, well need something even better. Thats where Nina Tandon and EpiBone come in.

This technology would work by taking a sample of fatty tissue, something readily available if your plan is to build a copy of an existing person, and use it to extract stem cells. Those cells would then be applied to a 3D printed scaffold of a cows bone which has been scrubbed of all its living cells. Those undifferentiated stem cells would then be placed into a bioreactor (something which sounds made up but is very real) and coaxed into growing into a fully formed bone in just a few weeks. Given enough bioreactors, and enough cows (pour one out for our fallen bovine brethren) you could feasibly grow an entire skeleton in the time it takes for you to finally fold the laundry thats been sitting in the corner of your room.

Now that youve got a skeleton, youre going to need some

ORGANS

For a long time, there weren't many ways to get a new organ if you needed one. The most commonly used method (we hope) was to get your name on a list and wait for a donor. The unfortunate reality of organ donation is that there are more people who need organs than there are organs available. Even when an organ does become available, the odds are against you that theyll match your bodys preferences, and even if you get a match, theres always the threat of rejection.

Organ transplants are a veritable miracle procedure and, while we sometimes take them for granted, they are evidence of our living in truly wizardly times in medical science. But science is never content with the status quo and humanity is forever wondering if we can further laugh in the face of nature. The preferred solution would be to develop a way to craft bespoke organs, made from the recipients' own cells.

Growing cells in a petri dish is old hat. Weve been doing that for longer than many of us have been alive. The trouble is, you can take a heart cell and induce it to multiply in a dish, but all you end up with is a dish-shaped collection of heart cells. That might be good for studying cellular biology, not so good for pumping blood through a person.

A collection of cells does not an organ make. You need something more a scaffold. Each of your organs is a complex collection of various cell types clinging to a protein structure. You can think of that structure as the framing around which the rest of a house is built. Without it, you've got little more than some insulation and drywall tossed into a haphazard stack. You need that scaffold.

There are hopes that one day well be able to build them via (drum roll please) 3D printing, but were not there yet. The level of minute detail involved is beyond our current ability. So, we have to borrow from nature.

Scientists are able to take an existing organ and strip it of its surface cells by pumping detergent through it (good for removing pesky stains and unwanted biological material). Whats left is a ghostly protein structure ready for seeding.

All that's left is to take tissue samples from the recipient and seed them onto the structure, pop it into one of those handy bioreactors, and let the cells get to work. Eventually, youll end up with an organ made of the patients own tissues. Current tests are pretty impressive, but were still a ways off from having a functioning process. The number of different tissue types involved in complex organs is a barrier and the complexity of small structures like circulatory vessels is another. Still, the technology is promising and would not only allow us to build any and all organs in record time, it would solve the organ transplant shortage and save countless lives.

So, now youve got a rigid skeleton filled with juicy oozing organs. Your neighbors are starting to wonder about the smell coming from your garage and youre grateful this abominable creature is not yet sentient because it would very likely go running for the hills. At least it would if it had

MUSCLES

Look, we all know its been a while since youve been to the gym. You bought a membership for the new year and you went a few times. You really meant well but life happened and, somehow, it all got away from you. We get it. It happens to the best of us.

While you might not have the muscle mass you wish you had, you still have quite a lot. The average persons body is comprised of somewhere between 35 and 40 percent muscle, give or take. Thats a lot. Even after all of your efforts with bioreactors, youve only managed to make 60 percent of a person. Its nothing to be scoffed at, but you arent done yet.

In order to complete next steps, youre going to need more tissue samples and a few friends from Duke University.

Using human cells that were no longer stem cells but not yet muscle cells, Nenad Bursac and Lauran Madden, an associate professor of biomedical engineering and a postdoctoral researcher, respectively, were able to successfully create functioning muscle tissues in a lab.

They grew the tissue samples and, using a 3D scaffold and a nutritive gel, ended up with working muscle fibers. These bundles of muscle fibers included receptors capable of taking in external stimuli and contracted when acted on by electricity.

For their part, the intent is not to build novel muscular structures, but to test the efficacy of drugs to treat diseases. According to Bursac, drug tests in the laboratory matched results seen in living patients. Those patients with muscular ailments could provide a tissue sample, that sample could then be grown into fiber bundles and used to test various drug treatments, ex vivo, to find a workable treatment without all the trial and error usually required.

Thanks to Bursac and the team at Duke, youve now built almost all of Takeshi Kovacs. Hes twitching and moving around on the table. He might be screaming a little, thanks to those vat-grown lungs and hes still oozing a bit. Most of all, hes embarrassed by his nakedness. A lots changed in the intervening centuries, but not the need for

SKIN

Youve got your terrible Frankensteinian gift all put together, all thats left is the wrapping. Here, too, is an area were moderately familiar with. When a patient loses skin through injury, a graft can be taken from elsewhere and used to replace the damaged tissue. It gets the job done, some skin is better than no skin of course, but theres still room for improvement.

More recently, bioengineers have had some success in growing sheets of epithelial tissue for implantation but they lacked oil and sweat glands. Again, close, but not quite. Until

A study undertaken at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, led by Takashi Tsuji took cells from the gums of mice and used chemicals to revert them to a stem-cell-like state. The cells were used to grow complex skin tissues.

Once the tissues were ready, they were transplanted onto living mice and were found to develop normally. Not only did those tissues function as a protective barrier, the primary function of skin, but they also succeeded in developing hair follicles and sweat glands. Even more importantly, they successfully integrated with surrounding tissue systems like muscle groups and nerves.

There are, of course, other tissue types weve not covered, each of them important to the successful functioning of a body, but if these emerging technologies are any indication, were well on our way in those areas as well.

So, youve done it. Youve made a full-grown human from scratch in months rather than decades. All thats left is to upload a mind and youre well on your way to cyberpunk chicanery. Go forth, Kovacs, we're rooting for you. And dont mess up this body, please. It was really hard to make. Thanks.

