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Jasper Therapeutics Announces New Clinical Trial with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to Evaluate JSP191 in Chronic…

By daniellenierenberg

REDWOOD CITY, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Jasper Therapeutics, Inc., a biotechnology company focused on hematopoietic cell transplant therapies, today announced the initiation of a Phase 1/2 clinical trial to evaluate JSP191, the companys first-in-class anti-CD117 monoclonal antibody, as a targeted, non-toxic conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic transplant for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Jasper Therapeutics and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have entered into a clinical trial agreement in which NIAID will serve as the Investigational New Drug (IND) sponsor for this study.

CGD is a rare, inherited disease of the immune system that develops in infancy or early childhood and results in severe and sometimes life-threatening infections. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is a proven cure for CGD. However, its use is limited because current conditioning agents used to deplete stem cells in preparation for transplantation are genotoxic and associated with limited efficacy and serious adverse effects, including veno-occlusive disease, long-term infertility and secondary malignancies.

We look forward to collaborating with NIAID on this Phase 1/2 clinical trial, which should provide important information about the potential of JSP191 as a safer and more effective conditioning agent for patients with CGD undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant, said Kevin N. Heller, M.D., Executive Vice President, Research and Development, of Jasper Therapeutics. Through this clinical trial agreement with NIAID, as well as others with the National Institutes of Health and academic centers, we are continuing to develop JSP191 for additional pretransplant conditioning regimens beyond severe combined immunodeficiency and acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes, which have demonstrated safety and efficacy in early-stage clinical trials to date.

About JSP191

JSP191 is a first-in-class humanized monoclonal antibody in clinical development as a conditioning agent that clears hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow, creating an empty space for donor or gene-corrected transplanted stem cells to engraft. While hematopoietic cell transplantation can be curative for patients, its use is limited because standard high dose myeloablative conditioning is associated with severe toxicities and standard low dose conditioning has limited efficacy. To date, JSP191 has been evaluated in more than 90 healthy volunteers and patients. It is currently enrolling in two clinical trials for acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and is scheduled to begin enrollment in three additional studies in 2021 for severe autoimmune disease, sickle cell disease and Fanconi anemia patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation.

About Jasper Therapeutics

Jasper Therapeutics is a biotechnology company focused on the development of novel curative therapies based on the biology of the hematopoietic stem cell. The company is advancing two potentially groundbreaking programs. JSP191, a first-in-class anti-CD117 monoclonal antibody, is in clinical development as a conditioning agent that clears hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow in patients undergoing a hematopoietic cell transplantation. It is designed to enable safer and more effective curative allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplants and gene therapies. In parallel, Jasper Therapeutics is advancing its preclinical engineered hematopoietic stem cell (eHSC) platform, which is designed to overcome key limitations of allogeneic and autologous gene-edited stem cell grafts. Both innovative programs have the potential to transform the field and expand hematopoietic stem cell therapy cures to a greater number of patients with life-threatening cancers, genetic diseases and autoimmune diseases than is possible today. For more information, please visit us at jaspertherapeutics.com.

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Killeen boy with leukemia needs a bone marrow donor, but the odds of finding one are slim – KXXV News Channel 25

By daniellenierenberg

KILLEEN, TX As blankets of snow covered the frigid ground and ice sheets laid atop of pavement, Michael or MJ Dixon was due for a sports physical at his normal pediatrician.

The doctor gave him a clearance, Chaundra Dixon, his mother explained. [The doctor] gave him a clearance and said, oh, he's healthy. He's fine.

MJ was used to getting hurt.

As a basketball, football, baseball and tennis star, its only a matter of time before one accumulates bruises and sore muscles.

However, MJ kept saying he was hurt.

His mom was convinced it was just growing pains, and so the duo worked on his stretching.

Until February 24, 2021.

She was at work on Fort Hood when MJs babysitter gave her a call.

She was just like, 'hey, I think you need to come home and get Michael, we need to get him to the hospital,' she recalled, as tears built up in her eyes thinking back to that day. He's crying non stop; he's saying he can't walk.

The panicked mother immediately picked up her son from their Killeen home and braved the icy road conditions, making it to Baylor Scott and White before EMS got to her house.

As they arrived at the hospital, they were met with COVID-19 tests. From there, physicians tested MJ for the basics, which all looked OK.

It wasnt until they ran blood work and found an abnormal amount of white blood cells in MJs body when they determined it was leukemia

About seven o'clock that night, I will never forget that, Dixon said. He was like, you're a great mom and I'm sorry, that I have to tell you, your son has leukemia, and I said leukemia? I lost it.

Living in this new reality brought on by his cancer, MJ and his family began looking for bone marrow donors.

The problem? He has less than a 25% chance of finding one due to his ethnicity.

http://www.bethematch.org

This is simply because we don't have the donor pool to pull from, Tressa Malone, a spokesperson with the Be The Match organization said. What that means is, we just need more people to join the registry. It's as simple as that.

Once you register to see if you can become a match, Malone explained that the following procedures are quite simple.

She said that if you match with a patient in need, 80% of their matches donate in a process similar to donating plasma.

You go and they take out the blood, separate the cells they need, then put it back in you.

She explained that this process is usually 3-4 hours.

The second procedure to donate is by retrieving the blood near your pelvic bone, the doctors separate the stem cells, all while youre under anesthesia.

Dr. Amy Mersiovsky, the director of nursing at Texas A&M Central Texas explained that she spent countless days caring for young kids with cancer as a pediatric nurse.

Realizing the low odds African Americans face when it comes to these donors, she explained that shes not necessarily surprised after the generations of mistrust that community typically has toward the medical field.

However, the Dixons dont go down without a fight because they know God is on their side.

Now, the family organizes bone marrow drives not only here in Central Texas, but across the county, hoping to find MJ a donor or anyone whos walking the same journey the 9-year-old boy is.

The family has set up a GoFundMe page to cover various expenses, and to see if you can be a match, you can text MJ to 61474 and a swab kit will be sent to your home.

To follow along with MJ's story, head over to his Facebook page.

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Killeen boy with leukemia needs a bone marrow donor, but the odds of finding one are slim - KXXV News Channel 25

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Clearing Cellular Dead Wood | In the Pipeline – Science Magazine

By daniellenierenberg

For many years now, the topic of senescent cells has been the subject of plenty of research work. Back in the 1960s the Hayflick limit was noticed in cell culture: there was an apparent limit to the number of cell divisions that could take place before the cells just sort of stalled out. For human fibroblasts, that kicks in at around fifty divisions. Over time it was worked out that a primary mechanism involved is the shortening of telomeres with each cell division, specialized nucleotide sequences out at the ends of the chromosomes, and this cellular clock phenomenon has been making its way into the public consciousness ever since.

Its strange to think, but before these experiments human cells were considered to be more or less immortal and capable of unlimited numbers of divisions. Now, there are cells like that, but that (outside of some stem cell populations and a few other special cases) is a very short working definition of cancer. Those cells do indeed seem to be able to carry on for as long as conditions permit which in the artificial world of cell culture labs, means apparently forever. Henrietta Lacks died in 1951, but HeLa cells are still with us, and can be all too vigorous when they contaminate other lines. Tumor cells can pile up mutations that will make them die off, but short of that the jams have indeed been kicked out.

Its gradually become apparent that many aging or damaged tissues have a (sometimes substantial) population of cells that have reached their limit. Theyre alive and metabolically active but not really contributing much, in a stage of permanent growth arrest. Cellular senescence is a complex phenomenon, but its importance in aging, cancer, and tissue damaged by other factors (radiation, oxygen stress, etc.) is by now undeniable. Many of these non-aging states can be traced back to early telomere damage by other mechanisms, emphasizing that as a key countdown mechanism. But its clear that senescent have a different secretory profile (cytokines, growth factors and more) from the more vigorous cells around them and a number of other protein expression differences that can be used the characterize them.

Naturally enough, thoughts have turned to targeting such cells for therapy. There are a couple of very easy-to-picture hypotheses: first, could you keep telomeres from shortening (or shortening so much) and therefore keep cells in a non-senescent state for longer, potentially delaying biological aging? And second, could you somehow target cells that have already become senescent, and would doing so improve the health of the surrounding tissue? Though pretty obvious ideas, both of these are still very much in play. For now, Im going to talk about the second one, in light of a new paper.

That ones on the kidney. Younger people can regain some kidney function after an injury, but that ability goes down with aging, as youd imagine. It also goes down in states of chronic kidney disease, or after radiation damage. This new paper shows that targeting and removing senescent cells actually starts to reverse this phenotype once youve done that, the kidney tissue after injury shows increased function, increased regenerative ability, and less development of fibrosis. This is demonstrated both in aged tissue and in younger tissue exposed to radiation damage, in human cell culture and in mouse animal models.

You may well ask: how exactly does one target senescent cells? That takes us to ABT-263 (navitoclax), shown at right. This rather hefty molecule is part of a series of AbbVie protein-protein inhibitors for the Bcl-2 (B-cell-lymphoma) family. There are several of those, and navitoclax inhibits the function of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-w. All of these proteins are intimately tied up in the pathways of apoptosis, programmed cell death, which is another monstrously huge pathway all its own. But one of the questions about senescent cells is why they dont go down some apoptotic pathway and just fall on their on cellular swords, instead of hanging around forever gumming up the works.

This one, like the others in its class, was developed to cause this to happen to tumor cells as an adjunct to other types of chemotherapy, but these have also turned out to be useful against senescent cells (although not all types of them). Similar to the kidney results reported in the new paper linked above, there have been reports in lung, CNS, muscle and other tissues of broadly similar enhancements (many of these summarized in this paper). So at this point you might be wondering why we dont just go ahead and put these things into the water supply already.

Theres a problem, unfortunately. It was clear from the clinical studies of the AbbVie compounds that platelet effects were dose-limiting. Cells in that pathway are sensitive to messing with these apoptosis pathways, and while you might be able to deal with that side effect in a chemotherapy situation, it doesnt exactly make for a good-for-what-ails-you drug. Navitoclax has alsorecently been shown to have profoundly bad effects on bone density and deposition, which is the exact opposite of what youd want for an aging population.

