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Skincare: Five natural remedies to get rid of keloids overnight – Republic World – Republic World

By Dr. Matthew Watson

Want to get rid of a keloid? Here we are with easyand simple keloid removal home remedies that you must try. Keloid is a type of raised scar which appears where the skin had an injury. Skin burn, cut or severe acne cause a scar and some of keloids continue to grow for years.

Baking soda helps to shed the damaged and dead cells. Prepare a mixture of baking soda and diluted hydrogen peroxide. Apply the paste on the keloid affected area with the help of cotton balls and leave it for 30 minutes. Later, wash it off with water and apply any night cream moisturizer. For best results, repeat this process 2-3 times a day for a fewweeks.

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Aspirin, usually used for headache, is also used to get rid of keloids. Due to its anti-inflammatory properties, aspirin is beneficial in the treatment of keloids. Crush 3-4 aspirin tablets and add water to prepare a smooth and thick paste. Apply the paste on a scar and wait until it gets dry. Rinse off by water and apply some olive oil or tea tree oil. Use this method once a day or every alternate day.

Extract the juice from the lemon and apply on the affected area. Leave it for about 30 minutes and later wash it with warm water. For better results follow this process every day. Because of its antioxidant property, lemon helps in quick healing of keloids.

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Prepare a paste of sandalwood in rosewater and apply it on the affected area before bedtime. Let it rest for the whole night and rinse off with warm water the next morning. Sandalwood, which is rich in regenerating property when mixed with rosewater, gives the best result to get rid of keloids. Repeat this process every night for one week and observe changes by yourself.

Honey, one of the best-used substances, in several skin treatments, helps in getting rid of keloids. Directly apply fresh honey on scars. Massage lightly and leave it for 30-40 minutes. Rinse it off with water and use this method for some weeks to get rid of keloids.

The above-mentioned home remedies give the best results when followed religiously. As we know keloids are difficult to treat, and hence doctors suggest to take steps soon after injury or piercing. So, whenever you notice scars, follow these steps to get rid of them.

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Do you have ‘diet face’? It’s everywhere | Times2 – The Times

By Dr. Matthew Watson

Jenni Murray is spot on staying slim can take its toll on your features, says Christa DSouza

I do love Jenni Murray. For telling it like it is. For those of you not aware of the comments she made at the Henley literary festival, let me recap for you. She recalled the advice given to her by Barbara Cartland Jenni, you know, when you get older you sacrifice your face or your figure. Dont sacrifice your face, just sit down a lot. Murray went on to explain how, despite having gone through a gastrectomy to lose weight, she had, at the age of 69, decided to follow Babss advice because she didnt want to end up looking like Nigel Lawson. And thats no insult to Nigel Lawson, she went on to say in her mellifluous, unbitchy way, but you know, when he

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New Viral Vector for Sickle Cell Gene Therapy Likely to Be More Effective, NIH Study Says – Sickle Cell Anemia News

By Dr. Matthew Watson

A newly designed viral vector the vehicle that delivers a gene therapyto a patients cells for use insickle cell anemia is more efficient than earlier vectors at introducing healthy copies of genes into stem cells and can be produced in greater amounts, studies in animal models show.

The study Development of a forward-orientated therapeutic lentiviral vector for hemoglobin disorders was published in the journal Nature Communications.

Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that binds oxygen, allowing oxygen to be transported around the body. Mutations in the HBBgene, which encodes a component of hemoglobin, causessickle cell.

Gene therapies involve either altering the mutated gene or introducing a healthy version of that gene to the body. Still under development for sickle cell, an estimated 27 patients have undergone experimental gene therapy. One strategy involves removing hematopoietic stem cells (which function to produce blood cells) from a patients bone marrow. A healthy copy of the HBB gene is then introduced into the cells using a modified, harmless virus known as a viral vector. The cells are then transplanted back into the patient where they will produce healthy red blood cells.

Traditionally, viral vectors for sickle cell have been designed in a way known as reverse structural orientation. This means that the HBB gene is translated or read from right to left, like reading an English sentence backwards. The reverse structural orientation design ensures that a key section of the gene (known as intron 2), which is necessary for the production of high levels of the HBB gene, is retained during viral vector preparation.

However, this design makes preparing the viral vectors more difficult, and decreases the efficiency of introducing the gene into the stem cells.

Researchersat the National Institutes of Healthdesigned a new viral vector, one in which the HBB gene is forward orientated and read from left to right. Genes essential for the virus were inserted into intron 2, meaning that only vectors that retained intron 2 would be produced (a type of positive selection).

Our new vector is an important breakthrough in the field of gene therapy for sickle cell disease, John Tisdale, MD, chief of the Cellular and Molecular Therapeutic Branch at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the studys senior author, said in a press release.

Its the new kid on the block and represents a substantial improvement in our ability to produce high capacity, high efficiency vectors for treating this devastating disorder, he added.

The researchers compared the new vectors to traditional reverse-orientated vectors in mouse and monkey models. The new vectors were four to 10 times more efficient at introducing the healthy HBBgene into the stem cells, and could carry up to six times more HBB genes compared to the conventional vectors.

Furthermore, the new vectors remained incorporated into the cells of monkeys up to four years after a transplant. These vectors could also be produced in greater amounts, which may lessen the time and costs required for large-scale vector production.

The researchers hope that these characteristics will make gene therapy for sickle cell disease more effective and increase its use. The new vector design still needs to be tested in clinical trials in patients.

Our lab has been working on improving beta-globin vectors for almost a decade and finally decided to try something radically different and it worked, Tisdale said.

These findings bring us closer to a curative gene therapy approach for hemoglobin disorders, he added.

Patricia holds her Ph.D. in Cell Biology from University Nova de Lisboa, and has served as an author on several research projects and fellowships, as well as major grant applications for European Agencies. She also served as a PhD student research assistant in the Laboratory of Doctor David A. Fidock, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Columbia University, New York.

Total Posts: 94

Margarida graduated with a BS in Health Sciences from the University of Lisbon and a MSc in Biotechnology from Instituto Superior Tcnico (IST-UL). She worked as a molecular biologist research associate at a Cambridge UK-based biotech company that discovers and develops therapeutic, fully human monoclonal antibodies.

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BrainStorm Announces Notice of US Patent Allowance for NurOwn Cellular Therapeutic Technology Platform – Yahoo Finance

By Dr. Matthew Watson

NEW YORK, Oct. 07, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Inc.(NASDAQ: BCLI), a leading developer of adult stem cell therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases, today announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has issued a Notice of Allowance for BrainStorm's new US Patent Application, number: 15/113,105, titled: Method of Qualifying Cells'.

The allowed claims cover a pharmaceutical composition for MSC-NTF cells secreting neurotrophic factors (NurOwn) comprising a culture medium as a carrier and an isolated population of differentiated bone marrow-derived MSCs that secrete neurotrophic factors.

Patent families protecting NurOwn have previously issued in the United States, Japan, Europe, Hong-Kong and Israel.

"This allowance further expands the patent protection of the NurOwn Cellular Therapeutic Technology Platform and enables us to accelerate clinical development for new neurodegenerative indications, commented BrainStorm President and CEO,Chaim Lebovits.

About NurOwn

NurOwn (autologous MSC-NTF) cells represent a promising investigational therapeutic approach to targeting disease pathways important in neurodegenerative disorders. MSC-NTF cells are produced from autologous, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have been expanded and differentiated ex vivo. MSCs are converted into MSC-NTF cells by growing them under patented conditions that induce the cells to secrete high levels of neurotrophic factors. Autologous MSC-NTF cells can effectively deliver multiple NTFs and immunomodulatory cytokines directly to the site of damage to elicit a desired biological effect and ultimately slow or stabilize disease progression. BrainStorm is currently conducting a Phase 3 pivotal trial of autologous MSC-NTF cells for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). BrainStorm also recently received U.S. FDA acceptance to initiate a Phase 2 open-label multicenter trial in progressive MS and enrollment began in March 2019.

About BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Inc.

BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Inc. is a leading developer of innovative autologous adult stem cell therapeutics for debilitating neurodegenerative diseases. The Company holds the rights to clinical development and commercialization of the NurOwn technology platform used to produce autologous MSC-NTF cells through an exclusive, worldwide licensing agreement. Autologous MSC-NTF cells have received Orphan Drug status designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in ALS. BrainStorm is currently enrolling a Phase 3 pivotal trial in ALS (NCT03280056), investigating repeat-administration of autologous MSC-NTF cells at six sites in the U.S., supported by a grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM CLIN2-0989). The pivotal study is intended to support a filing for U.S. FDA approval of autologous MSC-NTF cells in ALS. BrainStorm also recently received U.S. FDA clearance to initiate a Phase 2 open-label multicenter trial in progressive Multiple Sclerosis. The Phase 2 study of autologous MSC-NTF cells in patients with progressive MS (NCT03799718) started enrollment in March 2019. For more information, visit the company's website at

Safe-Harbor Statements

Statements in this announcement other than historical data and information constitute "forward-looking statements" and involve risks and uncertainties that could cause BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Inc.'s actual results to differ materially from those stated or implied by such forward-looking statements. Terms and phrases such as "may", "should", "would", "could", "will", "expect", "likely", "believe", "plan", "estimate", "predict", "potential", and similar terms and phrases are intended to identify these forward-looking statements. The potential risks and uncertainties include, without limitation, risks associated with BrainStorm's limited operating history, history of losses; minimal working capital, dependence on its license to Ramot's technology; ability to adequately protect the technology; dependence on key executives and on its scientific consultants; ability to obtain required regulatory approvals; and other factors detailed in BrainStorm's annual report on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q available at These factors should be considered carefully, and readers should not place undue reliance on BrainStorm's forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this press release are based on the beliefs, expectations and opinions of management as of the date of this press release. We do not assume any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect actual results or assumptions if circumstances or management's beliefs, expectations or opinions should change, unless otherwise required by law. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements.

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Novartis completes certification of initial sites in Quebec for first approved Canadian CAR-T therapy, Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel)(i) – Canada NewsWire

By Dr. Matthew Watson

DORVAL, QC, Oct. 9, 2019 /CNW/ - Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. is pleased to announce that sites in Quebec have been certified in accordance with applicable requirements to treat eligible patients with Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel), the first chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy that received regulatory approval in Canada. Patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) pediatric and young adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and adult r/r diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) may be eligible to be treated with Kymriah at one of the initially certified Canadian treatment sites. This news coincides with the Quebec government announcement that Kymriah is now reimbursed for eligible patients under the Rgie de l'assurance maladie du Qubec (RAMQ)ii.

Eligible patients in Quebec are now able to access Kymriah from the Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine and Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital (HMR) in Montreal.

"Novartis feels it is important to acknowledge the collaborative effort by all stakeholders involved to ensure Canadians have access to the first approved CAR-T therapy for patients with B-cell ALL and DLBCL who historically have poor outcomes. With treatment centers certified in Quebec, this allows patients with these two life-threatening cancers the opportunity to be treated with CAR-T therapy," said Daniel Hbert, Medical Director, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. "Novartis is committed to bringing additional qualified treatment centers from other parts of the country into the network to give Canadians the opportunity to be treated closer to home."

Due to the sophisticated and individualized nature of Kymriah, treatment sites that are part of the network are required to be FACT-accredited (Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy), qualified to perform intravenous infusion of stem cells collected from the bone marrow of a donor, also referred to as allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) and have experience with cell therapies, leukemia and lymphoma to facilitate safe and seamless delivery of Kymriah to eligible patients.

"We are thrilled with this news because we will now be able to treat patients at our institution with the knowledge that their therapy will be publicly funded. We see this as a significant step forward. The young patients we see who have refractory or relapsed B-cell ALL are desperately in need of a new treatment option. Kymriah brings hope to patients who are literally in a fight for their life." said Dr. Henrique Bittencourt, hematologist at the CHU Sainte-Justine in Montreal and Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Universit de Montral.

"The expertise at HMR has raised the profile of our organization, which is a major Quebec, Canadian and worldwide pole for health innovation. Thanks to the dedicated work of our care, research and teaching teams, patients can now access this new treatment with demonstrated effectiveness and impact on quality of life," said Sylvain Lemieux, President and CEO, Centre intgr universitaire de sant et de services sociaux (CIUSSS) de l'Est-de-l'le-de-Montral.

About Kymriah Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel), a CD19-directed genetically modified autologous T-cell immunocellular therapy, is approved to treat two life-threatening cancers that have limited treatment options and historically poor outcomes, demonstrating the critical need for new therapies for these patients.

Kymriah is approved by Health Canada for use in pediatric and young adult patients 3 to 25 years of age with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who are refractory, have relapsed after allogenic stem cell transplant (SCT) or are otherwise ineligible for SCT, or have experienced second or later relapse; and for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) large B-cell lymphoma after two or more lines of systemic therapy including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not otherwise specified, high grade B-cell lymphoma and DLBCL arising from follicular lymphomai.

Kymriah is a one-time treatment that uses a patient's own T cells to fight and kill cancer cells. Bringing this innovative therapy to Canadian patients requires collaboration among many health system stakeholders.

Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel) Important Safety InformationThe full prescribing information for Kymriah can be found at:

Novartis Leadership in Cell and Gene TherapyNovartis is at the forefront of investigational immunocellular therapy and was the first pharmaceutical company to significantly invest in CAR-T research, work with pioneers in CAR-T and initiate global CAR-T trials. Kymriah, the first approved CAR-T cell therapy in Canada, is the cornerstone of this strategy. Active research programs are underway targeting other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, and include efforts focused on next generation CAR-Ts that involve simplified manufacturing schemes and gene edited cells.

About Novartis in CanadaNovartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc., a leader in the healthcare field, is committed to the discovery, development and marketing of innovative products to improve the well-being of all Canadians. In 2018, the company invested $52 million in research and development in Canada. Located in Dorval, Quebec, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. employs approximately 1,000 people in Canada and is an affiliate of Novartis AG, which provides innovative healthcare solutions that address the evolving needs of patients and societies. For further information, please consult

About NovartisNovartis is reimagining medicine to improve and extend people's lives. As a leading global medicines company, we use innovative science and digital technologies to create transformative treatments in areas of great medical need. In our quest to find new medicines, we consistently rank among the world's top companies investing in research and development. Novartis products reach more than 750 million people globally and we are finding innovative ways to expand access to our latest treatments. About 108,000 people of more than 140 nationalities work at Novartis around the world. Find out more at

Kymriah is a registered trademark.

References_____________________________________________i Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc., Kymriah Product Monograph. January 7, 2019.ii Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services press release. October 8, 2019. Available at:

SOURCE Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.

For further information: Novartis Media Relations, Daphne Weatherby, Novartis Corporate Communications, +1 514 633 7873, E-mail:

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World Cord Blood Day 2019 to Welcome Leading Transplant Doctors and Pioneering Cellular Therapy Researchers – Yahoo Finance

By Dr. Matthew Watson

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Penny Lancaster is reduced to tears as she gives bone marrow donor Ronnie Musselwhite, 5, The Suns Young H – The Scottish Sun

By Dr. Matthew Watson

PENNY Lancaster was reduced to tears as she handed five-year-old Ronnie Musselwhite the Young Hero gong at The Suns Who Cares Wins health awards last night.

Spurs fan Ronnie bravely offered to give his older sister Ebonie a bone marrow transplant last year.


Eight-year-old Ebonie had leukaemia and it was her only hope.

Mum Christine Jenkins, 40, said: Ronnies stem cells worked perfectly. They did what they were supposed to do but the leukaemia came back somewhere new.

Ebonie, of Crawley, West Sussex, nominated her younger brother before her death in June.

Rod Stewarts partner Penny chatted with Ronnie about his love of football and Spurs.




She said: To say I am humbled to be here is an understatement. Sometimes you think life has turned a corner on you, but then someone else turns up to give you some inspiration.

"The courage this little man has shown is absolutely incredible. Hes only five years old, hes lost a sister.

"He was incredibly shy to stand up in front of everyone to collect his award, but he again was so brave.

Christine said: We want Ronnie to know that what he did still worked, was still brave, even though he lost his sister.



PM Boris Johnson was also at the awards held at The Suns London HQ near The Shard and paid tribute to our NHS heroes.