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My Skin Is Kind of Perfect Right Now Thanks to This Exact 30-Day Routine – Yahoo Lifestyle

By daniellenierenberg

I'm just going to come out and say it: Everyone has been complimenting my skin lately. My co-workers, random peopleat the grocery store, my friends and familyeveryone. While I've never dealt with any major skin woes like acne, I still never considered myself to be someone with particularly good skin (whatever that means). My skin has always been on thedry side, and like many women of color, I've dealt with my fair share of stubborn hyperpigmentation. The sudden influx of complimentshasn't just been a nice little boost to my newly 30-year-old ego but also a testament to my current skincare routine, which I've tweaked to perfectionover the course of several months.

As a beauty editor, I have access to every product under the sun. But ever since last fall, I felt like my skin had just lost something. When I think back, it makes sense, as there was lot was happening at the time. I had moved, turned 30, gotten engaged, andmade a major professional moveall in a matter of months, and while each of these life developments was exciting and positive, I found myself overwhelmed with stress. I wasn't sleeping well, I wasn't eating properly, my skincare routine had fallen by the wayside, and all of that was showing up on my face. I was getting pimples, my skin tone was blotchy and uneven, and my skin texture was less than smooth.

But then, something started to happen around January: Every time I posted a photo of my mug on Instagram, a sea of adulation would flood into my comments. I started catching glimpses of my makeup-free face and being truly happy with what I saw staring back at me. Maybe it was the newfound self-love I'd been practicing in therapy, or maybe it was my skincare regimen, whichhadadmittedly reached an all-time level of bougie, even for me. Now, I'm at a place where I'llfreely leave the house without makeup on and am genuinely pleased with how healthy and smooth my skin looks. I'm not perfect, by any means, but Iamgenuinely happy, and I have to believe that my fresh, smooth skin has something to do with it. So here it goes: the exact skincare routine thatdelivered smooth, glowing skin in a month's time and continues to do so to this day. Try it out for yourself and let me know what you think.

Klur Gentle Matter ($22)

I thoroughly cleanse my skin at night, so I don't always use a cleanser in the morning. Most days, I find that warm water is enough. When I do feel the need to cleanse in the morning, though,this gel cleanser is the onlyone I'll reach for. It's so gentle and actually adds moisture and nutrients like green tea, dandelion, and olive oil into my skin instead ofjust pulling everything out.

SkinCeuticals C E Ferulic ($166)

Vitamin C is probably the most important component of my skincare routine right now. While there's a lot of debate around L-ascorbic acid and whether or not its potency is actually good for the skin (jury's still out on that one), I find thatmy skin responds really well to it. Vitamin E and ferulic acid round out this formula with extra skin lipid and antioxidant protection. I can alwaystell when I've gotten lazy with my vitamin C regimen because marks from old blemishes will start to deepen, and my skin will lose some of the glow and refinement that earns me an insane amount of compliments.

Bioderma Sensibio Eye Contour Gel ($20)

I'll admit that I didn't take eye cream seriously until about a year ago, and this non-intimidating tube is to thank for that change of heart. The cream inside is lightweight and easy to lightly tap into my eye area. When I'm using eye cream consistently, I notice that any fine lines in the area soften over time, giving me that smooth, even texture I'm always after.

Kiehl's Ultra Facial Cream ($32)

This moisturizer has been an on-again, off-again staple on my vanity for years now. It's unscented, lightweight, and super effective. If I'm feeling extra dry, I'll even add afew small drops of marula oil to give it an extra hit of moisture.

Victoria Beckham by Augustinus Bader Cell Rejuvenating Priming Moisturizer ($145)

This moisturizing primer is basically like a blurring filter for your skin. It has tiny sparkly particles and theproprietary TFC-8 technology found in Augustinus Bader's other famous creams (more on those later). It makes my skin look way smoother, even when I don't layer any makeup on top.

Elta MD UV Clear Broad-Spectrum SPF 46 ($28)

Say it with me: SPF, all the time, no matter what. UV protection is important for so many reasons, but for me, it's all about mitigating hyperpigmentation and making sure any scars or blemishes on my face aren't getting exposed to the sun. This sunscreen by Elta MD is a dermatologist favorite, and it's one of my favorites, too. It doesn't irritate my skin or leave an unsightly white cast.

Farmacy Green Clean Makeup Removing Cleansing Balm ($34)

I'm a makeup wearer, so my nighttime cleansing ritual has always been serious. I need every stitch ofgunk off of my face before I can relax for the evening. This cleansing balm melts even the most stubborn eye makeup with ease. I usually massage it into the rest of my face for about 30 seconds before concentrating on my eyes. After just a few seconds of gentle rubbing, any makeup is melted down to an inky oil that rinses away without leaving any residue behind.

Reflekt Daily Exfoliating Wash ($48)

This exfoliator is said to be gentle enough for daily use, and I've found that to be true for me. Although I've backed off from using it every single day, I still love how clean and soft my face feels after use. The multitasking jojoba beads are small and smooth, so they aren't at all harsh on the skin and also meltdown to impart moisture instead of stripping the skin.

IS Clinical Cleansing Complex ($44)

This slippery cleanser clings to every trace of grime to remove it while also retexturizing. When I want a flat wash at night instead of a gritty, exfoliating one, this is the cleanser for the job. I used to have a serious attitude about paying more than $20 for cleanser (come on, it's literally money down the drain), but this is the one that taught me the power of investing in a high-quality cleanser.

U Beauty Resurfacing Compound ($148)

I've been using the U Beauty Resurfacing Compound pretty consistently since it launched last winter, and I can honestly say that it's ascended to my skincare top five. It's so good. If smooth skin is your goal, you need to try this stuff. It's patent-pending siren capsules are designed to carry active ingredients wherever your skin needs them and bypass the healthy skin cells that don't. That's why you won't experience any redness, irritation, or peeling that typically arises when starting a retinoid. This has definitely been the hero product in my smooth-skin journey.

Moon Juice Beauty Shroom Plumping Jelly Serum ($58)

It was love at first pump with this magical, hyaluronic acid and mushroom-packed elixir. There aren't many products that make a big difference in your skin's texture after just one use, but this one does. Every time I use it, my skin instantly looks plumped and smoother.

IS Clinical Youth Eye Complex ($105)

This eye cream plumps and moisturizes my delicate under-eye skin before bed. It has a little retinol in it, which honestly freaked me out at first, but over time has resulted in major refinement of fine lines.