AbbVies next generation of such compounds, though, includes venetoclax, at right, also a lunker of a molecule and now approved for several types of leukemia. It still has platelet effects, but they arent nearly as disastrous as with navitoclax, thanks to deliberately lower binding to Bcl-xL. That also makes it a bit less of a mighty sword across senescent cell types for example, it appears that you need that pathway for activity against glioblastoma cells. But it has been reported to show strong protective effects against the development of Type I diabetes through the elimination of senescent cells in the islets of Langerhans. Meanwhile, other groups are looking at turning these ligands into targeted protein degraders, which (at least in some cases) seems to decrease the platelet problems and increase senolytic activity.

And before leaving the topic, it has to be noted that there are plenty of other ways to target these cells other than the Bcl pathway (although that one seems to be one of the most developed so far). What can I say? Im 59, and I doubtless have more senescent cells than I want or need, so I (and plenty of others) are interested in the idea. The whole cellular senescence pathway presumably developed as a way to avoid slipping into a tumor phenotype the more cellular divisions, the greater the chance of something going wrong along the way. Its a tradeoff, and evolution seems more than willing to shortchange older members of the species who have generally passed on their genes to all the offspring that theyre going to. But humans have other goals. We are looking at a rather rapidly aging planet, if current demographic trends hold up, and it would be extremely desirable to have that associated with less of a disease burden. Can we split the difference?

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Clearing Cellular Dead Wood | In the Pipeline - Science Magazine

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Bone Therapeutics Provides First Quarter 2021 Business Update – GlobeNewswire

By daniellenierenberg

REGULATED INFORMATION

Strong clinical progress especially in JTA-004 Phase III study thanks to high patient compliance and retention

Process development partnership and appointment of cell therapy expert Anthony Ting as CSO to further strengthen product pipeline

Gosselies, Belgium, 26May 2021, 7am CEST BONE THERAPEUTICS (Euronext Brussels and Paris: BOTHE), the cell therapy company addressing unmet medical needs in orthopedics and other diseases, today announces its business update for the first quarter, ended 31 March 2021.

Bone Therapeutics has continued the strong momentum into 2021, said Miguel Forte, MD, PhD, CEO of Bone Therapeutics. Bone Therapeutics mid-late stage clinical programs continue to advance largely on schedule, including the Phase IIb trial of the allogenic cell therapy platform ALLOB in difficult-to-heal tibial fractures and the Phase III trial of the enhanced viscosupplement JTA-004 in knee osteoarthritic pain. Alongside this, Bone Therapeutics has strengthened its manufacturing and R&D capabilities by signing a process development partnership with Rigenerand. It has also appointed the industry veteran Tony Ting as our new Chief Scientific Officer. Building on these achievements, Bone Therapeutics will be able to continue significant clinical and commercial advancements as we move towards the topline data of our JTA-004 Phase III study; a potential key inflection point for Bone Therapeutics.

Operational highlights

Financial highlights

Outlook for the remainder of 2021

(1) Unaudited number

About Bone Therapeutics

Bone Therapeutics is a leading biotech company focused on the development of innovative products to address high unmet needs in orthopedics and other diseases. The Company has a, diversified portfolio of cell and biologic therapies at different stages ranging from pre-clinical programs in immunomodulation to mid-to-late stage clinical development for orthopedic conditions, targeting markets with large unmet medical needs and limited innovation.

Bone Therapeutics is developing an off-the-shelf next-generation improved viscosupplement, JTA-004, which is currently in Phase III development for the treatment of pain in knee osteoarthritis. Consisting of a unique combination of plasma proteins, hyaluronic acid - a natural component of knee synovial fluid, and a fast-acting analgesic, JTA-004 intends to provide added lubrication and protection to the cartilage of the arthritic joint and to alleviate osteoarthritic pain and inflammation. Positive Phase IIb efficacy results in patients with knee osteoarthritis showed a statistically significant improvement in pain relief compared to a leading viscosupplement.

Bone Therapeutics core technology is based on its cutting-edge allogeneic cell therapy platform with differentiated bone marrow sourced Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) which can be stored at the point of use in the hospital. Currently in pre-clinical development, BT-20, the most recent product candidate from this technology, targets inflammatory conditions, while the leading investigational medicinal product, ALLOB, represents a unique, proprietary approach to bone regeneration, which turns undifferentiated stromal cells from healthy donors into bone-forming cells. These cells are produced via the Bone Therapeutics scalable manufacturing process. Following the CTA approval by regulatory authorities in Europe, the Company has initiated patient recruitment for the Phase IIb clinical trial with ALLOB in patients with difficult tibial fractures, using its optimized production process. ALLOB continues to be evaluated for other orthopedic indications including spinal fusion, osteotomy, maxillofacial and dental.

Bone Therapeutics cell therapy products are manufactured to the highest GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) standards and are protected by a broad IP (Intellectual Property) portfolio covering ten patent families as well as knowhow. The Company is based in the BioPark in Gosselies, Belgium. Further information is available at http://www.bonetherapeutics.com.

For further information, please contact:

Bone Therapeutics SAMiguel Forte, MD, PhD, Chief Executive OfficerJean-Luc Vandebroek, Chief Financial OfficerTel: +32 (0)71 12 10 00investorrelations@bonetherapeutics.com

For Belgian Media and Investor Enquiries:BepublicCatherine HaquenneTel: +32 (0)497 75 63 56catherine@bepublic.be

International Media Enquiries:Image Box CommunicationsNeil Hunter / Michelle BoxallTel: +44 (0)20 8943 4685neil.hunter@ibcomms.agency / michelle@ibcomms.agency

For French Media and Investor Enquiries:NewCap Investor Relations & Financial CommunicationsPierre Laurent, Louis-Victor Delouvrier and Arthur RouillTel: +33 (0)1 44 71 94 94bone@newcap.eu

Certain statements, beliefs and opinions in this press release are forward-looking, which reflect the Company or, as appropriate, the Company directors current expectations and projections about future events. By their nature, forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. These risks, uncertainties and assumptions could adversely affect the outcome and financial effects of the plans and events described herein. A multitude of factors including, but not limited to, changes in demand, competition and technology, can cause actual events, performance or results to differ significantly from any anticipated development. Forward looking statements contained in this press release regarding past trends or activities should not be taken as a representation that such trends or activities will continue in the future. As a result, the Company expressly disclaims any obligation or undertaking to release any update or revisions to any forward-looking statements in this press release as a result of any change in expectations or any change in events, conditions, assumptions or circumstances on which these forward-looking statements are based. Neither the Company nor its advisers or representatives nor any of its subsidiary undertakings or any such persons officers or employees guarantees that the assumptions underlying such forward-looking statements are free from errors nor does either accept any responsibility for the future accuracy of the forward-looking statements contained in this press release or the actual occurrence of the forecasted developments. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this press release.

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Five-year-old boy returns home after first round of cancer treatment in New York – Surrey Live

By daniellenierenberg

A five-year-old boy has returned from New York where he is taking part in a pioneering medical trial aimed at preventing his cancer from returning.

Oliver Stephenson from West Yorkshire was given the all-clear earlier this year after battling neuroblastoma a rare cancer originating from immature nerve cells throughout 2020.

His family crowdfunded 270,000 for treatment as the schoolboy underwent chemotherapy, surgery, stem cell treatment and a bone marrow transplant.

At one point, Oliver and his dad James had to isolate together in a 15sqft hospital room for seven weeks due to the coronavirus pandemic.

Oliver has spent the past month at New York's Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, where he is on a clinical trial vaccine called Bivalent.

It is hoped the treatment will train his immune system to identify and destroy neuroblastoma cells lurking in his body to prevent the disease from returning.

The vaccine, which costs 210,000, will require Oliver to make four more trips to the US this year.

He returned from the four-week trip to New York around a week ago with his mum Laura, dad James and little brother Alfie.

Mrs Stephenson said: "Everything went great. The doctors were all amazing and Oliver has responded well so far.

"It is a clinical trial so we don't know what will happen but we are hoping that this will prevent Oliver from suffering as he has done again.

"After everything he has been through it feels great to be on a positive track."

She added the treatment was "quick and easy", explaining Oliver had three vaccines and that, other than some discomfort, he had no obvious side effects.

Due to the length of their stay, Mrs Stephenson said the family were able to make a holiday out of the trip.

She added: "Oliver and Alfie had a brilliant time in New York, it was amazing.

"Because of the pandemic everywhere was really quiet, which meant we felt very safe all the time and didn't have to queue for anything."

The pioneering treatment comes almost 18 months after Oliver was diagnosed with neuroblastoma, which affects around 100 children annually.

The coronavirus pandemic complicated the family's ordeal as Oliver and his dad had to isolate together in hospital during chemotherapy.

Mr Stephenson was at his son's bedside throughout, but the rest of his family were unable to visit due to restrictions and had to make do with video calls.

Crowdfunding pages were set up to help the family pay for treatment once options on the NHS were exhausted, as neuroblastoma has a significant chance of returning.

Mrs Stephenson added: "The incredible support and donations not just from our friends and family but around the world has been overwhelming.

"We are so grateful to everyone who has helped.

"It's been a really difficult year for us and back in 2020 Oliver's prognosis wasn't good at all.

"But he has battled through everything is doing well now, he's fit and strong and even back at school.

Despite Oliver getting the all-clear, figures show 60% of people who recovered from neuroblastoma end up relapsing.

Mrs Stephenson said: "We want to everything we can to stop that happening."

Throughout Oliver's treatment, his family has been supported by the Solving Kids Cancer charity.

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Stem Cell Therapy Market by Type, Therapeutic Application and Cell Source – Global Forecasts to 2026 – ResearchAndMarkets.com – Business Wire

By daniellenierenberg

DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "Global Stem Cell Therapy Market by Type (Allogeneic, Autologous), Therapeutic Application (Musculoskeletal, Wound & Injury, CVD, Autoimmune & Inflammatory), Cell Source (Adipose tissue, Bone Marrow, Placenta/Umbilical Cord) - Forecasts to 2026" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

The global stem cell therapy market is projected to reach USD 401 million by 2026 from USD 187 million in 2021, at a CAGR of 16.5% during the forecast period.