He presented an award to a pair of quick-thinking hospital porters who saved the life of a seven-week-old baby boy.

Nick Evans, 48, and Ruth Lowe, 47, sprang into action after Logan Clifford stopped breathing.

His parents, Sarah and Mike were visiting a relative at the Princess Royal Hospital in Telford, Shrops, when they noticed Logans lips had turned blue.


Sarahs screams alerted Ruth, who shouted for Nick. He grabbed Logan and performed CPR as he ran half a mile down the corridor to A&E.

Nick continued CPR until the resuscitation team took over and the porters stayed by Logans parents side until they knew he was going to be OK. Sarah, 30, has called the two porters my heroes.

As he handed the pair the Ultimate Lifesaver trophy, the PM said: The NHS is revered around the world, and in no small part due to the heroes working in it every day.

He added: My experience of the NHS is like everybody else in the NHS - one of admiration and love.


"It is the most extraordinary institution in the world. If our country was an omelette then the NHS is the egg white that holds the great British cake together.

Virgin Radio DJ Chris Evans presented the Best Nurse gong to Liz Monaghan, 53. She set up the widely praised Purple Rose initiative, which aims to improve the care for patients and their loved ones in the last days of their life.

Liz, who works at the Florence Nightingale Hospice, based at the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Aylesbury, Bucks, said: Im a little embarrassed to have won. Im a small part of a big team.

DJ Chris said: Youve got to prepare yourself for nights like this because otherwise they hit you like an express train.

Who Cares Wins Awards: The winners


Winner: Matt Hampson Foundation

Former English rugby union player Matt Hampson set up a charity to help others after being left paralysed in a scrum in 2005.

Other nominees: Superhero Foundation and Team Domenica


Winner: Professor Kypros Nicolaides

Professor Nicolaides performed pioneering keyhole surgeon on Sherrie Sharps unborn son Jaxon. By extraordinary coincidence, as a young surgeon, he also operated on Sherries mother when she was in the womb.

Other nominees: Dr Vesna Pavasovic and Professor Massimo Caputo


Winner: Therapeutic Care Volunteers at South Tees NHS Foundation Trust

30 therapeutic care volunteers, who all have a learning or physical disability, give up their time to support patients with spinal injuries at The James Cook University Hospital in Middlesbrough. They include Ify Nwokoro.

Other nominees: Ben Slack and Rob Allen


Winner: Guys and St Thomas London Auditory Brainstem Implant (ABI) Service

Leia Armitage, eight, was born with a rare form of deafness and was never expected to speak. But she now can thanks to pioneering brain surgery and speech therapy carried out by Guys and St Thomas London Auditory Brainstem Implant (ABI) Service.

Other nominees: Dr Helen Spencer and Girish Vajramani


Winner: Dr Matthew Boulter

Dr Boulter served in Afghanistan, teaches wild trauma to army medics and his surgery became the first in Cornwall to be given veteran friendly accreditation.

Other nominees: Margaret France and Dr Bijay Sinha


Winner: Jane Parke

Jane helped deliver the youngest surviving twin boys in Britain when they were born at 22 weeks last year. She flew 190 miles with their mum Jennie Powell to a specialist neonatal unit.

Other nominees: Charlotte Day and Nagmeh Teymourian


Winner: Ruth Lowe and Nick Evans

Porters Ruth and Nick saved the life of Sarah and Mike Cliffords seven-week-old baby Logan. He stopped breathing as they walked through the main entrance of The Princess Royal Hospital in Telford to visit a sick relative.

Other nominees: Dr Mark Forrest and Mike Merrett


Winner: Liz Monaghan

Liz is the Matron of the Florence Nightingale Hospice in Aylesbury, Bucks, and came up with the idea for the widely praised Purple Rose initiative to improve the care for patients in the last days of their lives.

Other nominees: Margaret Ballard and Carlton DeCosta


Winner: Ben West

Ben lost his brother Sam, 15, to suicide last year and since his death, has campaigned tirelessly to raise awareness for mental health.

Other nominees: Beth Gregan and Catherine Benfield


Winner: Ronnie Musselwhite

Ronnie offered to help his sister Ebonie by giving her a bone marrow transplant when she was diagnosed with a rare form of leukaemia. Ebonie nominated her brother for his bravery before she died in June.

Other nominees: Bella Field and Kaitlyn Wright


I only walked ten metres into the room tonight and I already nearly burst into tears three times.

TV star Christine Lampard gave the Best Neonatal Specialist award to Prof Kypros Nicolaides, 66.

He was nominated by Sherrie Sharp, 29, of Horsham, West Sussex, for saving the life of her unborn baby son and her own.

After scans revealed Jaxson had spina bifida, Sherrie was offered a termination. But she contacted Prof Nicolaides, a surgeon at Kings College Hospital, London.


He had saved her life 30 years earlier when she developed a rare blood disorder in her mums womb.

He agreed to perform ground-breaking surgery on Jaxson while he was in Sherries womb.

Prof Nicolaides said: I was delighted to be able to help. Sherrie said: He has saved so many generations of my family. Hes our guardian angel.

The Who Cares Wins Awards were set up in 2017 by The Sun to honour the nations heroic doctors, nurses, midwives, other NHS staff and volunteers.


The Duchess of York presented an award to the parents of Natasha Ednan-Laperouse, 15, who died of an allergic reaction to a sandwich from Pret.

The duchess said: Can I just say to The Sun, I think youre incredible. Every minute Im sitting there and thinking Im so lucky. The NHS, The Sun and all of you, this is what makes Britain so great.

Lorraine Kelly, who presented the awards, said: Earlier on this year my dad was very sick and we honestly thought we were going to lose him.

"It was really difficult and it was only because of the efforts of the NHS hes still here. Its fantastic.


Who Cares Wins Awards: The winners


Nominees: Superhero Foundation

Team Domenica

Winner: Matt Hampson Foundation

Former English rugby union player Matt Hampson set up a charity to help others after being left paralysed in a scrum in 2005.


Nominees: Dr Vesna Pavasovic

Professor Massimo Caputo

Winner: Professor Kypros Nicolaides

Professor Nicolaides performed pioneering keyhole surgeon on Sherrie Sharps unborn son Jaxon. By extraordinary coincidence, as a young surgeon, he also operated on Sherries mother when she was in the womb.


Nominees: Ben Slack

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BEYOND LOCAL: Expert recommends ‘path of cautious optimism’ about the future of stem cell treatment –

By Dr. Matthew Watson

This article, written byKatharine Sedivy-Haley, University of British Columbia, originally appeared on The Conversation and is republished here with permission:

When I was applying to graduate school in 2012, it felt like stem cells were about to revolutionize medicine.

Stem cells have the ability to renew themselves, and mature into specialized cells like heart or brain cells. This allows them to multiply and repair damage.

If stem cell genes are edited to fix defects causing diseases like anemia or immune deficiency, healthy cells can theoretically be reintroduced into a patient, thereby eliminating or preventing a disease. If these stem cells are taken or made from the patient themselves, they are a perfect genetic match for that individual, which means their body will not reject the tissue transplant.

Because of this potential, I was excited that my PhD project at the University of British Columbia gave me the opportunity to work with stem cells.

However, stem cell hype has led some to pay thousands of dollars on advertised stem cell treatments that promise to cure ailments from arthritis to Parkinsons disease. These treatments often dont help and may harm patients.

Despite the potential for stem cells to improve medicine, there are many challenges as they move from lab to clinic. In general, stem cell treatment requires we have a good understanding of stem cell types and how they mature. We also need stem cell culturing methods that will reliably produce large quantities of pure cells. And we need to figure out the correct cell dose and deliver it to the right part of the body.

Embryonic, 'induced and pluripotent

Stem cells come in multiple types. Embryonic stem cells come from embryos which makes them controversial to obtain.

A newly discovered stem cell type is the induced pluripotent stem cell. These cells are created by collecting adult cells, such as skin cells, and reprogramming them by inserting control genes which activate or induce a state similar to embryonic stem cells. This embryo-like state of having the versatile potential to turn into any adult cell type, is called being pluripotent.

However, induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells can form tumours. Induced pluripotent stem cells carry a particularly high risk of harmful mutation and cancer because of their genetic instability and changes introduced during reprogramming.