Augustinus Bader The Rich Cream ($170)

Are you sick of editors telling you how much they love this cream? Well, I'm sorry to tell you that I'm about to do it, too. When I'm running on fumes and can only manage to get my makeup off and slap one product on my face before bed, this is the indispensable one I can't ever skip. Maybe it's the stem cellstimulating TFC-8 technology, maybe it's some sort of sorcery, but all I know is my skin has legitimately changed in texture since I started using this cream. Real talk: It's worth every penny.

Dr. Dennis Gross Clinical Grade Resurfacing Liquid Peel ($95)

I love a good resurfacing peel, but I have to admit that I've calmed way down on the acids. I found my skin becoming more sensitized and reactive, and while I can't say for sure that my nightly resurfacing toners were to blame, I'm way better off since scaling back. Now, once a week, I'll do a pass of this two-step, clinical-grade lactic and glycolic acid peel, and it immediately makes my skin look smooth, bright, and alive. As with any super-potent acid compound, it's a good idea to patch test this one to make sure your skin doesn't have an adverse reaction.

Goldfaden MD Facial Detox ($65)

I love this clean detox mask because it's cooling and tingly on the skin but doesn't dry down so hard that it makes my face feel dry or depleted. Rinsing off the sulfur-infused paste feels like taking the biggest breath of fresh air.

Dr. Dennis Gross Hyaluronic Marine Hydrating Modeling Mask ($48)

If you know me at all, then you already know how obsessed I am with this modeling mask. I firmly believe that I could stay awake for three days straight, not drink any water the whole time, and still look fresh as a daisy after 20 minutes with this goop slopped on my face.

Klorane Smoothing and Relaxing Patches ($24)

Whether I'm prepping for a photo shoot, getting ready for a night out, or just looking to minimize puffy eyes after a couple of glasses of wine, these cornflower eye patches by Klorane get the job done like no other. The soothing hydrogeleye masks actually stay put so I can move around without them slipping off, which is a huge plus.

Pai Rosehip BioRegenerate Oil ($44)

Not only is this fatty acidrich rose-hip oil an ultra-luxe finishing touch to my nighttime routine, but it also helps to get rid of imperfections caused by an imbalance in my skin's pH. I know that using oil to treat breakouts sounds counterintuitive, but this oil does just as much to calm and soothe the skin as it does to moisturize it.

Osea Malibu Blemish Balm ($48)

Speaking of soothing salves, this coolingbalmfeels so good on top of congested skin. Whenever I notice a pimple or that my pores are looking rough, I'll spot-treat with this clean cream and let it penetrate into my skin tocalmany inflammation that's plaguing me. I'll work it in as the first step in my routine whenever I need it, and it really sets the tone for the entire day.

Up next, the 25 best products to keep your skin right and tight well past your 20s.

This article originally appeared on Who What Wear

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Cell Therapy Insights Report, 2018-2028: Markets, Technologies, Ethics, Regulations, Companies & Academic Institutions – Benzinga

By daniellenierenberg

Dublin, March 10, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The "Cell Therapy - Technologies, Markets and Companies" report from Jain PharmaBiotech has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

The cell-based markets was analyzed for 2018, and projected to 2028. The markets are analyzed according to therapeutic categories, technologies and geographical areas. The largest expansion will be in diseases of the central nervous system, cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Skin and soft tissue repair as well as diabetes mellitus will be other major markets.

The number of companies involved in cell therapy has increased remarkably during the past few years. More than 500 companies have been identified to be involved in cell therapy and 309 of these are profiled in part II of the report along with tabulation of 302 alliances. Of these companies, 170 are involved in stem cells.

Profiles of 72 academic institutions in the US involved in cell therapy are also included in part II along with their commercial collaborations. The text is supplemented with 67 Tables and 25 Figures. The bibliography contains 1,200 selected references, which are cited in the text.

This report contains information on the following:

The report describes and evaluates cell therapy technologies and methods, which have already started to play an important role in the practice of medicine. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is replacing the old fashioned bone marrow transplants. Role of cells in drug discovery is also described. Cell therapy is bound to become a part of medical practice.

Stem cells are discussed in detail in one chapter. Some light is thrown on the current controversy of embryonic sources of stem cells and comparison with adult sources. Other sources of stem cells such as the placenta, cord blood and fat removed by liposuction are also discussed. Stem cells can also be genetically modified prior to transplantation.

Cell therapy technologies overlap with those of gene therapy, cancer vaccines, drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Pharmaceutical applications of stem cells including those in drug discovery are also described. Various types of cells used, methods of preparation and culture, encapsulation and genetic engineering of cells are discussed. Sources of cells, both human and animal (xenotransplantation) are discussed. Methods of delivery of cell therapy range from injections to surgical implantation using special devices.

Cell therapy has applications in a large number of disorders. The most important are diseases of the nervous system and cancer which are the topics for separate chapters. Other applications include cardiac disorders (myocardial infarction and heart failure), diabetes mellitus, diseases of bones and joints, genetic disorders, and wounds of the skin and soft tissues.

Regulatory and ethical issues involving cell therapy are important and are discussed. Current political debate on the use of stem cells from embryonic sources (hESCs) is also presented. Safety is an essential consideration of any new therapy and regulations for cell therapy are those for biological preparations.

Key Topics Covered

Part I: Technologies, Ethics & RegulationsExecutive Summary 1. Introduction to Cell Therapy2. Cell Therapy Technologies3. Stem Cells4. Clinical Applications of Cell Therapy5. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Disorders6. Cell Therapy for Cancer7. Cell Therapy for Neurological Disorders8. Ethical, Legal and Political Aspects of Cell therapy9. Safety and Regulatory Aspects of Cell Therapy

Part II: Markets, Companies & Academic Institutions10. Markets and Future Prospects for Cell Therapy11. Companies Involved in Cell Therapy12. Academic Institutions13. References

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/bzimne

Research and Markets also offers Custom Research services providing focused, comprehensive and tailored research.

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Only 2 northern white rhinos left, and both are female these women are trying to save the species – KSNF/KODE – FourStatesHomepage.com

By daniellenierenberg

SAN DIEGO (CNN) There are only two northern white rhinos left on the planet, and theyre both female. Unless scientists can make a dramatic breakthrough, the entire species will die with those two individuals.