Growth in this market is majorly driven by the increasing investment in stem cell research and the rising number of GMP-certified stem cell manufacturing plants. However, factors such as ethical concerns and the high cost of stem cell research and manufacturing process likely to hinder the growth of this market.

The allogeneic stem cell therapy segment accounted for the highest growth rate in the stem cell therapy market, by type, during the forecast period

The stem cell therapy market is segmented into allogeneic and autologous stem cell therapy. Allogeneic stem therapy segment accounted for the largest share of the stem cell therapy market. The large share of this segment can be attributed to the lesser complexities involved in manufacturing allogeneic-based therapies.

This segment is also expected to grow at the highest growth rate due to the increasing number of clinical trials in manufacturing allogeneic-based products.

Bone Marrow-derived MSCs segment accounted for the highest CAGR

Based on the cell source from which stem cells are obtained, the global stem cell therapy market is segmented into four sources. These include adipose tissue-derived MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells), bone marrow-derived MSCs, placenta/umbilical cord-derived MSCs, and other cell sources (which include human corneal epithelium stem cells, peripheral arterial-derived stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cell lines).

The bone marrow-derived MSCs segment is expected to witness the highest growth rate during the forecast period, owing to an increasing number of clinical trials focused on bone marrow-derived cell therapies and the rising demand for these cells in blood-related disorders.

Asia Pacific: The fastest-growing country in the stem cell therapy market

The stem cell therapy market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, RoW. The stem cell therapy market in the Asia Pacific region is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period.

Factors such as the growing adoption of stem cell-based treatment in the region and the growing approval & commercialization of stem cell-based products for degenerative disorders drive the growth of the stem cell therapy market in the region.

Market Dynamics

Drivers

Restraints

Opportunities

Challenges

Companies Mentioned

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/qiagh1

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Stem Cell Therapy Market by Type, Therapeutic Application and Cell Source - Global Forecasts to 2026 - ResearchAndMarkets.com - Business Wire

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CAR T-Cell Therapy UCARTCS1A Shows Early Activity in Relapsed/Refractory Myeloma – OncLive

By daniellenierenberg

Expansion and persistence of UCARTCS1A was observed and was found to correlate with clinically meaningful antimyeloma activity and serum cytokine changes in very heavily pretreated patients with multiple myeloma. Also, the CAR T-cell product was noted to be detectable in patients, regardless of donor and batch.

These preliminary data validate CS1 as a target for CAR T-cell products in multiple myeloma and that UCARTCS1A is a promising potential therapy for [those with this disease], Krina K. Patel, MD, MSc, an associate professor of the Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma, Division of Cancer Medicine at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, said during a presentation on the results.

One of the benefits that comes with utilizing an allogeneic CAR T-cell approach over an autologous approach is that it affords the opportunity for off-the-shelf product availability, according to Patel. Patients are able to avoid a prolonged wait for the CAR T cells to be manufactured; the cells are able to be administered within a couple of weeks, Patel explained. In contrast, it can take 4 to 5 weeks to bring an autologous product to a treatment center.

Scalable manufacturing is another benefit of allogeneic approaches, and this can reduce costs and yield 100 or more doses from 1 batch of donor cells. Also, for allogeneic approaches, T cells are collected from healthy donors; these patients have not been given many steroids, chemotherapy, or have undergone autologous transplant. As such, their T cells will likely be more potent, Patel explained. Lastly, more flexible dosing is an option with allogeneic approaches; this allows for the possibility of redosing and alternate schedules.

UCARTCS1A is the first allogeneic CAR T-cell product developed to target CS1 and SLAMF7, both of which are highly and consistently expressed in multiple myeloma, according to Patel. The product knocks out the TRAC gene to avoid graft-versus-host disease through disruption of T-cell receptor (TCR) assembly. The product also knocks out CS1 to facilitate robust expansion and yield, while avoiding fratricide. Lastly, UCARTCS1A has a RQR8 safety switch, which is a CD20 mimotope that can use rituximab (Rituxan) to kill the cells, if necessary.

Previously, the CAR T-cell product demonstrated durable in vivo efficacy against MM1S tumors. Here, NSG mice were given a 5 x 105 MM1S myeloma cell line, which is known to be pretty aggressive, Patel noted; this was labeled with GFP and was given for 10 days. Subsequently, the mice received the CAR T cells. Investigators observed CAR-positive cells at day 4 and M protein, which is a surrogate marker for multiple myeloma in mice and patients.

We were able to see an early response, as well. However, eventually, the T cells went down, and the myeloma started to go back up, Patel added. Looking at the imaging, mice who [received] CAR T cells obviously did much better and lived longer and there was a dose-dependent response where the mice that got the higher dose did better, with a much longer survival. Investigators were also able to demonstrate that the mice that received the CAR T-cell therapy experienced improvement in lytic lesions over time.

MELANI-01 enrolled patients with confirmed multiple myeloma per International Myeloma Working Group criteria who relapsed following previous therapy for their disease. To be eligible for enrollment, patients needed to have an ECOG performance status of 0 to 2 and acceptable organ function. They could have not previously received an investigational drug or cell/gene therapy targeting CS1.

The key eligibility [for this trial] is similar to most cell therapy trials [that are done in] myeloma. However, for most of those trials, patients are not able to have previously received CAR T cells or BCMA-directed therapies, Patel said. In this trial, [those are not] ineligibility [criteria]. Our patients had really relapsed/refractory [disease.]

After going through screening, patients received lymphodepletion chemotherapy that was comprised of fludarabine at a daily dose of 30 mg/m2 for 3 days followed by cyclophosphamide at a daily dose of 1 g/m2, also for 3 days. The [cyclophosphamide] dose was 2 to 3 times higher than what [has been] used in most other trials, Patel noted.

Patients then received treatment with UCARTCS1A. Patients were started at dose level 1, where they received 1 x 106/kg. One patient went on to dose level 2, which was 3 x 106/kg. Patients underwent their first disease evaluation at day 28.

The primary and secondary objectives of the study included safety and tolerability of UCARTCS1A, as well as determining the maximum-tolerated dose and efficacy of the product. Exploratory end points are examining expression of CS1 on multiple myeloma cells, UCARTCS1A expansion and persistence, and changes in serum biomarkers or immune cell reconstitution.

Patel shared information on 5 patients who received treatment with UCARTCS1A to date; 4 of the patients received dose level 1 (102-101, 102-109, 102-107, and 102-111) and 1 patient (102-113) received dose level 2.

Four of the 5 patients (102-101, 102-109, 102-107, and 102-113) had previously received over 11 lines of therapy and had most had previously received a BCMA-directed therapy. Just to put this into context, most of the autologous CAR T-cell trials that are done have patients who had a median of 5 to 6 prior lines of treatment, Patel noted.

One patient (102-111) had received only 4 prior lines of therapy and was the only patient who had cells expand and responded on dose level 1. However, the patient had very high-risk disease with 90% plasma cells. He had the most myeloma going into the trial, Patel said.

Notably, patient 102-113 who had received dose level 2 and also experienced an expansion of cells at day 7 had received 13 prior lines of therapy, including 2 prior BCMA-targeted CAR T-cell therapies, the last of which was administered just 5 months prior to the study.

Patient 102-111 was 55 years of age, had 4 prior lines of therapy and 90% of bone marrow involvement. He had relapsed within 6 months of every prior line of therapy and he never experienced more than a partial response (PR) to any of his prior treatments, according to Patel. When looking at his peripheral blood at day 28, investigators noted that the CD45+ CAR-positive lymphocytes was almost 72% and a subgroup of CD8+ effector cells that are TCRnegative CAR-positive cells, were about 46%.

[Some might] think that allogenic cells would not last very long, but for this patient, we definitely saw the majority of T cells still there that were CAR positive, Patel said. For him, we were able to get a bone marrow [sample] at month 3, where we could also see CD45+ CAR-positive cells at 60% in the bone marrow of all CD45+ cells. The CD8+ effector [cells] were at 92%.

Moreover, CAR-positive cells were observed in the patients peripheral blood starting at day 14; they peaked at day 21, and then started to decrease. However, some of these cells were still observed at day 80 to 86, according to Patel. The patients white blood cell count was low, while peripheral blood was high, until approximately day 28, before it started decreasing. However, the patients bone marrow remained high, even at day 77, in terms of the vector copy number of the CAR T cells.

This patient experienced grade 2 cytokine release syndrome (CRS) within the first week of cell infusion. The patient also developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), which has previously been observed with other autologous CAR T-cell products in multiple myeloma. Investigators treated the patients with anakinra (Kineret), dexamethasone, etoposide, and the rituximab kill switch. The rationale for triggering the kill switch was because the patient had reactivation of HHV6, which developed into HHV6 encephalitis.

Per the FDA, we were monitoring HHV6 and HHV7 levels, as we do for most of our CAR T-cell therapy trials. We were monitoring this [and when his levels were high enough that we decided to treat], the patient got admitted for antivirals, improved, went home, and then came back with an encephalitis picture. Initially, we treated him dexamethasone and gave the rituximab kill switch thinking that if it was immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity, we could kill off some of the cells. But in the end, it was HHV6 encephalitis.

Although the patient did improve, and he had double antiviral coverage, he eventually passed away on day 109 from organizing pneumonia in the context of prolonged lymphopenia in the absence of multiple myeloma progression.

At the time, he did not have any myeloma and he had [experienced] this response that he had never had before, a near complete response Patel explained. We looked at his bone marrow, which was minimal residual diseasenegative at the 10-5 level. However, because of the prolonged lymphopenia, he ended up with this infection.

Multiple factors may have contributed to the prolonged lymphopenia, including viral reactivation, concomitant antivirals, and recent prior stem cell transplant, Patel explained.

The other patient with expansion, patient 102-113, was observed to have 25% CD45+ CAR-positive lymphocytes in the peripheral blood at day 9, 77% of which were CD8+ effector cells, according to Patel. Notably, investigators were unable to collect a bone marrow sample from the patient. In the peripheral blood, investigators observed expansion at day 7 and then a peak, and then the vector copy number persisted over the time the blood samples were obtained.