Genetic damage could be avoided by using younger tissues such as umbilical cord blood, avoiding tissues that might contain pre-existing mutations (like sun-damaged skin cells), and using better methods for reprogramming.

Stem cells used to test drugs

For now, safety concerns mean pluripotent cells have barely made it to the clinic, but they have been used to test drugs.

For drug research, it is valuable yet often difficult to get research samples with specific disease-causing mutations; for example, brain cells from people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Researchers can, however, take a skin cell sample from a patient, create an induced pluripotent stem-cell line with their mutation and then make neurons out of those stem cells. This provides a renewable source of cells affected by the disease.

This approach could also be used for personalized medicine, testing how a particular patient will respond to different drugs for conditions like heart disease.

Vision loss from fat stem cells

Stem cells can also be found in adults. While embryonic stem cells can turn into any cell in the body, aside from rare newly discovered exceptions, adult stem cells mostly turn into a subset of mature adult cells.

For example, hematopoietic stem cells in blood and bone marrow can turn into any blood cell and are widely used in treating certain cancers and blood disorders.

A major challenge with adult stem cells is getting the right kind of stem cell in useful quantities. This is particularly difficult with eye and nerve cells. Most research is done with accessible stem cell types, like stem cells from fat.

Fat stem cells are also used in stem cell clinics without proper oversight or safety testing. Three patients experienced severe vision loss after having these cells injected into their eyes. There is little evidence that fat stem cells can turn into retinal cells.

Clinical complications

Currently, stem cell based treatments are still mostly experimental, and while some results are encouraging, several clinical trials have failed.

In the brain, despite progress in developing treatment for genetic disorders and spinal cord injury, treatments for stroke have been unsuccessful. Results might depend on method of stem cell delivery, timing of treatment and age and health of the patient. Frustratingly, older and sicker tissues may be more resistant to treatment.

For eye conditions, a treatment using adult stem cells to treat corneal injuries has recently been approved. A treatment for macular degeneration using cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells is in progress, though it had to be redesigned due to concerns about cancer-causing mutations.

A path of cautious optimism

While scientists have good reason to be interested in stem cells, miracle cures are not right around the corner. There are many questions about how to implement treatments to provide benefit safely.

In some cases, advertised stem cell treatments may not actually use stem cells. Recent research suggests mesenchymal stem cells, which are commonly isolated from fat, are really a mixture of cells. These cells have regenerative properties, but may or may not include actual stem cells. Calling something a stem cell treatment is great marketing, but without regulation patients dont know what theyre getting.

Members of the public (and grad students) are advised to moderate their excitement in favour of cautious optimism.

Katharine Sedivy-Haley, PhD Candidate in Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

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After 5 Years Of Trials, Doctors Create Human Liver From Scratch – CBS Pittsburgh

By Dr. Matthew Watson

PITTSBURGH (KDKA) In a dish sits a human liver.

Not removed from a person, but created from scratch.

Its not like wahoo and the next morning you think, ah, Im gonna make a human liver,' says Dr. Alejandro Soto-Gutirrez of the Pittsburgh Liver Research Center.

It took five years of trial and error but using stem cells, genetic and tissue engineering, organ cultures and a team of experts in these areas, the researchers have come up with this.

Alexandra Collin de Lhortet, Ph.D. of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine explains the process.

A rat liver gets stripped of its cells so that only the connective tissue remains.

From a small piece of human skin, the scientists pluck out stem cells and coax them into becoming human liver cells and the cells are collected.

Then theyre injected into the chamber, called a bioreactor, where they take up residence in the empty rat liver.

The entire process from gathering the cells to make a liver, to get to this point, where you have an actual mini human liver in a bioreactor, takes several months.

It will stay alive, or viable, for only a few days.

But in that short time, the researchers can try different medicines to treat the diseased liver.

You could test any sort of therapeutic by simply injecting this chemical through the system, says Dr. Collin.

In the past, animal livers played a role in this kind of research but human livers didnt always respond in the same way.

With this system, the cells have had genetic modification to recreate diseases, for example, fatty liver, a growing problem in the United States.

This technology has the potential for personalized medicine. From your skin cells, they could grow your own mini liver to figure out which medicines would work for you.

I believe its a very good biological tool to screen treatments that are not otherwise being tested in humans themselves because its dangerous, says Dr. Soto.

As its designed, it would be a long stretch to create livers for transplantation.

If you mean how far we are to make actual livers for people, I think we are very far away. Were probably many years away. But this is a good step, Dr. Soto says.

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Lab-grown meat made on International Space Station for the first time – CBBC Newsround

By Dr. Matthew Watson

Lab-grown meat has been successfully made in space for the first time.

Cells of a cow were taken to space where they were grown into small-scale muscle tissue using a 3D bioprinter.

Israeli food technology company, Aleph Farms grew the meat on the Russian segment of the International Space Station, 248 miles away from any natural resources.

The technique could be used in the future to provide meat for people living on the space station.

Aleph Farms said that the aim of the experiment was to advance its research into meat production and prove meat can be produced without natural resources.

"In space, we don't have 10,000 or 15,000 Litres of water available to produce one Kg (2.205 Pound) of beef," Aleph Farms said.

What is lab-grown meat?

This is the world's first lab-grown beef burger in 2013 made in a Petri dish

Lab-grown meat is meat made in a laboratory without killing animals.

Animals are made up of stem cells, which form special tissue like nerve or skin cells.

Scientists worked out how to take cells from an animal - like a cow- and multiply them in a special container called a Petri dish.

Eventually from one tiny muscle cell, tens of billions of cells can be grown. These join together to form muscle tissue.

Lots of strands of muscle tissue together can form 'meat'.

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Make-up mistakes that make you look older – and item that should go in the bin – Mirror Online

By Dr. Matthew Watson

Many of us rely on makeup as the secret to eternal youth. From covering up dark circles with concealer to adding a flush of colour with a rosy blush it's the perfect little pick-me-up.

But, of course, it's never that simple.

And if you're using the wrong products or the wrong techniques, you may not end up quite as fresh faced as you had hoped.

From using too much powder foundation to forgetting to use SPF, many of our go-to habits could actually be making us look older.

We speak to skin expert Paul Banwell to find out exactly what we should and shouldn't be doing.

To keep your skin hydrated, Paul says you can use simple methods to keep looking youthful.

He says: You can use a high intensity moisturiser, or use indigestible products like a liquid collagen drink - I recommend Skinade, the leading collagen drink which is carefully formulated, a mixture of vitamins and minerals which results in optimal skin health.

Wearing oil based products can clog pores and cause breakouts.

Paul says: The effects of clogged pores can be aided with medical facials like the photogenic facial from TBC Skin atelier, or microdermabrasion, followed by Dermalux LED treatments.

Alternatively, I'd recommend a hydroxyacid boost for pH equilibrium and chemical exfoliation - Rationale's Catalyst Range is best.

However, you can also make a difference by making small changes at home.

Paul says: Similarly, overusing fragranced and alcohol based products may dry out the skin, and in turn cause premature lines and wrinkles.

Try to use oil free products, and aim to use hydrating foundations and creams.

Pollution can be responsible for skin dryness, dullness, clogged pores and skin ageing.

Paul says: Some tips for shielding your skin from pollution are wearing sunscreen, using a good moisturiser to create a barrier between your skin and pollutants and double cleansing your skin - use a product like the Rationale Catalyst cleanser.

Sun exposure, both UV and infrared, can result in sunburn which also causes ageing issues for the skin as the years pass.

They're often credited with giving us a matte, flawless finish but powder foundations can be one of the worst culprits when it comes to ageing. Paul says: Avoid powders, as they tend to set into the fine lines of wrinkles which can make your skin look flaky.

For immune protection, and a product which can be used during a Sunday night ritual to make your skin look fresh and luminous for the week ahead which means you won't need to wear foundation, use the immunologist mask - to be performed weekly (the pot lasts 6 months).

It hydrates and reduces inflammation in problem/ sensitive skin.

While concealers are great for hiding flaws and imperfections, they can also draw attention to any unwanted lines and wrinkles.