In a nondescript building just north of San Diego, the fight to save the northern white rhino is coming down to the wire. However, the battleground here looks less like a scene from a wildlife documentary and more akin to something out of a science fiction novel.

At the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, an army of scientists armed with liquid nitrogen, microscopes, and ultrasound machines is working around the clock to create an unprecedented first in the conservation world: they are looking to turn frozen rhino skin cells into baby rhinos.

Its not just the science that is groundbreaking, but also the team looking to save this species. Composed mostly of women, the lab is a rarity in a field traditionally dominated by men.

The first step in this conservation effort began more than four and a half decades ago in 1975 when scientists established the institutes Frozen Zoo. In a small room measuring no more than 36 square meters the skin cells of more than 10,000 individuals across 1,100 species sit in giant steel tanks suspended in time, frozen in liquid nitrogen.

Among the collection are the skin samples of 12 northern white rhinos. These are vital to the groups efforts because there is such a small gene pool of living northern whites.

The population has been decimated by poachers, who target rhinos because of the belief in parts of Asia that their horns can cure various ailments. The two surviving females both live under guard at the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. Even thoughembryos have been producedin an Italian lab using eggs extracted from the pair, any future descendants from this kind of embryo would carry the genes of those two females.

That may not be enough genetic diversity to maintain a stable population. The hope is that the skin samples of those 12 individuals at the Frozen Zoo contain enough diversity to sustain the northern white species long-term.

The arduous task for these scientists is to create a rhino population from those samples.

Marlys Houck is curator of the Frozen Zoo. She graduated high school in 1979, the same year the Frozen Zoo froze its very first northern white rhino skin cell. She later joined the institute to work on the rhino project.

I was hired specifically to try to make the cells of the rhinos grow better because they were one of the most difficult to grow cell lines, she told CNN.

Since then, shes figured out how to successfully grow and freeze the skin cells of the northern white.

The impact of this work is not lost on her. Were losing species so rapidly, she said. One of the things we can do is save the living cells of these animals before its too late.

Were at the forefront of science today, she added. If we do everything right these cells should be here 50 years from now being used for purposes that we cant even imagine today.

Marisa Korody is one of the four scientists tasked with turning these frozen cells into new life. They have to reprogram the frozen skin cells into pluripotent stem cells. In laymans terms, Korody explains that stem cells can become any cell type in the body if theyre given the right signals.

Read: Former war zones turn into wildlife paradise

The aim is to ultimately turn the stem cells into sperm and eggs. The ambitious feat has only been achieved in animals by Japanese scientists. While Korody and her team have looked to that research as a road map, she admits that doing the same with rhinos is uncharted territory. We dont really know what twists and turns we need to take in order to get from A to B, she said.

They havent even figured out how to do this in humans, she added. We have as much information as we possibly can about humans. We have a fraction of that for rhinos.

Korody says being at the forefront of this kind of science has been a dream job. This was really the first project thats trying to apply this type of science to conservation as a whole, she said.

She may spend most of her time at work looking through the lens of a microscope, but her mind is always on the final goal for the rhinos: We want to be able to put them back into the wild one day and have them living free.

Because the remaining two female northern white rhinos cant carry a pregnancy, even if the team can create embryos, the last obstacle is finding rhinos who can carry them to term.

The woman tasked with that job is Barbara Durrant. As the director of reproductive sciences, shes spent four years studying the reproductive systems of six female southern white rhinos at the institutes sister facility, the Nikita Kahn Rhino Rescue Center.

Though the rhinos at the center are a different species, Durrant says they are the closest relative to the northern white. The aim is to eventually have them be surrogates for northern white embryos.

On any given day, Durrant can be found conducting ultrasounds to help her understand each rhinos distinct reproductive cycle. In 2019, two of the centers females gave birth to southern white babies. Both were conceived via artificial insemination, giving Durrant and the teams working on the rhino project hope for the future.

Durrant believes one reason the project works so well is because there are so many women involved. Women are naturally collaborative with each other, she said. Because we have so many obstacles along the way and challenges and setbacks, we support each other and we have sympathy for each other.

Read: Rare bird brought back from extinction in the wild

Houck says women tend to be naturally nurturing. The cells are living little organisms that were growing and tending almost every day, and I think women are drawn to taking care of something and growing it into something more.

Its wonderful leading a team of women, and I really think theyre changing the world, she added. People are going to look back and see it was this amazing group of women who quietly, unrecognized, work at this and just get better and better.

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Only 2 northern white rhinos left, and both are female these women are trying to save the species - KSNF/KODE - FourStatesHomepage.com

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Cosmetic Skin Care Market Research Insights 2019 Global Industry Outlook Shared in Detailed Report, Forecast to 2027 – News Times

By daniellenierenberg

Cosmetic Skin Care Market 2018: Global Industry Insights by Global Players, Regional Segmentation, Growth, Applications, Major Drivers, Value and Foreseen till 2024

The report provides both quantitative and qualitative information of global Cosmetic Skin Care market for period of 2018 to 2025. As per the analysis provided in the report, the global market of Cosmetic Skin Care is estimated to growth at a CAGR of _% during the forecast period 2018 to 2025 and is expected to rise to USD _ million/billion by the end of year 2025. In the year 2016, the global Cosmetic Skin Care market was valued at USD _ million/billion.

This research report based on Cosmetic Skin Care market and available with Market Study Report includes latest and upcoming industry trends in addition to the global spectrum of the Cosmetic Skin Care market that includes numerous regions. Likewise, the report also expands on intricate details pertaining to contributions by key players, demand and supply analysis as well as market share growth of the Cosmetic Skin Care industry.

Request Sample Report @https://www.mrrse.com/sample/6559?source=atm

Cosmetic Skin Care Market Overview:

The Research projects that the Cosmetic Skin Care market size will grow from in 2018 to by 2024, at an estimated CAGR of XX%. The base year considered for the study is 2018, and the market size is projected from 2018 to 2024.