This patient had previously received 14 lines of therapy, including 2 previous BCMA-directed CAR T-cell therapies and associated lymphodepleting regimens, autologous transplant, and venetoclax (Venclexta), as his last line of therapy. The patient did not have any options left and we saw this fantastic response, where the lambda light chains had gone done by almost 90%; his M protein had at least a PR by just day 14.

However, this patient had CRS and HLH, as well. We treated him with etoposide, anakinra, dexamethasone, and the rituximab kill switch and he had improvement in his platelet and his liver function tests, Patel added. The HLH clinically improved for him. However, at day 25, he passed away.

An autopsy revealed G5 hemorrhagic pancreatitis, although he had not exhibited any clinical signs of this condition during his hospital stay. Investigators also found disseminated mucormycosis and pseudomonal pneumonia.

Select serum cytokine changes over time were found to correlate with expansion of the CAR T-cell product. Cytokines were increased much more in the patients who expanded vs those who did not expand at all, Patel noted.

MELANI-01 is currently enrolling patients with protocol modifications, including restarting at dose level -1 (3 x 105). Moreover, lower doses of lymphodepleting chemotherapy are being administered now in an attempt to address lymphopenia and lead to added expansion. The trial will also have additional requirements for monitoring and managing patients with regard to opportunistic infections, as well as CRS and HLH.

Patel KK, Bharathan M, Siegel D, et al. UCARTCS1A, an allogeneic CAR T-cell therapy targeting CS1 in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM): preliminary translational results from a first-in-human phase I trial (MELANI-01). 2021 American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy Annual Meeting; May 11-14, 2021; Virtual. Accessed May 13, 2021. Abstract 118.

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Gene therapy restores immune function in children with rare immunodeficiency – National Institutes of Health

By daniellenierenberg

News Release

Tuesday, May 11, 2021

An investigational gene therapy can safely restore the immune systems of infants and children who have a rare, life-threatening inherited immunodeficiency disorder, according to research supported in part by the National Institutes of Health. The researchers found that 48 of 50 children who received the gene therapy retained their replenished immune system function two to three years later and did not require additional treatments for their condition, known as severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency, or ADA-SCID. The findings were published today inthe New England Journal of Medicine.

ADA-SCID, which is estimated to occur in approximately 1 in 200,000 to 1,000,000 newborns worldwide, is caused by mutations in theADAgene that impair the activity of the adenosine deaminase enzyme needed for healthy immune system function. This impairment leaves children with the condition highly susceptible to severe infections. If untreated, the disease is fatal, usually within the first two years of life.

These findings suggest that this experimental gene therapy could serve as a potential treatment option for infants and older children with ADA-SCID, said Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of NIHs National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Importantly, gene therapy is a one-time procedure that offers patients the hope of developing a completely functional immune system and the chance to live a full, healthy life.

People with ADA-SCID can be treated with enzyme replacement therapy, but this treatment does not fully reconstitute immune function and must be taken for life, usually once or twice weekly. Transplants of blood-forming stem cells, ideally from a genetically matched sibling donor, can provide a more lasting solution. However, most people lack such a donor. Additionally, stem cell transplants carry risks such asgraft-versus-host disease and side effects from chemotherapy medications given to help the donor stem cells establish themselves in the patients bone marrow.

The new research evaluated an experimental lentiviral gene therapy designed to be safer and more effective than previously tested gene-therapy strategies for ADA-SCID. This gene therapy involves inserting a normal copy of theADAgene into the patients own blood-forming stem cells. First, stem cells are collected from the patients bone marrow or peripheral blood. Next, a harmless virus is used as a vector, or carrier, to deliver the normalADAgene to these cells in the laboratory. The genetically corrected stem cells then are infused back into the patient, who has received a low dose of the chemotherapy medication busulfan to help the cells establish themselves in the bone marrow and begin producing new immune cells.

The experimental gene therapy, developed by researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) in London, uses a modified lentivirus to deliver the ADA gene to cells. Previous gene-therapy approaches for ADA-SCID have relied on a different type of virus called a gamma retrovirus. Some people who have received gamma retroviral gene therapies have later developed leukemia, which scientists suspect is due to the vector causing activation of genes that control cell growth.The lentiviral vector is designed to avoid this outcome and to enhance the effectiveness of gene delivery into cells.

The results come from three separate Phase 1/2 clinical trials, two conducted in the United States and one in the United Kingdom. The U.S. trials, led by principal investigator Donald Kohn, M.D., of UCLA, enrolled 30 participants with ADA-SCID ranging in age from 4 months to 4 years at UCLA Mattel Childrens Hospital and the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. The U.K. study, conducted at GOSH and led by principal investigator Claire Booth, M.B.B.S., Ph.D., enrolled 20 participants ranging in age from 4 months to 16 years. Most participants acquired and retained robust immune function following gene therapy 96.7% after two years in the U.S. studies and 95% after three years in the U.K. study and were able to stop enzyme replacement therapy and other medications. Of the two participants for whom gene therapy did not restore lasting immune function, one restarted enzyme replacement therapy and later received a successful stem cell transplant from a donor, and the other restarted enzyme replacement therapy. The lentiviral gene therapy appeared safe overall, although all participants experienced some side effects. Most of these were mild or moderate and attributable to the chemotherapy that the participants received.

Researchers observed similar outcomes in all three trials, although there were some differences between the studies. Stem cells were collected from bone marrow in the U.S. trials and from peripheral blood in the U.K. trial. In one of the U.S. trials, 10 children were treated with genetically corrected stem cells that had been frozen and later thawed. The two other trials used fresh stem cell preparations. In the future, the freezing procedure known as cryopreservation may allow stem cells to be more easily transported and processed at a manufacturing facility far from the patients home and shipped back to a local hospital, reducing the need for patients to travel long distances to specialized medical centers to receive gene therapy. A trial of the cryopreserved treatment is now underway at the Zayed Centre for Research into Rare Diseases in Children in London, in partnership with GOSH.

For more information about the trials described in the New England Journal of Medicine paper, visit ClinicalTrials.gov under identifiers NCT01852071, NCT02999984 and NCT01380990. The investigational lentiviral gene therapy, which is licensed to Orchard Therapeutics, has not been approved for use by any regulatory authority.

The research was funded in part by three NIH Institutes: NIAID; the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; and the National Human Genome Research Institute. Additional funding was provided by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, the Medical Research Council, the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children National Health Service Foundation Trust and University College London, and Orchard Therapeutics.

NIAID conducts and supports research at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID website.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH):NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov.

NIHTurning Discovery Into Health

DB Kohn, C Boothet al. Autologousex vivolentiviral gene therapy for adenosine deaminase deficiency.New England Journal of MedicineDOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2027675 (2021).

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Aplastic Anemia Pipeline: Emerging Therapies and Key pharma players involved by DelveInsight | Pfizer, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Regen BioPharma,…

By daniellenierenberg

Aplastic Anemia is a medical condition that damages stem cells in a persons bone marrow. These cells are responsible for making red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, which are vital to human health. A rare and serious condition, aplastic anemia can develop at any age. It can occur suddenly, or it can come on slowly and worsen over time. It can be mild or severe. Treatment for aplastic anemia might include medications, blood transfusions or a stem cell transplant, also known as a bone marrow transplant. The most common cause of aplastic anemia is from your immune system attacking the stem cells in your bone marrow. Other factors that can injure bone marrow and affect blood cell production include: Radiation and chemotherapy treatments, exposure to toxic chemicals, use of certain drugs, autoimmune disorders, a viral infection and unknown factors.

DelveInsights, Aplastic Anemia Pipeline Insight, 2021 report provides comprehensive insights about 10+ companies and 15+ pipeline drugs in Aplastic Anemia pipeline landscape. It covers the pipeline drug profiles, including clinical and nonclinical stage products. It also covers the therapeutics assessment by product type, stage, route of administration, and molecule type. It further highlights the inactive pipeline products in this space.

Some of the Aplastic Anemia Companies are:

Request for free Sample Report: https://www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/aplastic-anemia-pipeline-insight

DelveInsights Aplastic Anemia report covers around 15+ products under different phases of clinical development like

Some of the Aplastic Anemia Therapies are:

Request for free Sample Report: https://www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/aplastic-anemia-pipeline-insight

Current Aplastic Anemia Treatment Scenario and Aplastic Anemia Emerging Therapies:

Request for free Sample Report: https://www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/aplastic-anemia-pipeline-insight

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Executive Summary

Aplastic Anemia: Overview

Pipeline Therapeutics

Comparative Analysis

Therapeutic Assessment

Aplastic Anemia DelveInsights Analytical Perspective

In-depth Commercial Assessment

Aplastic Anemia Collaboration Deals

Late Stage Products (Phase III)

Comparative Analysis

PF-06462700: Pfizer

Drug profiles in the detailed report..

Mid Stage Products (Phase II)

Comparative Analysis

Drug Name: Company Name

Drug profiles in the detailed report..

Early Stage Products (Phase I/II)

Comparative Analysis

Omidubicel: Gamida Cell

Drug profiles in the detailed report..

Pre-clinical and Discovery Stage Products

Comparative Analysis

Hu-PHEC: Hemogenyx

Drug profiles in the detailed report..

Inactive Products

Comparative Analysis

Aplastic Anemia Key Companies

Aplastic Anemia Key Products

Aplastic Anemia- Unmet Needs

Aplastic Anemia- Market Drivers and Barriers

Aplastic Anemia- Future Perspectives and Conclusion

Aplastic Anemia Analyst Views

Aplastic Anemia Key Companies

Appendix

Request for Detailed TOC: https://www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/aplastic-anemia-pipeline-insight

AboutDelveInsight

DelveInsight is a leading Business Consultant and Market Research firm focused exclusively on life sciences. It supports Pharma companies by providing end-to-end comprehensive solutions to improve their performance. Get hassle-free access to all the healthcare and pharma market research reports through our subscription-based platformPharmDelve.