Paul says: Concealers might be covering the dark circles, but they also accentuating fine lines, so make sure to only apply concealer to the inner half of your under eye.

Prepping the skin before wearing makeup is also key to a youthful glow. Paul says: Skin around the eyes is thinner that the rest of your face and shows age faster!

Eye creams and products that contain Retin A, a form of vitamin A, are most effective and promote the stimulation of collagen and elastin to tighten the skin.

Suncream shouldn't just be reserved for your annual holiday or trips to the beach. Rather, it should be part of your daily skincare regime.

Paul explains: UV exposure causes 90% of skin damage. Even people who already have signs of premature skin ageing can benefit from making lifestyle changes.

We should all be protecting our skin by using SPF 30 or higher which gives your skin a chance to repair some of the damage.

Fine lines and wrinkles absolutely have a part to play here too, and the best way to eradicate these is through protecting the skin against phototoxic damage and minimising loss of skin integrity.

Collagen peptides in a drink like Skinade will increase collagen turnover and are proven to minimise fine lines.

At the Banwell clinic, we offer Ultimate Sunscreen protection with Rationale B3-T, which will ensure skin is not affected as strongly when in sunlight.

After a long day, it can be tempting to just roll into bed without a second thought for your skin. But you may end up paying the price as a result.

Paul says: Sleeping in your makeup can result in the breakdown of healthy collagen which leads to premature skin ageing. Make sure to take your makeup off thoroughly, and Id recommend a Plasma Shower facial to boost cleansing of the skin, using stem cell technology.

Plasma showers alone help improve texture and quality of skin but can be boosted by various mesotherapy treatments including stem cells, hyaluronic acid and vitamins.

Essentially it encourages hydration, which is essential for optimum physiological functioning of the skin and to optimise all biological processes and immune protection.

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The scientist who grows tiny brains in her laboratory – The Times

By Dr. Matthew Watson

Dr Madeline Lancaster has discovered how to turn stem cells into grey matter. It could lead to treatments for autism and spinal injury

My teenage daughter asks me where Im heading. I tell her Im off to Cambridge to interview a neuroscientist who grows mini-brains in her lab. Wow, my daughter replies. That is so cool.

I recount this to Dr Madeline Lancaster, the scientist in question. She beams and says she thinks its very cool too. In her labs at the Medical Research Councils state-of-the-art Laboratory of Molecular Biology building she cant conceal her enthusiasm as she shows me the mini-brains small curd-like blobs floating in dishes of pinkish fluid. She says wow a lot.

It is these brain organoids (as in organ-like, rather than organism-like) made of living cells that have made Lancaster, 37, a big name in science since she discovered how to create

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ASYSTEM Launches With $4M In Seed Funding To ‘Redefine Male Wellness’ – Crunchbase News

By Dr. Matthew Watson

Josh LeVine and Oliver Walsh wanted to create a brand for men that wasnt just targeting the french male model on a motorbike. So, to bolster inclusivity and diversity for mens health, the duo built ASYSTEM, a startup which sells skincare and supplement products.

No one is really building in an aspirational, modern, diverse and inclusive way, which is the way we feel that brands should be built, Walsh said from the ASYSTEM beach house in Venice.

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ASYSTEM just raised a $4 million seed round from a crop of investors, including Firstminute Capital, S8 Capital, PLG Ventures. Board members include Kevin Datoo, former COO of Dollar Shave Club.

The betterment startup offers a subscription-based daily vitamin supplement package for $75 a month and a 3-step skincare package for $45 a month. While ASYSTEM wants to redefine mens wellness its hard to forget about the obvious, also venture-backed competition that has risen up recently.

Another company in the direct to consumer male wellness space is Hims, a San Francisco startup that works on men wellness and has raised $197 million in known venture capital to date, according to its Crunchbase profile.

LeVine said that Hims mainly focuses on Rogaine and Viagra through telemedicine. He pointed to two other brands, Roman, which sports healthy hair starting at $0.53 a day and Keeps, that also offers hair loss treatment and said they are not building products for traditional uses.

When you build a proper brand, you put the sticker on your car, he said. I dont know how many men would put a Hims sticker on their car; Id wear an Asystems on a t-shirt.

ASYSTEMs superhuman supplements promise optimization in focus, stamina, energy, mood, and sex drive, according to a press release. As a WIRED story pointed out this year, the blurry line between pharmaceuticals and supplements can be vague and potentially dangerous.

That said, Walsh said ASYSTEM worked with a range of individualsscientists and a qualified nutritionistto formulate the line.

The skincare uses fruit stem cells, avocado oils, and other ingredients, LeVine said. The entrepreneur started another fruit-based skin care product almost 15 years ago, which made its way into hotels and business airlines and used grape extracts from vineyards.

Along with building new products, the company will use the new funding to build out its experiential hub. Two weeks ago, along with the launch, ASYSTEM had a party in its beach house on Venice beach in California. Roughly 50 men from all ages showed up for a dinner, a beach workout, and guided meditation.

Walsh says the biggest surprise was that everyone was able to stay quiet for more than 10 minutes. Its proof, he says, that dialogue and camaraderie can come from this.

Illustration:Li-Anne Dias

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AVROBIO Announces First Patient Dosed in Phase 1/2 Trial of Gene Therapy for Cystinosis | DNA RNA and Cells | News Channels –

By Dr. Matthew Watson

DetailsCategory: DNA RNA and CellsPublished on Tuesday, 08 October 2019 19:53Hits: 337

Investigational Therapy Designed to Engineer Patients Own Stem Cells to Produce Essential Protein

CAMBRIDGE, MA, USA I October 08, 2019 IAVROBIO, Inc. (NASDAQ: AVRO) (the Company) today announced that the first patient has been dosed in the Companys AVR-RD-04 investigational gene therapy program for cystinosis, a devastating lysosomal storage disease, in an ongoing Phase 1/2 clinical trial sponsored by academic collaborators at the University of California San Diego. The gene therapy is derived from the patients own hematopoietic stem cells, which are genetically modified to produce functional cystinosin, a crucial protein that patients with cystinosis lack.

The trial will enroll up to six patients with cystinosis, a rare inherited disease caused by a defect in the gene that encodes for cystinosin. The cystinosin protein enables transport of the amino acid cystine out of lysosomes. When it is absent, cystine accumulates and crystalizes, causing progressive damage to the kidneys, liver, muscles, eyes and other organs and tissues. Cystinosis affects both children and adults; they face shortened life spans and often painful symptoms, including muscle wasting, difficulty breathing, blindness and kidney failure.

Cystinosis is a debilitating and progressive disease, and new treatment options are sorely needed. The current standard of care does not avert deterioration; at best, it can attenuate symptoms. Thats why gene therapy is particularly exciting: It has the potential to change the course of disease -- and the lives of patients -- by addressing the underlying cause of cystinosis, said Birgitte Volck, MD, PhD, President of Research and Development at AVROBIO. We believe we can engineer patients own stem cells so they sustainably produce the functional protein that is needed to prevent a toxic buildup of cystine and halt progression of the disease. We are so pleased that this investigational gene therapy is now in the clinic in collaboration with Dr. Stephanie Cherqui at UC San Diego.

The single-arm trial will enroll four adults and a potential follow-on cohort of two adults or adolescents at least 14 years of age who are currently being treated with cysteamine, the standard of care for cystinosis. If started at an early age and taken on a strict dosing schedule, cysteamine can delay kidney failure. However, the treatment regimen is highly burdensome, with side effects that can be severe and unpleasant, and many patients find it difficult to adhere to this treatment regimen. Even if compliance is high, cysteamine therapy cannot prevent kidney failure or avert other complications.

For people with cystinosis, there are no healthy days. They must take dozens of pills a day, around the clock, just to stay alive. It is a relentless disease and we urgently need new treatments, said Nancy J. Stack, President of the Cystinosis Research Foundation, which supported development of the gene therapy with more than $5.4 million in grants to Dr. Cherquis lab at UC San Diego. We believe that we are now an important step closer to the potential cure that our community has been working toward for many years.