Leading manufacturers of Cosmetic Skin Care Market:

below:

Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market, Product Analysis

Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market, Application Analysis

In addition the report provides cross-sectional analysis of all the above segments with respect to the following geographical markets:

Global Cosmetic Skin Care Market, by Geography

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Some important highlights from the report include:

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The Questions Answered by Cosmetic Skin Care Market Report:

And Many More.

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Cosmetic Skin Care Market Research Insights 2019 Global Industry Outlook Shared in Detailed Report, Forecast to 2027 - News Times

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OPINION EXCHANGE | Amid the coronavirus threat: A plea on behalf of the old and sick – Minneapolis Star Tribune

By daniellenierenberg

I feel like a sacrificial lamb, or an acceptable casualty. When a politician or scientist or couch expert says, Its only the old and ill that die, they are talking about me. The coronavirus threat has changed my identity from that of a father, husband, son, friend, pastor, alcoholic with two years sobriety and a slew of chips to prove it, to that of a comforting statistic. My new identity may soon be summed up on the news when they say, Its OK. He had underlying health problems.

Im not complaining about those who are young and healthy. When I consider my children and my wife, I, like many of you, thank God for their health. Three months ago, I would have said the same thing about my health. Unfortunately, that changed in January when I finally decided to go to the doctor and have the little red spots that had formed all over my skin, along with the new bruises that showed up daily, looked at. I found out that the blood platelets that keep all of us from bleeding to death had decided to take a vacation from my body. Most people have anywhere from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. Mine were at 4,000, and there was a danger of blood seeping into my brain, ending my life.

The first time I was in the hospital, I was there for eight days. They ran tests and stuck me with needles, capping it all off with a bone-marrow biopsy. I was diagnosed with a rare blood disorder called aplastic anemia. To put it simply, my stem cells are under siege, making it difficult for my body to produce platelets, as well as red and white blood cells. I have been hospitalized around 45 days since that diagnosis. Im actually writing this article from a hospital room. Theres a truly stunning view of the hospital roof outside my window. With no white blood cells, my immune system is completely compromised, and every little infection that normal people fight off without even noticing brings me back to the hospital again.

The only cure for me is to have a bone-marrow transplant. The problem is, even though there are several matches for my transplant, in order for the transplant to go as well as possible I have to be free of infections, viruses and other diseases. Only then can I be admitted to the University of Minnesotas Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Center. Last month this didnt bother me. Now, though, the coronavirus is coming up behind me, daring me to wait longer.

If all goes well, Ill be discharged from the hospital and self-quarantined to my house with a bag full of antibiotics and other drugs. Sadly, Ive been told that the other things I need to stay healthy and get to my transplant are gone. The hand sanitizer, the antibacterial wipes, the masks that my family should be wearing, and the N95 respirators that I need to wear are nowhere to be found someone actually stole a box of masks from outside my hospital room. Many of these items have been snatched up by the same folks who thank God they are not me.

Again, dont get me wrong. I am grateful for those who are young and healthy. They should be thankful, for they are blessed. I just pray that when they give that thanks, they remember those of us who are terrified by what is coming. We are not simply a means to calm peoples fears; we are people who deserve compassion, mercy and dignity. I ask simply that you pray for the old and sick that they might get through this, that you leave a little hand sanitizer on the shelves for us, and for goodness sake, dont take the N95 respirators from my hospital room. I need them because my family, who knows that I am more than a comforting statistic, needs me. They need the man who loves them dearly and desperately wants to continue to be their father and husband.

Howard Baird lives in Maple Grove.

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OPINION EXCHANGE | Amid the coronavirus threat: A plea on behalf of the old and sick - Minneapolis Star Tribune

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Press Release: Introducing the Australasian Academy of Corneotherapy – PRWire

By daniellenierenberg

derma aesthetics are proud to announce the launch of the Australasian Academy of Corneotherapy in Australia and New Zealand. The academy has been established to provide cutting edge Corneotherapy and skin education to all skin therapists, with the aim of advancing the level of in-depth skin health knowledge amongst the local industry.

Simone Vescio, Founder of the Australasian Academy of Corneotherapy says, Over the past eight years we have pioneered the awareness and education of corneotherapy across Australia and New Zealand, and were thrilled to be opening up our education to the aesthetics industry in Australasia!

Throughout 2020, the AAC will be holding series of Skin Extension Education Classes with the first classes having already opened their doors and been held in Sydney and Auckland in February.

From 2020 we are opening up our educational classes, training and access to the latest information on corneotherapy to all therapists, no matter what their brand of choice may currently be. There was a lack of non-product aligned education in our local industries, and were proud to be filling this gap, said Simone.

AAC Skin Extension Education 2020 - Class Schedule:Tuesday, 17 March 2020 PerthMonday, 30 March 2020 MelbourneMonday, 18 May 2020 AlburyMonday, 27 July 2020 BrisbaneMonday, 2 November 2020 Christchurch

The AAC Skin Extension Education classes have been designed to deliver comprehensive education on some of the most important and complex subjects and skin conditions. Plus, there will also be time for Q&A and further learning from your peers and educator during the day, said Simone.

Topics covered in each class include:

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Meet the women racing to save the northern white rhino from extinction in San Diego – KTLA

By daniellenierenberg

There are only two northern white rhinos left on the planet, and theyre both female. Unless scientists can make a dramatic breakthrough, the entire species will die with those two individuals.

In a nondescript building just north of San Diego, California, the fight to save the northern white rhino is coming down to the wire. However, the battleground here looks less like a scene from a wildlife documentary and more akin to something out of a science fiction novel.

At the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, an army of scientists armed with liquid nitrogen, microscopes, and ultrasound machines is working around the clock to create an unprecedented first in the conservation world: they are looking to turn frozen rhino skin cells into baby rhinos.

Its not just the science that is groundbreaking, but also the team looking to save this species. Composed mostly of women, the lab is a rarity in a field traditionally dominated by men.

Find out more about Call to Earth and the extraordinary people working for a more sustainable future

The first step in this conservation effort began more than four and a half decades ago in 1975 when scientists established the institutes Frozen Zoo. In a small room measuring no more than 36 square meters the skin cells of more than 10,000 individuals across 1,100 species sit in giant steel tanks suspended in time, frozen in liquid nitrogen.