Media ContactCompany Name: DelveInsight Business Research LLPContact Person: Ankit NigamEmail: Send EmailPhone: +19193216187Address:304 S. Jones Blvd #2432 City: AlbanyState: New YorkCountry: United StatesWebsite: https://www.delveinsight.com/report-store/aplastic-anemia-pipeline-insight

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University Hospitals treats first cancer patient in Ohio with "game changing" CAR T therapy – News 5 Cleveland

By daniellenierenberg

CLEVELAND When 61-year-old Ken Anderson was diagnosed with Multiple Myeloma 3 years ago, he didnt know what to expect.

It kind of hits you. It hits you hard, he said. Its a blood cancer, and its in your bone marrow, and it degenerates your bones is what it does.

The cancer is incurable, but treatable.

You live with it and you have to have many rounds of chemotherapy to keep the myeloma at bay, said Dr. Ted Teknos, the president of University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center.

With so many unknowns, the dad of 4 girls and grandfather of 2 knew one thing, he was going to fight.

You just have to look to the road ahead, he said.

For the past 3 years, that road has been filled with ups and downs and countless rounds of chemotherapy treatments and even a bone marrow transplant.

They give you your stem cells back and those regenerate and lasted for about 6 months, and then there was a relapse, said Anderson.

Through it all, he remained hopeful for a medical breakthrough. He read about the research and followed up on the results of clinical trials in something called CAR T therapy.

I didn't know how far out that would be. It didn't say how far out it was. It sounded, to me, something like 10 or 20 years.

But it wasnt 20 years, the FDA approved CAR T therapy for Multiple Myeloma patients, and University Hospitals is the first in Ohio to treat patients with it. Anderson, who is from Kirtland, is the first patient in Ohio to receive it.

These treatments, now, are available for those that have run out of options, said Dr. Teknos.

Dr. Teknos compared the treatment to something straight out of a science fiction movie.

In essence, its like a heat-seeking missile for the cells to go find the cancer and eradicate it, he said.

It works by taking a patients own white blood cells, genetically modifying them in a lab and then infusing them back into their body so the patients cells can fight off the cancer cells.

They will engineer them to attack my cancer cells, said Anderson.

Dr. Teknos calls it living therapy.

You're taking living cells out of a patient, you're modifying them, and then you're growing them up in the lab and then re-infusing them back into the patient, he said. It's their own cells that have been modified and fight the cancer.

Dr. Teknos said in clinical trials, about 75% of Multiple Myeloma patients had a response to therapy, and in 1/3 of patients, their cancer went away.

Its really a game changer, said Dr. Teknos. There are patients who literally had weeks to live and then a year and a half later, have no cancer at all.

Andersons cells are currently in the lab. He will receive his infusion next month. He is cautiously optimistic that the next stop on his journey will have him feeling better.

I won't have to be on the chemo anymore, so I'm just back to feeling like myself would be would be really exciting, he said. People who are out there and diagnosed with this, with this disease, know that we are on the cusp of some big things here in the treatment of it, and this is a huge advance.

While Anderson is currently fighting Multiple Myeloma, University Hospitals is also offering a new CAR T cell therapy treatment for patients diagnosed with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

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Keeping the physical appointment was critical, the show of support appreciated by Renville County Commissioner – West Central Tribune

By daniellenierenberg

When he called the Olivia Hospital and Clinic to postpone his physical, he was urged to keep it. Physicals are important, he was reminded.

Keeping that date proved to be a lifesaving decision.

The physical went well, and shortly after he told his daughter that he was as fit as a horse.

But Dr. Jon Kemp, his primary physician who had urged him to keep the date for the physical, noticed a slight abnormality in a standard blood test. He recommended further testing.

On Dec. 20 Kramer was diagnosed with multiple myeloma.

Thanks to the early diagnosis, Kramer, age 62, has the means of keeping this disease at bay. Its a cancer of the plasma cells in bone marrow, and is the second most common blood cancer.

He is about to undergo a stem cell transplant this week as part of his treatment.

He learned that hes not alone on the journey ahead.

At Tuesdays meeting of the Renville County Board of Commissioners, fellow board members came wearing T-shirts proclaiming: In this county, nobody fights alone.

Organizers of the surprise sold 76 of the T-shirts to show support for Kramer and raise funds for the Renville County Walk in the Park campaign. More than 40 T-shirt wearing supporters joined the meeting via Zoom. Staff in the health department sang a song to express their support, and staff members told him they would keep him in their thoughts and prayers.

Thank you, said Kramer. He told the West Central Tribune that he was totally surprised by the display of support.

He has lots of support from family and friends, and its all-important. Kramer farms in eastern Renville County. He has lined up plenty of helping hands while he undergoes the stem cell transplant, which will sideline him for at least six weeks.

He said doctors are confident the stem cell transplant can knock the cancer into remission. They will be harvesting bone marrow cells and freezing a portion of them to make it possible to perform at least two more transplants in future years as well.

The decision to keep the date of that routine physical made all the difference. Absolutely, said Kramer.

Health providers told him that in too many cases, multiple myeloma is not diagnosed until a patient comes in with a broken leg or other bone, and wondering why. The cancer carves holes and weakens bones as it progresses unbeknownst to the person.

Thanks to the early diagnosis, Kramer said they found only pinholes in his bones, having caught the disease in the first of its three stages. He began chemotherapy in early January, and it has proven effective, he added.

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How Covid-19 has disrupted efforts to care for blood cancer patients – The Independent

By daniellenierenberg

On the day of his Year 10 school prom, as other students excitedly prepared for the big occasion, then 15-year-old Rian Harvey was sat in a ward of Royal Marsden Hospital, awaiting the stem cell transplant that would save his life after a leukaemia relapse.

Despite the hot weather on that day back in July 2015, his hospital room windows had to remain sealed shut, as even the smallest bug bite could have killed him due to his compromised immune system.

Six years on, he finds himself grateful that he relapsed when he did, with five years to build his immunity before the Covid-19 pandemic hit.

Blood cancer patients are one of the most vulnerable groups of people at risk of Covid-19, according to research, being 57 per cent more likely to suffer severe disease compared to other cancer patients.

Recalling his own experience, Rian, now 22, says: Its scary, you look at everything that person has gone through, they had blood cancer and then had a stem cell transplant, they have gone through all the stress of only to be taken by a pandemic that came out of nowhere.

I know the vulnerability that you are in for stem cell transplants, Ive been there myself. Your immune system cant take anything.

Despite the high risk these patients face, charities such as Anthony Nolan, which assist blood cancer patients with finding a stem cell match, were left out of the allocated government budget that was announced in March.

The cancellation of face-to-face fundraising and events, despite the increase in demand for services, have led their gross income to be down by an estimated 5.5m for 2021.

Henny Braund, chief executive of the charity, said people with blood cancer and blood disorders were heavily impacted by the pandemic and everyone who needs treatment and support must be able to access it without delay.

This budget does not address the pressure currently facing cancer services across the UK, he adds.

Stem cell transplants are carried out to treat conditions such as blood cancer. The process involves removing the healthy stem cells of one person and transferring them to another, provided they have a similar or identical special genetic marker called the HLA.

While this match is sometimes present between family members, it is not always the case, leaving patients in the UK reliant on the British Bone Marrow Registry to find a suitable match. The odds of a match are one in 1000.

One of Anthony Nolans primary roles is to encourage more people to put themselves on the registry so patients have an increased chance to find a match. This can be done via a simple cheek swap, which provides sufficient HLA data for the initial matching process.

Will Briant, 24, from London, donated stem cells in 2015 after signing up to be on the registry at university. I think it ultimately is a huge part of who I am now, he says. Its something that I look to in my darker moments and find great inner strength from.

The identities of donors and recipients remain anonymous to one another, but they are allowed to exchange letters after the transplant.

I was incredibly emotional when I got the letter, he adds. He made it clear that not only was I giving him the chance of time for himself, but it was also for all of his family and friends, he told me he had a very big family. Looking back now, at a time where we cant all be with our families, it just highlights just how important and valuable that must have been for him.

Apart from encouraging people to sign up to the registry, the money Anthony Nolan raises go towards funding research, offering support and information to patients and families as well as providing post-transplant-care. They have helped 18,000 people find a match.

Unfortunately, they are part of the 35 per cent of charities who used the furlough scheme offered by the government to curb the loss of income. To ensure their survival, 24 per cent of surveyed charities said they were letting furloughed employees return as volunteers.

Terence Lovell, chief engagement and marketing officer at Anthony Nolan, says: We still desperately need funds to continue our life-saving work through providing stem cells transplants and co-ordinating efforts across the NHS to ensure patients receive the care and support they need.

Despite the circumstances, Rian has decided to make the most of his time in lockdown. He regularly shares his experience fighting cancer on his social media platforms and is currently in the process of writing a book and producing a podcast to further share his message.

The cancer mill is still very much open for business and I am trying to push people, that have not necessarily been through what Ive been through, to be more positive and see the world the way that I do, he says, I wake up in the morning, open my front door, take a deep breath of fresh air and I think this is amazing because five years ago I couldnt even open a window in the hospital.

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Crawley doctor urges residents to save the life of a stranger – Crawley Observer

By daniellenierenberg

Dr Pria Suchak, 31, initially registered with blood cancer charity DKMS last July, when she was inspired by a message on social media.

Every 20 minutes someone in the UK is diagnosed with a blood cancer those that affect the body's bone marrow, blood or lymphatic system - such as leukaemia, myeloma or lymphoma.

Yet, only two per cent of the UK population are registered as potential blood stem cell donors.

Pria said: My friends nephew had leukaemia, so she was using her Facebook page to encourage strangers to sign up him.

"Her nephew is of mixed heritage - half Chinese and half Caucasian. So she was trying to encourage more people for minority ethnic communities to sign up.

"I wanted to help give someone a second chance of life, so I signed up with DKMS, and my husband registered at the same time.

Patients from black, Asian or other minority backgrounds have a 20 per cent chance of finding the best possible blood stem cell match from an unrelated donor, compared to 69 per cent for northern European backgrounds.