The trials primary endpoints are safety and tolerability, assessed for up to two years after treatment, as well as efficacy, as assessed by cystine levels in white blood cells. Secondary endpoints to assess efficacy include changes in cystine levels in the blood, intestinal mucosa and skin and cystine crystal counts in the eye and skin. Efficacy will also be evaluated through clinical tests of kidney function, vision, muscle strength, pulmonary function and neurological and psychometric function, as well as through assessments of participants quality of life after treatment. The trial is funded by grants to UC San Diego from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) as well as the Cystinosis Research Foundation.

This investigational gene therapy starts with the patients own stem cells, which are genetically modified so that their daughter cells can produce and deliver functional cystinosin to cells throughout the body. With this approach we aim to prevent the abnormal accumulation of cystine that causes so many devastating complications, said Stephanie Cherqui, PhD, an Associate Professor of Pediatrics at UC San Diego School of Medicine, and consultant to AVROBIO. We have been working toward this trial for years and we are grateful for all the support that brought us to this moment.

About AVR-RD-04

AVR-RD-04 is a lentiviral-based gene therapy designed to potentially halt the progression of cystinosis with a single dose of the patients own hematopoietic stem cells. The stem cells are genetically modified so they can produce functional cystinosin with the aim of substantially reducing levels of cystine in cells throughout the patients body. Before the infusion of the cells, patients undergo personalized conditioning with busulfan to enable the cells to permanently engraft. The Phase 1/2 clinical trial is being conducted under the name CTNS-RD-04 by AVROBIOs academic collaborators at the University of California, San Diego.

About Cystinosis

Cystinosis is a rare, inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the accumulation of cystine in all the cells of the body, resulting in serious and potentially fatal damage to multiple organs and tissues and the shortening of patients life spans. The kidneys and eyes are especially vulnerable; more than 90% of untreated patients require a kidney transplant before age 20. An estimated 1 in 170,000 people are diagnosed with cystinosis.

About AVROBIO, Inc.

AVROBIO, Inc. is a leading, Phase 2 gene therapy company focused on the development of its investigational gene therapy, AVR-RD-01, in Fabry disease, as well as additional gene therapy programs in other lysosomal storage disorders including Gaucher disease, cystinosis and Pompe disease. The Companys plato platform includes a proprietary vector system, automated cell manufacturing solution and a personalized conditioning regimen deploying state-of-the-art precision dosing. AVROBIO is headquartered in Cambridge, MA and has offices in Toronto, ON. For additional information, visit


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The 3D bioprinting market is projected to reach USD 1,647 million by 2024 from USD 651 million in 2019, at a CAGR of 20.4% from 2019 to 2024 -…

By Dr. Matthew Watson

New York, Oct. 08, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- announces the release of the report "3D Bioprinting Market by Component, Material, Application, End user - Global Forecast to 2024" - The 3D bioprinting market is projected to reach USD 1,647 million by 2024 from USD 651 million in 2019, at a CAGR of 20.4% from 2019 to 2024. The growth in this market is mainly driven by technological advancements in 3D bioprinters and biomaterials, increasing use of 3D bioprinting in the pharmaceutical and cosmetology industries, and rising public and private funding to support bioprinting research activities. On the other hand, a shortage of skilled professionals and high development and production costs are hampering the growth of this market.

Microextrusion technology commanded the largest share of 3D bioprinters segment owing to technological advancements.The component segment of 3D bioprinting market is segmented into 3D bioprinters and bioinks.The 3D bioprinters market is further sub-segmented on the basis of technology into magnetic 3D bioprinting, laser-assisted bioprinting, inkjet 3D bioprinting, microextrusion bioprinting, and other technologies; whereas bioinks segment is further sub-segmented into natural, synthetic, and hybrid bioinks.

The microextrusion bioprinting technology has commanded the largest share of the market in 2019 due to technological advancements in the segment and the increasing research activities.

The drug discovery research application segment accounted for the largest share of the 3D bioprinting market in 2019.In terms of applications, the 3D bioprinting market is segmented into research applications and clinical applications.The demand for research applications is further sub-segmented into drug research, regenerative medicine, and 3D cell culture.

Among these, the drug research segment accounted for the largest share of the market in 2019, owing to the growing adoption of the 3D bioprinting technology by biopharmaceutical companies. While, in terms of clinical applications, the market is segmented into skin, bone & cartilage, blood vessels, and other clinical applications.

Based on material, living cells segment commanded the leading market share in 2019Based on material, the 3D bioprinting market is broadly segmented into hydrogels, extracellular matrices, living cells, and other biomaterials.Increasing R&D activities for the use of living cells in 3D bioprinting is driving the growth of the living cells segment.

Living cells have the ability to fabricate patient-specific tissues in a defined manner.With advances in 3D bioprinting, scientists and researchers are making use of living cells as a biomaterial in 3D bioprinting.

These cells can be used to print living tissues as well as organ structures for surgical implantations. However, ethical issues associated with the use of stem cells in 3D bioprinting might hamper growth of the segment.

The US 3D bioprinting market to hold prominent market share over the forecast period.On the basis of region, the 3D bioprinting market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World (Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa).The US held the significant share of the global 3D bioprinting market in 2019.

Factors such as new product launches and technological advancements in 3D bioprinting technology and the presence of key players in the region are driving the growth of the 3D bioprinting market in the US. Moreover, extensive research activities and funding for 3D bioprinting will further fuel the market growth in the US.

Breakdown of supply-side primary interviews: By Company Type: Tier 1 - 45%, Tier 2 - 35%, and Tier 3 - 20% By Designation: C-level - 26%, Director-level - 30%, and Others - 44% By Region: North America- 34%, Europe - 26%, APAC - 23%, and RoW - 17%

The major players in the market include Organovo Holdings Inc. (US), CELLINK (Sweden), Allevi Inc. (US), Aspect Biosystems Ltd. (Canada), EnvisionTEC GmbH (Germany), Cyfuse Biomedical K.K. (Japan), Poietis (France), TeVido BioDevices (US), Nano3D Biosciences, Inc. (US), ROKIT Healthcare (South Korea), Digilab Inc. (US), regenHU (Switzerland), GeSiM (Germany), Advanced Solutions Life Sciences (US), and Regenovo Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (China) among others.

Research CoverageThis report studies the 3D bioprinting market based on component, application, material, end-user, and region.The report also studies factors such as drivers, restraints, opportunities, and challenges affecting market growth.

It also provides details of the competitive landscape for market leaders. Furthermore, the report analyzes micro markets concerning individual growth trends, and it also forecasts the revenue of the market segments for four main region.

Key Benefits of Buying the ReportThis report focuses on various levels of analysisindustry trends, market shares of top players, and company profiles, which together form basic views.It also analyzes the competitive landscape; and high-growth countries along with their respective drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities.

The report will help both established firms as well as new entrants/smaller firms to gauge the pulse of the market and garner greater market shares.Read the full report:

About ReportlinkerReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place.


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Global Cell Therapy Technologies, Companies & Markets During the Forecast Period, 2018-2028 – – Business Wire

By Dr. Matthew Watson

DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "Cell Therapy - Technologies, Markets and Companies" report from Jain PharmaBiotech has been added to's offering.

This report describes and evaluates cell therapy technologies and methods, which have already started to play an important role in the practice of medicine. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is replacing the old fashioned bone marrow transplants. The role of cells in drug discovery is also described. Cell therapy is bound to become a part of medical practice.

Stem cells are discussed in detail in one chapter. Some light is thrown on the current controversy of embryonic sources of stem cells and comparison with adult sources. Other sources of stem cells such as the placenta, cord blood and fat removed by liposuction are also discussed. Stem cells can also be genetically modified prior to transplantation.

Cell therapy technologies overlap with those of gene therapy, cancer vaccines, drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Pharmaceutical applications of stem cells including those in drug discovery are also described. Various types of cells used, methods of preparation and culture, encapsulation and genetic engineering of cells are discussed. Sources of cells, both human and animal (xenotransplantation) are discussed. Methods of delivery of cell therapy range from injections to surgical implantation using special devices.

Cell therapy has applications in a large number of disorders. The most important are diseases of the nervous system and cancer which are the topics for separate chapters. Other applications include cardiac disorders (myocardial infarction and heart failure), diabetes mellitus, diseases of bones and joints, genetic disorders, and wounds of the skin and soft tissues.