Among the collection are the skin samples of 12 northern white rhinos. These are vital to the groups efforts because there is such a small gene pool of living northern whites.

The population has been decimated by poachers, who target rhinos because of the belief in parts of Asia that their horns can cure various ailments. The two surviving females both live under guard at the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. Even thoughembryos have been producedin an Italian lab using eggs extracted from the pair, any future descendants from this kind of embryo would carry the genes of those two females.

That may not be enough genetic diversity to maintain a stable population. The hope is that the skin samples of those 12 individuals at the Frozen Zoo contain enough diversity to sustain the northern white species long-term.

The arduous task for these scientists is to create a rhino population from those samples.

Marlys Houck is curator of the Frozen Zoo. She graduated high school in 1979, the same year the Frozen Zoo froze its very first northern white rhino skin cell. She later joined the institute to work on the rhino project.

I was hired specifically to try to make the cells of the rhinos grow better because they were one of the most difficult to grow cell lines, she told CNN.

Since then, shes figured out how to successfully grow and freeze the skin cells of the northern white.

The impact of this work is not lost on her. Were losing species so rapidly, she said. One of the things we can do is save the living cells of these animals before its too late.

Were at the forefront of science today, she added. If we do everything right these cells should be here 50 years from now being used for purposes that we cant even imagine today.

Marisa Korody is one of the four scientists tasked with turning these frozen cells into new life. They have to reprogram the frozen skin cells into pluripotent stem cells. In laymans terms, Korody explains that stem cells can become any cell type in the body if theyre given the right signals.

The aim is to ultimately turn the stem cells into sperm and eggs. The ambitious feat has only been achieved in animals by Japanese scientists. While Korody and her team have looked to that research as a road map, she admits that doing the same with rhinos is uncharted territory. We dont really know what twists and turns we need to take in order to get from A to B, she said.

They havent even figured out how to do this in humans, she added. We have as much information as we possibly can about humans. We have a fraction of that for rhinos.

Korody says being at the forefront of this kind of science has been a dream job. This was really the first project thats trying to apply this type of science to conservation as a whole, she said.

She may spend most of her time at work looking through the lens of a microscope, but her mind is always on the final goal for the rhinos: We want to be able to put them back into the wild one day and have them living free.

Because the remaining two female northern white rhinos cant carry a pregnancy, even if the team can create embryos, the last obstacle is finding rhinos who can carry them to term.

The woman tasked with that job is Barbara Durrant. As the director of reproductive sciences, shes spent four years studying the reproductive systems of six female southern white rhinos at the institutes sister facility, the Nikita Kahn Rhino Rescue Center.

Though the rhinos at the center are a different species, Durrant says they are the closest relative to the northern white. The aim is to eventually have them be surrogates for northern white embryos.

On any given day, Durrant can be found conducting ultrasounds to help her understand each rhinos distinct reproductive cycle. In 2019, two of the centers females gave birth to southern white babies. Both were conceived via artificial insemination, giving Durrant and the teams working on the rhino project hope for the future.

Durrant believes one reason the project works so well is because there are so many women involved. Women are naturally collaborative with each other, she said. Because we have so many obstacles along the way and challenges and setbacks, we support each other and we have sympathy for each other.

Read: Rare bird brought back from extinction in the wild

Houck says women tend to be naturally nurturing. The cells are living little organisms that were growing and tending almost every day, and I think women are drawn to taking care of something and growing it into something more.

Its wonderful leading a team of women, and I really think theyre changing the world, she added. People are going to look back and see it was this amazing group of women who quietly, unrecognized, work at this and just get better and better.

Read more:
Meet the women racing to save the northern white rhino from extinction in San Diego - KTLA

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This Is Why Soap Is So Effective at Stopping Spread of Coronavirus – Newsweek

By daniellenierenberg

With fear and misinformation spreading alongside the new coronavirus, a scientist has explained why a humble bar of soap is one of the most important weapons in our arsenal against the bug which causes COVID-19.

Soap wipes out viruses including SARS-CoV-2the pathogen which causes the disease COVID-19 not to be confused with the SARS virusbecause it is able to dissolve its fat membrane, explained Palli Thordarson, a chemistry professor at the University of New South Wales.

In a Twitter thread, Thordarson said this causes the virus to fall apart "like a house of cards" and become inactive (but not die as they aren't technically alive). Water alone isn't enough, according to Thordarson, because it "'only' competes with the strong 'glue-like' interactions between the skin and virus via hydrogen bonds. They virus is quite sticky and may not budge."

"Soapy water is totally different," said Thordarson. "Soap contains fat-like substances knowns as amphiphiles, some structurally very similar to the lipids in the virus membrane. The soap molecules "compete" with the lipids in the virus membrane."

And as our hands are "quite rough and wrinkly," we need to rub and soak them to make sure the soap reaches every part of the skin, he said.

Thordarson went on to address why soap works better to deactivate viruses than other products. "Disinfectants, or liquids, wipes, gels and creams containing alcohol (and soap) have a similar effects but are not really quite as good as normal soap. Apart from the alcohol and soap, the 'antibacterial agents' in these products don't affect the virus structure much at all."

"Consequently, many antibacterial products are basically just an expensive version of soap in terms of how they act on viruses. Soap is the best but alcohol wipes are good when soap is not practical or handy (e.g. office receptions)," he said.

Donald Schaffner, distinguished professor at Rutgers University and an expert in topics including handwashing, told Newsweek soaps also work to remove viruses from the hands as they wash them down the drain, while hand sanitizers inactivate virus already on the hands. "For an added 'one-two' punch you can use both," he said.

Contrary to some recommendations that hot water must be used when handwashing, Schaffner said the level of heat doesn't matter and people should simply use a comfortable temperature.

"People should practice washing all the areas of their hands, and perhaps give special attention to places where microbes may get trapped in dirt such as under the fingernails," he said.

Schaffner added: "Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are very effective against this virus. There are some viruses like norovirus, where hand sanitizers don't work as well." That's not the case with SARS-CoV-2 because of its structure, he said.

"Of course it doesn't help that many store shelves are sold out, but I would recommend getting a bottle to have on hand the next time it's available," said Schaffner.

The advice is in line with that given by the World Health Organization, which last month urged the public to "never underestimate the power of the humble bar of soap!"