Pria ordered a home swab kit in July 2020 and was contacted by DKMS just five months later, informing her that she was a potential match for a stranger in need of a lifesaving blood stem cell transplant.

The mum-of-two said: I received a call from a lady at DKMS. She said I was extremely close to being a match, but there were also eight other people who were identified as possible matches too.

"A few weeks later, I received another call from DKMS saying that I was the best match out of the nine potential donors.

"I didnt expect that. As it was nine of us in total, you never expect you'll be chosen.

Following further tests and a medical examination, a date was set for Pria to donate her blood stem cells by peripheral blood stem cell collection (PBSC).

In the run-up to the procedure, donors are given a drug with the growth factor G-CSF to increase the number of stem cells in the blood.

Pria said: At the time I had so many things going on. We had just gotten past Christmas, both of my children had birthdays in January, and I was about to sit a final GP exam.

"DKMS were excellent and did their best to schedule my G-CSF injections the day after I sat the exam. Of course, they checked that this wouldnt impact the patient.

My actual donation was really nice, especially as there were other donors in the room at the same time donating for other patients.

"We all got on really well and chatted loads. The clinicians told us that we were the chattiest group they had ever had. Ive remained terrific friends with one of my fellow donors.

Because of the minimum two-year anonymity period in the UK, donors can only contact the patient anonymously, by letter or email.

Pria said: I dont know anything about my patient other than she is a woman. She really is a stranger, but I hope my blood stem cells help her to live a long life.

I strongly encourage people in Crawley to register with DKMS. By donating their blood stem cells, not only will you potentially help a stranger in desperate need, but you'll also help their family and friends by giving them more time together.

Crawley has a population of around 114,000 with 14 neighbourhoods, the largest inland town in West Sussex. Yet, just 865 residents have registered with DKMS.

On May 28, DKMS celebrates their day of awareness - World Blood Cancer Day. This May, the charity aims to register 2,000 new registrations (roughly one for every donor in the UK waiting) by the end of May 28.

If you are called upon to donate your blood stem cells it is because you are likely the patients best match.

There are two donation methods. Around 90 per cent of all donations are made through a method called peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection.

This method is very similar to giving blood. It involves being connected to an apheresis machine. Apheresis means 'to separate'.

This machine separates blood being taken from one of the donor's arms, and separates the blood stem cells from it. The donor's blood is then returned to them through their other arm. This is an outpatient procedure that is usually completed in four-to-six hours.

In just ten per cent of cases, donations are made through bone marrow collection. Bone marrow is taken from the pelvic bone under general anaesthetic, and this lasts around an hour.

DKMS need blood stem cell donors from all backgrounds. If you are aged between 17-55 and in good general health, you can support Gareth and the other 2,000 people in need of a lifesaving blood stem cell transplant by registering online at http://www.dkms.org.uk/register-now for your home swab kit.

By registering, you'll join a group of over 840,000 other DKMS lifesavers-in-waiting, ready to make a difference by giving someone a much-needed second chance of life.

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BMSCs differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes alleviated the inflammation and demyelination of EAE mice models – DocWire News

By daniellenierenberg

This article was originally published here

PLoS One. 2021 May 13;16(5):e0243014. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243014. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, progressive neuroinflammatory disease associated with autoimmunity. Currently, effective therapeutic strategy was poorly found in MS. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is widely used to study the pathogenesis of MS. Cumulative research have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem Cells (BMSCs) transplantation could treat EAE animal models, but the mechanism was divergent. Here, we systematically evaluated whether BMSCs can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes to alleviate the symptoms of EAE mice. We used Immunofluorescence staining to detect MAP-2, GFAP, and MBP to evaluate whether BMSCs can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The effect of BMSCs transplantation on inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in EAE mice were detected by Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) and Luxol Fast Blue (LFB) staining, respectively. Inflammatory factors expression was detected by ELISA and RT-qPCR, respectively. Our results showed that BMSCs could be induced to differentiate into neuron cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocyte in vivo and in vitro, and BMSCs transplanted in EAE mice were easier to differentiate than normal mice. Moreover, transplanted BMSCs reduced neurological function scores and disease incidence of EAE mice. BMSCs transplantation alleviated the inflammation and demyelination of EAE mice. Finally, we found that BMSCs transplantation down-regulated the levels of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-, IL-1 and IFN-, and up-regulated the levels of anti-inflammatory factors IL-10 and TGF-. In conclusion, this study found that BMSCs could alleviate the inflammatory response and demyelination in EAE mice, which may be achieved by the differentiation of BMSCs into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in EAE mice.

PMID:33983943 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0243014

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Outlook for multiple myeloma: Figures and factors that affect it – Medical News Today

By daniellenierenberg

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that originates from white blood cells called plasma cells. Many factors affect the outlook for a person with this disease, including their age, overall health, and kidney function, as well as the stage of cancer at diagnosis.

Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell. Over time, myeloma cells multiply and accumulate in the bone marrow and solid parts of the bones.

Multiple myeloma can lead to organ damage that affects the kidneys, the bones, and the overall immune system.

In this article, we look at the outlook for people with different stages of multiple myeloma. We also look at the symptoms and treatment of multiple myeloma and what can affect a persons outlook.

The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that doctors will diagnose 34,920 new cases of multiple myeloma in 2021 and that there may be 12,410 deaths from the disease.

When a person receives a multiple myeloma diagnosis, the doctor will use the Revised International Staging System (RISS) to determine the stage of the cancer. This staging system is based on:

A person will receive a diagnosis of either stage 1, 2, or 3 multiple myeloma. There is also a stage 0, a slow-growing type of multiple myeloma that is called smoldering myeloma.

However, survival rates are based on summary staging, which the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program developed. This staging system groups cancers into:

As multiple myeloma does not spread to the lymph nodes, the regionalized stage is not relevant to this cancer.

The 5-year relative survival rate for multiple myeloma is as follows:

These statistics mean that a person with localized multiple myeloma is 75% as likely as someone without multiple myeloma to live for 5 years after receiving the diagnosis.

People who receive a smoldering myeloma diagnosis can live for years without any treatment. Additionally, beginning treatment early does not appear to affect the outlook.

The stage of multiple myeloma is among the factors that can affect a persons outlook.

Other factors include:

A small 2014 study involving 82 people with an average age of 61 years found that those with damaged kidneys had a median survival rate of 13 months, whereas those without kidney damage lived for an average of 41 months.

Additionally, changes in chromosomes and genetic abnormalities can affect a persons outlook. The specific chromosomal abnormalities that doctors consider high risk affect chromosomes 4, 14, 16, and 17.

The treatment for smoldering myeloma typically consists of watchful waiting, as this stage is slow growing.

Drug therapy for multiple myeloma consists of:

Other treatment options include:

Multiple myeloma can cause:

A doctor may recommend supportive therapies to help manage these side effects. These may include surgery to help support weakened bones and prevent fractures.

Learn more about the treatment options and how to manage the symptoms.

A person should contact a healthcare professional if they notice any symptoms of multiple myeloma.

After receiving a multiple myeloma diagnosis, a person may want to ask the following questions:

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects the blood. The outlook for people with multiple myeloma depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. It also depends on how well a persons kidneys are functioning and their age and overall health.

However, different treatment options are available. A person should talk with a healthcare professional about which treatment options would best suit them.

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How One Round of Gene Therapy Fixed 48 Kids’ Immune Systems – Singularity Hub

By daniellenierenberg

Gene therapy has shown promise in recent years for treating a range of diseases, including sickle-cell anemia, hemophilia, various forms of inherited blindness, mesothelioma, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A new success story may soon be added to this list, with the publication yesterday of the outcomes of a clinical trial that used gene therapy to cure a rare immune system disorder in infants.

The study, described in the New England Journal of Medicine, was carried out by researchers from UCLA and Great Ormond Street Hospital in London over the course of five years, beginning in 2012.

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme found in a type of white blood cell called lymphocytes, which are primarily active in the brain, GI tract, and thymus gland. Lymphocytes make antibodies and attack infected cells, so theyre pretty crucial to the immune system.

ADAs job is to convert a molecule thats harmful to lymphocytes into a non-harmful version of itself. If ADA cant work its magic, that molecule starts to build up in lymphocytes, becoming toxic and ultimately killing the cellsand leaving the immune system virtually defenseless, highly vulnerable to invaders like viruses and bacteria.

Mutations in the ADA gene mean the body doesnt make enough of the enzyme to successfully do its job. This deficiency of ADA leads to a condition called severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Those suffering from SCID can not only get sick very easily, but conditions that would be neutralized by a normal immune system quickly become deadly for them.

SCID was more commonly known as bubble boy disease after David Vetter, a boy born in Texas in 1971, spent 12 of his 13 years of life enclosed in a plastic bubble to protect him from germs.

About 20 different genetic mutations can cause SCID; ADA-SCID refers to immunodeficiency caused by lack of the ADA enzyme: severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiencya bit of a mouthful. The worst part of ADA-SCID is that it occurs in babies; most are diagnosed with the condition before theyre even six months old, and without treatment they typically dont live past age two.

ADA is rare, estimated to occur in about 1 in 200,000 to 1,000,000 newborns worldwide; both the mothers and the fathers ADA gene must have mutations for the child to end up with this condition.

The first step in the gene therapy treatment was to collect hematopoietic stem cells, which are those that manufacture blood cells, from the patients. The researchers then inserted an intact copy of the ADA gene into the stem cells using an RNA virus called a lentivirus (the most well-known lentivirus is HIV).

The altered cells were re-injected into the patients, where they started producing ADA normally, yielding healthy immune cells.

Out of 50 total patients30 in the US and 20 in the UKwith ADA-SCID, 48 appear to have been rid of their condition thanks to the gene therapy, with no complications reported. The two patients who didnt have success with the therapy went back to traditional treatment methods, and didnt experience any adverse effects as a result of having tried the therapy.

If, or hopefully when, gene therapy becomes the go-to treatment for ADA-SCID, it will be a welcome reprieve from traditional options, which are neither pleasant nor cheap: patients need weekly injections of ADA until a bone marrow transplant can be done, and absent a donor, they must consistently receive injections, take antibiotics, and undergo antibody infusions for life.