Regulatory and ethical issues involving cell therapy are important and are discussed. The current political debate on the use of stem cells from embryonic sources (hESCs) is also presented. Safety is an essential consideration of any new therapy and regulations for cell therapy are those for biological preparations.

The cell-based markets was analyzed for 2018 and projected to 2028. The markets are analyzed according to therapeutic categories, technologies, and geographical areas. The largest expansion will be in diseases of the central nervous system, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. Skin and soft tissue repair, as well as diabetes mellitus, will be other major markets.

The report contains information on the following:

Key Topics Covered:

Part I: Technologies, Ethics & Regulations

Executive Summary

1. Introduction to Cell Therapy

2. Cell Therapy Technologies

3. Stem Cells

4. Clinical Applications of Cell Therapy

5. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

6. Cell Therapy for Cancer.

7. Cell Therapy for Neurological Disorders

8. Ethical, Legal and Political Aspects of Cell therapy

9. Safety and Regulatory Aspects of Cell Therapy

Part II: Markets, Companies & Academic Institutions

10. Markets and Future Prospects for Cell Therapy

11. Companies Involved in Cell Therapy

12. Academic Institutions

13. References

For more information about this report visit

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Stem Cells Portal

By Dr. Matthew Watson

Mesenchymal Stem CellDerived Extracellular Vesicles as Therapeutics and as a Drug Delivery PlatformGyuhyeon Baek, et al., STEM CELLS Translational Medicine

The future of exosome therapeutics has great potential, but several challenges, as discussed in the present study, must be overcome before exosomebased therapy will become an important option as a nextgeneration drug delivery system.

Bmi1 Overexpression in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exerts Antiaging and Antiosteoporosis Effects by Inactivating p16/p19 Signaling and Inhibiting Oxidative StressGuangpei Chen, et al., STEM CELLS

his study demonstrates that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) overexpressing Bmi1 exerts antiaging and antiosteoporosis effects. These findings might provide a strategy to enhance the functionality of MSCs for use in therapeutic applications. The results suggest a clinical relevance of Bmi1 in MSCs, for example, upregulation of BMI1 expression in human MSCs by hypoxiccultures or treatment with sonic hedgehog activators, then using them for bone marrow concentrate therapy to enhance MSC potency in antiaging and antiosteoporosis.

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Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplant Center | Winship …

By Dr. Matthew Watson

The new stem cells migrate to the cavities of the large bones and begin producing healthy, normal blood cells. The type of transplant you receive depends on your disease and the availability of a suitable donor.

Autologous (self-transplant): Your own cells are collected and frozen for later use. Autologous transplants are most commonly performed for lymphomas, multiple myeloma, testicular cancer and leukemia.

Syngeneic (identical twin transplant): Stem cells are donated by an identical twin, which is an ideal donor because of the matching genetic identity between donor and recipient.

Allogeneic (donor transplant): Stem cells are collected from a relative or an unrelated donor whose tissue type matches closely with that of the patient, or from umbilical cord blood. Allogeneic transplants are most commonly done for leukemias and bone marrow or immune system failure diseases.

At Winship, our Bone Marrow Transplant Center treats leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma and plasma cell disorders; sickle cell anemia, testicular cancer and bone marrow failures.

Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplant Center | Winship ...

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Lineage Cell Therapeutics Announces Issuance of U.S …

By Dr. Matthew Watson


Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (NYSE American and TASE: LCTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs, announced today that the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has issued U.S. Patent No. 10,286,009, entitled Pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury covering methods for utilizing pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). The claimed methods involve injecting OPCs derived from a pluripotent human stem cell line into the SCI site and covers both human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived OPCs. The issued patent has a term that expires no earlier than 2036.

The issuance of this patent is an important milestone for the Company because the allowed claims provide valuable, long term protection for novel treatments employing off-the-shelf OPC1 cells designed to improve recovery outcomes following severe spinal cord injury, stated Brian M. Culley, Chief Executive Officer of Lineage. We believe we have one of the largest cell therapy intellectual property portfolios in the biotech industry and will continue to grow and defend our position as a leader in this exciting space.

OPC1 cells are produced by directing the developmental lineage of pluripotent cell lines to generate a proprietary and consistent population of oligodendritic cells. These cells are administered to the patient in an effort to confer post-injury regeneration, which is intended to provide greater motor recovery compared to the current standard of care. With encouraging data already generated from a 25-patient Phase I safety trial, the current focus for the OPC1 program is to introduce commercially-viable improvements to the manufacturing process and to initiate a comparative study later in 2020.

About OPC1

OPC1 is currently being tested in Phase I/IIa clinical trial known as SCiStar, for the treatment of acute spinal cord injuries. OPCs are naturally-occurring precursors to the cells which provide electrical insulation for nerve axons in the form of a myelin sheath. SCI occurs when the spinal cord is subjected to a severe crush or contusion injury and typically results in severe functional impairment, including limb paralysis, aberrant pain signaling, and loss of bladder control and other body functions. The clinical development of the OPC1 program has been partially funded by a $14.3 million grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. OPC1 has received Regenerative Medicine Advanced Therapy (RMAT) designation for the treatment of acute SCI and has been granted Orphan Drug designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

About Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc.

Lineage Cell Therapeutics is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel cell therapies for unmet medical needs. Lineages programs are based on its proprietary cell-based therapy platform and associated development and manufacturing capabilities. With this platform Lineage develops and manufactures specialized, terminally-differentiated human cells from its pluripotent and progenitor cell starting materials. These differentiated cells are developed either to replace or support cells that are dysfunctional or absent due to degenerative disease or traumatic injury or administered as a means of helping the body mount an effective immune response to cancer. Lineages clinical assets include (i) OpRegen, a retinal pigment epithelium transplant therapy in Phase I/IIa development for the treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness in the developed world; (ii) OPC1, an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell therapy in Phase I/IIa development for the treatment of acute spinal cord injuries; and (iii) VAC2, an allogeneic cancer immunotherapy of antigen-presenting dendritic cells currently in Phase I development for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. For more information, please visit or follow the Company on Twitter @LineageCell.

Forward-Looking Statements

Lineage cautions you that all statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this press release, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements, in some cases, can be identified by terms such as believe, may, will, estimate, continue, anticipate, design, intend, expect, could, plan, potential, predict, seek, should, would, contemplate, project, target, tend to, or the negative version of these words and similar expressions. Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements relating to changes in Lineages manufacturing process and the timing of future studies. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause Lineages actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this press release, including risks and uncertainties inherent in Lineages business and other risks described in Lineages filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Lineages forward-looking statements are based upon its current expectations and involve assumptions that may never materialize or may prove to be incorrect. All forward-looking statements are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements. Further information regarding these and other risks is included under the heading Risk Factors in Lineages periodic reports filed with the SEC, including Lineages Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 14, 2019 and its other reports, which are available from the SECs website. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date on which they were made. Lineage undertakes no obligation to update such statements to reflect events that occur or circumstances that exist after the date on which they were made, except as required by law.

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Stem cells: The secret to change | Science News for Students

By Dr. Matthew Watson

Inside your body, red blood cells are constantly on the move. They deliver oxygen to every tissue in every part of your body. These blood cells also cart away waste. So their work is crucial to your survival. But all that squeezing through tiny vessels is tough on red blood cells. Thats why they last only about four months.

Where do their replacements come from? Stem cells.

These are a very special family of cells. When most other cells divide, the daughter cells look and act exactly like their parents. For example, a skin cell cant make anything but another skin cell. The same is true for cells in the intestine or liver.

Not stem cells. Stem cells can become many different types. That is how an embryo grows from a single fertilized egg into a fetus with trillions of specialized cells. They need to specialize to make up tissues that function very differently, including those in the brain, skin, muscle and other organs. Later in life, stem cells also can replace worn-out or damaged cells including red blood cells.

The remarkable abilities of stem cells make them very exciting to scientists. One day, experts hope to use stem cells to repair or replace many different kinds of tissues, whether injured in accidents or damaged by diseases. Such stem cell therapy would allow the body to heal itself. Scientists have found a way to put specialized cells to work repairing damage, too. Together, these cell-based therapies might one day make permanent disabilities a thing of the past.