"Washing your hands regularlyeither with alcohol-based rub or ordinary soap and wateris one of the most effective ways to protect yourself and others from #COVID19 and many other diseases."

For more WHO advice of preventing the spread of COVID-19, scroll to the bottom of the piece.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises people to sing the Happy Birthday song twice, which lasts about 20 seconds, while washing their hands to ensure they are doing so for long enough to rid their hands of germs.

After you've washed your hands, don't forget to moisturise, Dr. Sara Hogan, a dermatologist at UCLA Medical Center, told Slate. That's because the practice can disturb the outer layer of skin which is made up of dead cells and protects our skin from dirt and microbes, and locks in moisture.

Dr. Evan Rieder, a dermatologist at NYU Langone told the website "really greasy" moisturizers and emollients are best, followed by creams and lotions which contain more water and are therefore less hydrating.

All this can help to stem the spread of the COVID-19, which has killed over 3,800 people in 111,000 cases worldwide, with more than 62,300 people recovered, according to a tracker run by Johns Hopkins University.

Most deaths have occurred in Hubei, China, where the outbreak started in the province's capital of Wuhan in December 2019. As shown in the map below by Statista the virus has reached every continent except Antarctica.

Hygiene advice

Medical advice

Mask usage

This article has been updated with comment from Donald Schaffner.

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Meet the women racing to save the northern white rhino from extinction – WLS

By daniellenierenberg

There are only two northern white rhinos left on the planet, and theyre both female. Unless scientists can make a dramatic breakthrough, the entire species will die with those two individuals.

In a nondescript building just north of San Diego, California, the fight to save the northern white rhino is coming down to the wire. However, the battleground here looks less like a scene from a wildlife documentary and more akin to something out of a science fiction novel.

At the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, an army of scientists armed with liquid nitrogen, microscopes, and ultrasound machines is working around the clock to create an unprecedented first in the conservation world: they are looking to turn frozen rhino skin cells into baby rhinos.

Its not just the science that is groundbreaking, but also the team looking to save this species. Composed mostly of women, the lab is a rarity in a field traditionally dominated by men.

Find out more about Call to Earth and the extraordinary people working for a more sustainable future

The first step in this conservation effort began more than four and a half decades ago in 1975 when scientists established the institutes Frozen Zoo. In a small room measuring no more than 36 square meters the skin cells of more than 10,000 individuals across 1,100 species sit in giant steel tanks suspended in time, frozen in liquid nitrogen.

Among the collection are the skin samples of 12 northern white rhinos. These are vital to the groups efforts because there is such a small gene pool of living northern whites.

The population has been decimated by poachers, who target rhinos because of the belief in parts of Asia that their horns can cure various ailments. The two surviving females both live under guard at the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. Even though embryos have been produced in an Italian lab using eggs extracted from the pair, any future descendants from this kind of embryo would carry the genes of those two females.

That may not be enough genetic diversity to maintain a stable population. The hope is that the skin samples of those 12 individuals at the Frozen Zoo contain enough diversity to sustain the northern white species long-term.

The arduous task for these scientists is to create a rhino population from those samples.

Marlys Houck is curator of the Frozen Zoo. She graduated high school in 1979, the same year the Frozen Zoo froze its very first northern white rhino skin cell. She later joined the institute to work on the rhino project.

I was hired specifically to try to make the cells of the rhinos grow better because they were one of the most difficult to grow cell lines, she told CNN.

Since then, shes figured out how to successfully grow and freeze the skin cells of the northern white.

The impact of this work is not lost on her. Were losing species so rapidly, she said. One of the things we can do is save the living cells of these animals before its too late.

Were at the forefront of science today, she added. If we do everything right these cells should be here 50 years from now being used for purposes that we cant even imagine today.

Marisa Korody is one of the four scientists tasked with turning these frozen cells into new life. They have to reprogram the frozen skin cells into pluripotent stem cells. In laymans terms, Korody explains that stem cells can become any cell type in the body if theyre given the right signals.

Read: Former war zones turn into wildlife paradise

The aim is to ultimately turn the stem cells into sperm and eggs. The ambitious feat has only been achieved in animals by Japanese scientists. While Korody and her team have looked to that research as a road map, she admits that doing the same with rhinos is uncharted territory. We dont really know what twists and turns we need to take in order to get from A to B, she said.

They havent even figured out how to do this in humans, she added. We have as much information as we possibly can about humans. We have a fraction of that for rhinos.

Korody says being at the forefront of this kind of science has been a dream job. This was really the first project thats trying to apply this type of science to conservation as a whole, she said.

She may spend most of her time at work looking through the lens of a microscope, but her mind is always on the final goal for the rhinos: We want to be able to put them back into the wild one day and have them living free.

Because the remaining two female northern white rhinos cant carry a pregnancy, even if the team can create embryos, the last obstacle is finding rhinos who can carry them to term.

The woman tasked with that job is Barbara Durrant. As the director of reproductive sciences, shes spent four years studying the reproductive systems of six female southern white rhinos at the institutes sister facility, the Nikita Kahn Rhino Rescue Center.

Though the rhinos at the center are a different species, Durrant says they are the closest relative to the northern white. The aim is to eventually have them be surrogates for northern white embryos.

On any given day, Durrant can be found conducting ultrasounds to help her understand each rhinos distinct reproductive cycle. In 2019, two of the centers females gave birth to southern white babies. Both were conceived via artificial insemination, giving Durrant and the teams working on the rhino project hope for the future.

Durrant believes one reason the project works so well is because there are so many women involved. Women are naturally collaborative with each other, she said. Because we have so many obstacles along the way and challenges and setbacks, we support each other and we have sympathy for each other.

Read: Rare bird brought back from extinction in the wild

Houck says women tend to be naturally nurturing. The cells are living little organisms that were growing and tending almost every day, and I think women are drawn to taking care of something and growing it into something more.

Its wonderful leading a team of women, and I really think theyre changing the world, she added. People are going to look back and see it was this amazing group of women who quietly, unrecognized, work at this and just get better and better.