If approved in the future, this treatment could be standard for ADA-SCID, and potentially many other genetic conditions, removing the need to find a matched donor for a bone marrow transplant and the toxic side effects often associated with that treatment, said Dr. Claire Booth, co-author of the study and a consultant in pediatric immunology and gene therapy at Londons Great Ormond Street Hospital.

Theres no mention of the cost of the therapy, nor whether this could be a prohibitive factor to making it a viable option. Nonetheless, the study is encouraging not just for its potential to revolutionize treatment of ADA-SCID, but as a harbinger for the promise of gene therapy for a multitude of genetic conditions.

People ask us, is it a cure? Who knows long term, but at least up to three years, these children are doing well, said Dr. Stephen Gottschalk, who was not involved in this study but performed a similar gene therapy on kids with SCID at St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital in Memphis. The immune function seems stable over time so I think it looks very, very encouraging.

Image Credit: liyuanalison from Pixabay

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Genenta Phase I/II Glioblastoma Data at ASGCT Show Temferon Delivered Tumor-Focused Interferon ExpressionData presented at the 2021 American Society…

By daniellenierenberg

MILAN, Italy and NEW YORK, May 14, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Genenta Science, a clinical-stage biotechnology company pioneering the development of an investigational hematopoietic stem progenitor cell immuno-gene therapy for cancer (Temferon), will present new clinical data from a Phase I/IIa study of Temferon in patients affected by glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in an oral presentation at the 2021 American Society for Gene and Cell Therapy (ASGCT) Annual Meeting, taking place virtually on May 11-14, 2021.

The data presented at ASGCT are from Genentas ongoing trial of Temferon in patients with GBM. The presentation focuses specifically on patients who have undergone a follow-up surgical procedure for their cancer. In addition to being a treatment option, follow-on surgery provides investigators with an opportunity to understand the impact of therapies at a cellular and molecular level.

The ASGCT presentation shows that genetic markers of Genentas Temferon were detectable in tumor specimens from all four patients with progressive disease who underwent follow-on surgery. Furthermore, the expression of interferon- (IFN) responsive gene signatures in those tumors was increased compared with pre-treatment levels, which suggests that interferon- (IFN-) had been released locally in the tumor by cells derived from Genentas investigational treatment.

Carlo Russo, Chief Medical Officer at Genenta Science, said: These preliminary results provide exciting indications that Temferon acts in the way we anticipated even in the relatively inaccessible setting of glioblastoma multiforme. The data are encouraging and in line with our pre-clinical results, with early evidence that Temferon delivers biological effects that may impact the progression of individual lesions.

One of the four patients had two lesions removed at the second surgery; one was a prior lesion that had not been removed during the first surgery and was stable; the other was a relapsing progressing lesion that had developed at the first surgery site. Compared with the progressing tumor, the stable lesion displayed a higher proportion of T cells and Tie2 Expressing Monocytes (TEMs) within the myeloid infiltrate and had a higher IFN-response signature.

The data presented at ASGCT also supported the initial safety and tolerability profile of Temferon. Concentrations of IFN- in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients remained low, while IFN- responses were identified in myeloid cells that infiltrate tumors. Temferon-derived differentiated cells also persisted in peripheral blood and bone marrow for up to 18 months at lower levels, indicating the potential durability of the intervention. No dose limiting toxicities have been identified.

Presentation Details:

Title: Changes in the Tumor Microenvironment in Patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme Treated with IFN-a Immune Cell & Gene Therapy (TEM-GBM_001 Study)

Time: Friday May 14, 2021 at 1.30 PM Eastern Time (7.30 PM CET)

Presenting: Carlo Russo, CMO

To access the abstract please visit https://annualmeeting.asgct.org/

About Genenta Science

Genenta (www.genenta.com) is a clinical-stage biotechnology company pioneering the development of a proprietary hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for the treatment of a variety of cancers. Temferon is based on ex-vivo gene transfer into autologous hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to deliver immunomodulatory molecules directly via tumor-infiltrating monocytes/macrophages (Tie2 Expressing Monocytes - TEMs). Temferon, which is under investigation in a Phase I/IIa clinical trial in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme patients, is not restricted to pre-selected tumor antigens nor type and has been designed to reach solid tumors, one of the main unresolved challenges in immuno-oncology. Genenta is based in Milan, Italy, and New York, USA.

About Glioblastoma MultiformeGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a rapidly-growing cancer of the glial cells that support the nerve cells within the brain. The main treatment for GBM is surgery to reduce the bulk of the tumor, which can prolong the lives of patients and to improve quality of life. A second round of surgery is increasingly considered to have significant benefit in prolonging the lives of patients with GBM. Even with treatment, GBM virtually always recurs, typically resulting in death within the first 15 months from diagnosis.

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Two local sisters share an unbreakable bond after bone marrow donation – Riverhead News Review – Riverhead News Review

By daniellenierenberg

Lorraine LaRosa faced a seemingly impossible decision.

She knew how fortunate she was to have not one, but three perfect matches for a bone marrow transplant, a procedure used to treat several cancerous and noncancerous diseases, such as leukemia and Hodgkins lymphoma. The statistics for finding a perfect match can be grim. The best odds rest in an immediate family member. Otherwise, a patient must rely on the bone marrow registry and the slim chance of matching with a stranger.

Ms. LaRosa had the benefit of a large family. Out of seven siblings, four were healthy enough to be tested. And three came back as matches: her sisters Jennifer Lappe and Melissa Senatore, who live in Calverton, and her brother Jason Klinge of Southampton.

I was in tears because I didnt know what to do and who was the better choice, Ms. LaRosa said.

A sense of urgency had arrived in early 2020. Ms. LaRosa, 62, who lives in Mattituck, was undergoing frequent blood transfusions due to a lack of platelets and low red blood cells.

Things were getting pretty bad at that point, she said.

She didnt want to put the burden on any of her siblings. She called her doctor to talk through her concerns. The time had come to move forward, so the doctor took the decision out of her hands.

After careful evaluation of all three siblings health and medical histories and considering Ms. LaRosas worsening situation the doctors choice became clear. The donor would be her sister Jennifer.

Ms. Lappe understood her sisters hesitancy to ask forsuch a serious commitment. But there was never a moment of doubt. She had seen her sister struggle for years with her illness and have to endure the uncertainty of misdiagnosis and multiple procedures.

I knew she was scared, Ms. Lappe said. Id be scared with what she had to go through. But shes a lot stronger than I think she thinks she is.

Ms. LaRosa texted her sister with the news that unfortunately she would be the donor.

To me there was never a question, said Ms. Lappe, 60. Ill do whatever you need. Im in a million percent. I said, Im selfish, I love you. I want you to be around forever.

The sisters, who were always so close from a young age and grew up in a tight-knit family, would soon form an unbreakable bond one saving the others life.

Before Ms. LaRosa received an ultimate diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome, or MDS, in February 2020, she endured years of joint pain and symptoms that seemed to mystify her doctors. One time when her shoulder hurt, she was told it was a torn rotator cuff, which turned out to be inaccurate. Before that, when she was struggling to walk with swollen feet, a podiatrist said she had a torn Achilles tendon, but she hadnt done anything that seemed to warrant an injury typically seen in athletes. Lupus was also incorrectly diagnosed.

She struggled on a continual journey from one doctor to another.

She ended up in an emergency room on Feb. 27, 2017, and a doctor there noticed that her platelets the smallest blood cells seemed low.

Two months later, a doctor at New York Cancer & Blood Specialists diagnosed large granular leukemia, a rare cancer of white blood cells. As time went on, however, her condition did not improve.

Ms. LaRosas daughter, Taylor, described her mom as a fighter who was always optimistic and never overly concerned about her health issues.

I was more so the worrywart, said Taylor, 29. I kind of forced her to go to all these appointments and all of these doctors chasing all of these kind of vague symptoms. No one could kind of come up with what was going on.

A 2009 Mattituck High School graduate, Taylor works as a physician assistant at Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City. She connected her mom with Dr. Gail Roboz, who specializes in hematology/oncology, in November 2017. Dr. Roboz became well known as the doctor for Robin Roberts, an anchor of ABCs Good Morning America, who was diagnosed with MDS in 2012.

[Dr. Roboz] kind of took on my case and was monitoring me and was saying my blood didnt really make any sense, Ms. LaRosa said. There were mutations in my blood that werent making sense for the large granular leukemia diagnosis.

Extensive testing revealed that Ms. LaRosa had a predisposition to MDS, a bone barrow disorder and blood cancer that often goes unrecognized and under-diagnosed, according to the MDS Foundation.

Then it was kind of a weird watching and waiting game, Taylor said. I think we all hoped it couldnt turn into this [MDS], but we knew it could.

Low-risk patients who do not receive a bone marrow transplant face an average survival rate of up to six years, according to the MDS Foundation. High-risk patients face as little as five months.

Taylor said she braced herself for the possibility that her mother would need a bone marrow transplant at some point. Each December, her mother would undergo a checkup with her oncologist.

Taylor examined her mothers lab work after the December 2019 appointment and could see the results were abnormal. The family had booked a cruise around Christmastime, so Taylor reached out to her mothers oncologist to see if it would be safe to travel.

Dr. Roboz gave them the OK and said theyd deal with it when they returned.

We went on this cruise and I didnt know anything, Ms. LaRosa said. My husband didnt know anything, but my daughter had all this information. She had some emotional moments on the cruise. Now, looking back, I know why.

Taylor recalled the trip to the Bahamas like something out of a movie, where nothing went wrong.

It was like a perfect trip, she said.

When Ms. LaRosa returned to her doctor for a follow-up, the reality of the situation set in. Dr. Roboz referred her to Dr. Tsiporah Shore, who has expertise in bone marrow transplants, at Weill Cornell Medicine. They met on March 14, 2020.

She basically said we need to do this right away, Ms. LaRosa said. Things were really progressing.

Ms. Lappe could see her sisters health was declining.

Nothing they did was making her better and I know this was something she dreaded doing, she said.