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Meet the women racing to save the northern white rhino from extinction - WLS

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Meng Hsieh, Andrew Shubin – The New York Times

By daniellenierenberg

Dr. Meng-Lun Hsieh and Dr. Andrew Dean Shubin were married March 7 at the Warwick Melrose Hotel in Dallas. The Rev. Beth Dana, a Unitarian Universalist minister, officiated.

The bride, 33, who goes by Meng, is a fourth-year medical school student at Michigan State University, from which she also received a doctorate in biochemistry. She graduated from Williams College.

She is a daughter of Huey-Jen Liaw and Jyh-Cheng Hsieh of San Diego. The brides father is a research scientist at Sheatech, a biotech company in San Diego. Her mother, a stay-at-home parent, was a history teacher at Taibei High School, a private school in Taipei.

The groom, also 33, is a second-year general surgery resident at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. He graduated magna cum laude from the University of Washington, and received a doctorate in biomedical engineering from the University of Rochester, from which he also received a medical degree.

He is a son of Carol E. Shubin and Andy N. Shubin of Vancouver, Wash. His father retired as a photography teacher at Shahala Middle School in Vancouver. The grooms mother retired as a special-education teacher at Burton Elementary School in Vancouver.

The couple met a decade ago at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md., as post-baccalaureate research fellows, she focusing on a virus that infects bacteria, and he on skin stem cells. In April 2016, they met again at a conference for physician scientists in Chicago, and began dating long-distance.

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Meng Hsieh, Andrew Shubin - The New York Times

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Meet the women racing to save the northern white rhino from extinction – KTVZ

By daniellenierenberg

There are only two northern white rhinos left on the planet, and theyre both female. Unless scientists can make a dramatic breakthrough, the entire species will die with those two individuals.

In a nondescript building just north of San Diego, California, the fight to save the northern white rhino is coming down to the wire. However, the battleground here looks less like a scene from a wildlife documentary and more akin to something out of a science fiction novel.

At the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, an army of scientists armed with liquid nitrogen, microscopes, and ultrasound machines is working around the clock to create an unprecedented first in the conservation world: they are looking to turn frozen rhino skin cells into baby rhinos.

Its not just the science that is groundbreaking, but also the team looking to save this species. Composed mostly of women, the lab is a rarity in a field traditionally dominated by men.

Find out more about Call to Earth and the extraordinary people working for a more sustainable future

The first step in this conservation effort began more than four and a half decades ago in 1975 when scientists established the institutes Frozen Zoo. In a small room measuring no more than 36 square meters the skin cells of more than 10,000 individuals across 1,100 species sit in giant steel tanks suspended in time, frozen in liquid nitrogen.

Among the collection are the skin samples of 12 northern white rhinos. These are vital to the groups efforts because there is such a small gene pool of living northern whites.

The population has been decimated by poachers, who target rhinos because of the belief in parts of Asia that their horns can cure various ailments. The two surviving females both live under guard at the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. Even though embryos have been produced in an Italian lab using eggs extracted from the pair, any future descendants from this kind of embryo would carry the genes of those two females.

That may not be enough genetic diversity to maintain a stable population. The hope is that the skin samples of those 12 individuals at the Frozen Zoo contain enough diversity to sustain the northern white species long-term.

The arduous task for these scientists is to create a rhino population from those samples.

Marlys Houck is curator of the Frozen Zoo. She graduated high school in 1979, the same year the Frozen Zoo froze its very first northern white rhino skin cell. She later joined the institute to work on the rhino project.

I was hired specifically to try to make the cells of the rhinos grow better because they were one of the most difficult to grow cell lines, she told CNN.

Since then, shes figured out how to successfully grow and freeze the skin cells of the northern white.

The impact of this work is not lost on her. Were losing species so rapidly, she said. One of the things we can do is save the living cells of these animals before its too late.

Were at the forefront of science today, she added. If we do everything right these cells should be here 50 years from now being used for purposes that we cant even imagine today.

Marisa Korody is one of the four scientists tasked with turning these frozen cells into new life. They have to reprogram the frozen skin cells into pluripotent stem cells. In laymans terms, Korody explains that stem cells can become any cell type in the body if theyre given the right signals.

Read: Former war zones turn into wildlife paradise

The aim is to ultimately turn the stem cells into sperm and eggs. The ambitious feat has only been achieved in animals by Japanese scientists. While Korody and her team have looked to that research as a road map, she admits that doing the same with rhinos is uncharted territory. We dont really know what twists and turns we need to take in order to get from A to B, she said.

They havent even figured out how to do this in humans, she added. We have as much information as we possibly can about humans. We have a fraction of that for rhinos.

Korody says being at the forefront of this kind of science has been a dream job. This was really the first project thats trying to apply this type of science to conservation as a whole, she said.

She may spend most of her time at work looking through the lens of a microscope, but her mind is always on the final goal for the rhinos: We want to be able to put them back into the wild one day and have them living free.

Because the remaining two female northern white rhinos cant carry a pregnancy, even if the team can create embryos, the last obstacle is finding rhinos who can carry them to term.

The woman tasked with that job is Barbara Durrant. As the director of reproductive sciences, shes spent four years studying the reproductive systems of six female southern white rhinos at the institutes sister facility, the Nikita Kahn Rhino Rescue Center.

Though the rhinos at the center are a different species, Durrant says they are the closest relative to the northern white. The aim is to eventually have them be surrogates for northern white embryos.

On any given day, Durrant can be found conducting ultrasounds to help her understand each rhinos distinct reproductive cycle. In 2019, two of the centers females gave birth to southern white babies. Both were conceived via artificial insemination, giving Durrant and the teams working on the rhino project hope for the future.

Durrant believes one reason the project works so well is because there are so many women involved. Women are naturally collaborative with each other, she said. Because we have so many obstacles along the way and challenges and setbacks, we support each other and we have sympathy for each other.

Read: Rare bird brought back from extinction in the wild

Houck says women tend to be naturally nurturing. The cells are living little organisms that were growing and tending almost every day, and I think women are drawn to taking care of something and growing it into something more.

Its wonderful leading a team of women, and I really think theyre changing the world, she added. People are going to look back and see it was this amazing group of women who quietly, unrecognized, work at this and just get better and better.

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Meet the women racing to save the northern white rhino from extinction - KTVZ

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