Before determining who would be the match, Ms. Lappe said she underwent the most extensive testing of her life. To find a match, doctors analyze the patients tissue type, specifically the human leukocyte antigen, or HLA, tissue, the proteins found on most cells in the body, according to the nonprofit organization Be the Match.

Finding the match is just the initial step in assuring that the donor is suitable for the transplant and there are no other potential ailments that could be passed on.

Ms. Lappe had assumed her brother Jason would be the pick since she had an autoimmune disease and he did not. When she found out she had been selected, it coincided with the early stage of the pandemic. That added another layer of stress, since Ms. Lappe knew if she came down with the virus, it could upend the entire process.

Other questions loomed over her.

Youre worrying, is my body going to do what it needs to do? Is it going to work? Will her body reject it? she said.

To begin the donation last July, Ms. Lappe received injections to increase her white blood cell count. At the same time, her sister was undergoing radiation and chemotherapy to essentially wipe her immune system clear, eliminating a lifetime of protections that had been built up.

Ms. Lappe said she had been warned shed feel pain in her bones from the shots. When she didnt feel anything after the first shot, she worried it might not be working.

By the third and fourth shot, there was no mistaking the odd sensation.

You have these bone pains, she said. Ive never had that happen.

On the fifth day, the doctors did a blood test as the final determination to begin the donation process.

To read more about bone marrow donation, visit BeTheMatch.org.

The procedure, called peripheral blood stem cell donation, required Ms. Lappe to be connected to a machine for six hours as blood was removed via a port in her chest to separate out the blood-forming cells. The remaining blood circulated back into her body.

At the end of it, one bag of the pinkish liquid that would be used to save her sister had been accumulated.

I said to her afterwards, it was so emotional, Ms. Lappe said, adding that she knew she would feel an overwhelming sense of guilt if the procedure didnt work.

She took a picture of the bag and its label, which read, Donor: Jennifer Lappe and Recipient: Lorraine LaRosa. She texted the picture to her sister and said, Oh, my gosh.

Ms. Lappe finished her donation on a Wednesday and her sister began to receive her bone marrow the next morning, once the doctors had determined they had a sufficient number of stem cells to start the process.

Then the waiting game began.

The day of a transplant is Day Zero. Every day afterward continues an upward count toward engraftment, when the blood-forming cells received during the transplant begin to grow and create healthy blood cells.

I would say those days were the hardest, just waiting, Taylor said. They would draw her labs every morning at 4 a.m. and the results would be back at 6 a.m.

A nurse would write the number on a board, and for several days it remained at zero. To pass the time, Ms. LaRosa would play games like Yahtzee with her husband, Mark, who commuted each day into the city. Taylor would watch Netflix shows like Jane the Virgin with her mom. The days were largely a blur for Ms. LaRosa.

Taylor knew it could take one to two weeks for engraftment to begin. It was Day 11 when they saw the first sign of hope as a nurse wrote .1 on the board, signaling the first sign of growth.

I remember that day being like a huge relief and huge turn, Taylor said.

Ms. LaRosa spent over a month in the hospital for close monitoring as her counts continued to climb. Even after she was released, she had to stay at a nearby hotel for another week because of daily checkups. She set her sights on Day 100, another milestone moment in the recovery.

If you make past Day 100, its a good thing, she said.

Even after a successful procedure with a 100% match, theres never a moment of being entirely in the clear. Ms. LaRosa will continue to be monitored for the rest of her life and setbacks are always possible. Shes faced one setback already, with graft vs. host disease, which can be common after a bone marrow transplant. Shes also endured blood clots.

But the biggest thing is that shes now clear of MDS and feeling better than before the procedure. She still, however, faces residual effects from chemotherapy. Shes often tired.

When she returned home, she mostly stayed inside, unable to venture out with the threat of COVID-19 still hanging over everything. Her immune system was rebuilding from scratch. She remains on a special diet. She cant have plants in the house, which put her at risk of exposure to pathogens that can cause disease. She cant have alcohol.

I said, God, I really want a glass of wine, Ms. LaRosa said with a laugh.

Taylor said there are constant signs of progress. Her mother just recently had a port removed from her chest wall after close to nine months. She received her COVID-19 vaccine. Her hair is growing back.

Shes starting to like the style, Taylor said.

She looks forward to the next steps of returning to normal: going to a movie theater and eating dinner at their favorite restaurant, Grana in Jamesport. When they sit together and toast their wine glasses, Taylor said she knows shell cry. They have always shared a close bond, particularly since Taylor was adopted at around 3 months old after her mother endured years of infertility issues.

Shes been my best friend and my rock for my whole life, Taylor said.

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Stem Cell Therapy Market worth $401 million by 2026 – Exclusive Report by MarketsandMarkets – PRNewswire

By daniellenierenberg

CHICAGO, April 28, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- According to the new market research report "Stem Cell Therapy Marketby Type (Allogeneic, Autologous), Therapeutic Application (Musculoskeletal, Wound & Injury, CVD, Autoimmune & Inflammatory), Cell Source (Adipose tissue, Bone Marrow, Placenta/Umbilical Cord) - Global Forecasts to 2026", published by MarketsandMarkets, the global market is projected to reach USD 401 million by 2026 from USD 187 million in 2021, at a CAGR of 16.5% during the forecast period.

Browse and in-depth TOC on"Stem Cell Therapy Market"142 - Tables45 - Figures160 - Pages

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The Market growth is driven mainly by factors such as increasing investment in stem cell research and the rising number of GMP-certified stem cell manufacturing plants. However, factors such as ethical concerns and the high cost of stem cell research and manufacturing process likely to hinder the growth of this market.

The adipose tissue-derived MSCs segment accounted for the largest share of the cell source segment in the Stem Cell Therapy Market in 2020.

Based on the cell source from which stem cells are obtained, the global market is segmented into four sources. These include adipose tissue-derived MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells), bone marrow-derived MSCs, placenta/umbilical cord-derived MSCs, and other cell sources (which includes human corneal epithelium stem cells, peripheral arterial-derived stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cell lines). In 2020, adipose tissue-derived MSCs accounted for the markets largest share due to their increasing utilization in treating inflammatory diseases and wounds & injuries. There are several associated advantages, such as ease of harvesting stem cells by minimally invasive methods, simplicity of the isolation procedure, and better quality & proliferation capacity of adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

The musculoskeletal disorders segment accounted for the largest share of the therapeutic application segment in the Stem Cell Therapy Market in 2020

Based on therapeutic application, the global market is segmented into musculoskeletal disorders, wounds & injuries, cardiovascular diseases, surgeries, inflammatory & autoimmune diseases, neurological disorders, and other therapeutic applications (which include ocular diseases, fat loss, and peripheral arterial diseases). In 2020, the musculoskeletal disorders segment accounted for the largest share of the therapeutic application segment. The large market share of this segment is attributed to the increasing prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders such as osteoarthritis, bone repair, and regeneration

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The Asia Pacific region is the fastest-growing region of the Stem Cell Therapy Market in 2020.

The Asia Pacific region is estimated to grow at the highest CAGR in the market during the forecast period. Some of the major factors fueling the growth of the APAC market include regulatory approvals and guidelines for product approvals and the presence of major stem cell players in countries such as South Korea, Japan, India, and Australia.

Key players in the Stem Cell Therapy Market include Smith & Nephew (UK), MEDIPOST Co., Ltd. (South Korea), Anterogen Co., Ltd. (South Korea), PHARMICELL Co., Ltd. (South Korea), JCR Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd. (Japan), and NuVasive, Inc. (US).

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Stem Cell Assay Market by Type (Viability, Purification, Identification), Cell Type (Mesenchymal, iPSCs, HSCs, hESCs), Product & Service (Instruments, Kits), Application (Regenerative Medicine, Clinical Research), End User - Global Forecast to 2023https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/stem-cell-assay-market-47610330.html

Stem Cell Manufacturing Market by Product (HSCs, MSCs, iPSCs, ESCs, Instruments, Media, Consumables), Application (Research, Target Identification, Therapy (Autologous, Allogeneic), Cell Banks), End User (Pharma, Hospitals) - Global Forecast to 2023https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/stem-cell-manufacturing-market-70743403.html

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Bone Marrow Processing Systems Market Quantitative Market Analysis, Current and Future Trends – Good News Gum

By daniellenierenberg

Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy are usually performed on the back of the hipbone, or posterior iliac crest. An aspirate can also be obtained from the sternum (breastbone). For the sternal aspirate, the patient lies on their back, with a pillow under the shoulder to raise the chest. A trephine biopsy should never be performed on the sternum, due to the risk of injury to blood vessels, lungs or the heart.

The need to selectively isolate and concentrate selective cells, such as mononuclear cells, allogeneic cancer cells, T cells and others, is driving the market. Over 30,000 bone marrow transplants occur every year. The explosive growth of stem cells therapies represents the largest growth opportunity for bone marrow processing systems.

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Europe and North America spearheaded the market as of 2018, by contributing over 74.0% to the overall revenue. Majority of stem cell transplants are conducted in Europe, and it is one of the major factors contributing to the lucrative share in the cell harvesting system market.

In 2018, North America dominated the research landscape as more than 54.0% of stem cell clinical trials were conducted in this region. The region also accounts for the second largest number of stem cell transplantation, which is further driving the demand for harvesting in the region.

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Asia Pacific is anticipated to witness lucrative growth over the forecast period, owing to rising incidence of chronic diseases and increasing demand for stem cell transplantation along with stem cell-based therapy. Japan and China are the biggest markets for harvesting systems in Asia Pacific. Emerging countries such as Mexico, South Korea, and South Africa are also expected to report lucrative growth over the forecast period. Growing investment by government bodies on stem cell-based research and increase in aging population can be attributed to the increasing demand for these therapies in these countries.

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Major players operating in the global bone marrow processing systems market are ThermoGenesis (Cesca Therapeutics inc.), RegenMed Systems Inc., MK Alliance Inc., Fresenius Kabi AG, Harvest Technologies (Terumo BCT), Arthrex, Inc. and others.

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Bone Marrow Processing Systems Market Quantitative Market Analysis, Current and Future Trends - Good News Gum

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