One unusual type of stem cell offers special promise for such therapeutic uses. For the recent development of this cell type, Shinya Yamanaka shared the 2012 Nobel Prize in medicine.

Meet the family

Blood stem cells live inside your bones, in what is called marrow. There, they divide over and over. Some of the new cells remain stem cells. Others form red blood cells. Still others morph into any of the five types of white blood cells that will fight infections. Although blood stem cells can become any one of these specialized blood cells, they cannot become muscle, nerve or other types of cells. They are too specialized to do that.

Another type of stem cell is more generalized. These can mature into any type of cell in the body. Such stem cells are called pluripotent (PLU ree PO tint). The word means having many possibilities. And its not hard to understand why these cells have captured the imaginations of many scientists.

Until recently, all pluripotent cells came from embryos. Thats why scientists called them embryonic stem cells. After an egg is fertilized, it divides in two. These two cells split again, to become four cells, and so on. In the first few days of this embryos development, each of its cells is identical to all the others. Yet each cell has the potential to develop into any specialized cell type.

When the human embryo reaches three to five days old, its cells start to realize their potential. They specialize. Some will develop into muscle cells or bone cells. Others will form lung cells or maybe the cells lining the stomach. Once cells specialize, their many possibilities suddenly become limited.

By birth, almost all of a babys cells will have specialized. Each cell type will have its own distinctive shape and function. For example, muscle cells will be long and able to contract, or shorten. Red blood cells will be small and plate-shaped, so they can slip through blood vessels with ease.

Hidden among all of these specialized cells are pockets of adult stem cells. (Yes, even newborns have adult stem cells.) Unlike embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells cannot transform into any and every cell type. However, adult stem cells can replace several different types of specialized cells as they wear out. One type of adult stem cell is found in your marrow, making new blood cells. More types are found in other tissues, including the brain, heart and gut.

Among naturally occurring stem cells, the embryonic type is the most useful. Adult stem cells just arent as flexible. The adult type also is relatively rare and can be difficult to separate from the tissues in which it is found. Although more versatile, embryonic stem cells are both difficult to obtain and controversial. Thats because harvesting them requires destroying an embryo.

Fortunately, recent discoveries in stem cell research now offer scientists a third and potentially better option.

The search for answers

In 2006, Shinya Yamanaka discovered that specialized cells like those in skin could be converted back into stem cells. Working at Kyoto University in Japan, this doctor and scientist induced or persuaded mature cells to become stem cells. He did this by inserting a specific set of genes into the cells. After several weeks, the cells behaved just like embryonic cells. His new type of stem cells are called induced pluripotent stem cells, or iP stem cells (and sometimes iPS cells).

Yamanakas discovery represented a huge leap forward. The iP stem cells offer several advantages over both embryonic and adult stem cells. First, iP stem cells are able to become any cell type, just as embryonic stem cells can. Second, they can be made from any starting cell type. That means they are easy to obtain. Third, in the future, doctors would be able to treat patients with stem cells created from their own tissues. Such cells would perfectly match the others, genetically. That means the patients immune system (including all of its white blood cells) would not attack the introduced cells. (The body often mounts a life-threatening attack against transplanted organs that come from other people because they dont offer such a perfect match. To the body, they seem foreign and a potentially dangerous invader.)

Scientists the world over learned of the technique developed by Yamanaka (who now works at the Gladstone Institutes which is affiliated with the University of California, San Francisco). Many of these researchers adopted Yamanakas procedure to create their own induced pluripotent stem cells. For the first time, researchers had a tool that could allow them to make stem cells from people with rare genetic diseases. This helps scientists learn what makes certain cell types die. Experts can also expose small batches of these diseased cells to different medicines. This allows them to test literally thousands of drugs to find out which works best.

And in the future, many experts hope induced stem cells will be used to replace adult stem cells and the cells of tissues that are damaged or dying.

Therapies take patients and patience

Among those experts is Anne Cherry, a graduate student at Harvard University. Cherry is using induced stem cells to learn more about a very rare genetic disease called Pearson syndrome. A syndrome is a group of symptoms that occur together. One symptom of Pearson syndrome is that stem cells in bone marrow cannot make normal red blood cells. This condition typically leads to an early death.

Cherry has begun to study why these stem cells fail.

She started by taking skin cells from a girl with the disease. She placed the cells in a test tube and added genes to turn them into stem cells. Over several weeks, the cells began to make proteins for which the inserted genes had provided instructions. Proteins do most of the work inside cells. These proteins turned off the genes that made the cells act like skin cells. Before long, the proteins turned on the genes to make these cells behave like embryonic stem cells.

After about three months, Cherry had a big batch of the new induced stem cells. Those cells now live in Petri dishes in her lab, where they are kept at body temperature (37 Celsius, or 98.6 Fahrenheit). The scientist is now trying to coax the induced stem cells into becoming blood cells. After that, Cherry wants to find out how Pearson syndrome kills them.

Meanwhile, the patient who donated the skin cells remains unable to make blood cells on her own. So doctors must give her regular transfusions of blood from a donor. Though life-saving, transfusions come with risks, particularly for someone with a serious disease.

Cherry hopes to one day turn the girls induced stem cells into healthy new blood stem cells and then return them to the girls body. Doing so could eliminate the need for further transfusions. And since the cells would be the girls own, there would be no risk of her immune system reacting to them as though they were foreign.

Sight for sore eyes

At University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, Iqbal Ahmad is working on using stem cells to restore sight to the blind. A neuroscientist someone who studies the brain and nervous system Ahmad has been focusing on people who lost sight when nerve cells in the eyes retina died from a disease called glaucoma (glaw KOH muh).

Located inside the back of the eye, the retina converts incoming light into electrical signals that are then sent to the brain. Ahmad is studying how to replace dead retina cells with new ones formed from induced pluripotent stem cells.

The neuroscientist starts by removing adult stem cells from the cornea, or the clear tissue that covers the front of the eye. These stem cells normally replace cells lost through the wear and tear of blinking. They cannot become nerve cells at least not on their own. Ahmad, however, can transform these cells into iP stem cells. Then, with prodding, he turns them into nerve cells.

To make the transformation, Ahmad places the cornea cells on one side of a Petri dish. He then places embryonic stem cells on the other side. A meshlike membrane separates the two types of cells so they cant mix. But even though they cant touch, they do communicate.

Cells constantly send out chemical signals to which other cells respond. When the embryonic stem cells speak, the eye cells listen. Their chemical messages persuade the eye cells to turn off the genes that tell them to be cornea cells. Over time, the eye cells become stem cells that can give rise to different types of cells, including nerve cells.

When Ahmads team implanted the nerve cells into the eyes of laboratory mice and rats, they migrated to the retina. There, they began replacing the nerve cells that had died from glaucoma. One day, the same procedure may restore vision to people who have lost their sight.

Another approach

In using a bodys own cells to repair injury or to treat disease, stem cells arent always the answer. Although stem cells offer tremendous advances in regenerating lost tissue, some medical treatments may work better without them. Thats thanks to the chemical communication going on between all cells all of the time. In some situations, highly specialized cells can act as a conductor, directing other cells to change their tune.

In 2008, while working at the University of Cambridge in England, veterinary neurologist Nick Jeffery began a project that used cells taken from the back of the nose. But Jeffery and his team were not out to create stem cells. Instead, the scientists used those nasal cells to repair damaged connections in the spinal cord.

The spinal cord is basically a rope of nerve cells that ferry signals to and from the brain and other parts of the body. Injuring the spinal cord can lead to paralysis, or the loss of sensation and the inability to move muscles.

Like Ahmad, some researchers are using stem cells to replace damaged nerve cells. But Jeffery, now at Iowa State University in Ames, doesnt think such techniques are always necessary to aid recovery from spinal injuries. Stem cell transplantation, points out Jefferys colleague, neuroscientist Robin Franklin, is to replace a missing cell type. In a spinal injury, the nerve cells arent missing. Theyre just cut off.

Nerve cells contain long, wirelike projections called axons that relay signals to the next cell. When the spine is injured, these axons can become severed, or cut. Damaging an axon is like snipping a wire the signal stops flowing. So the Cambridge scientists set out to see if they could restore those signals.

Jeffery and his fellow scientists work with dogs that have experienced spinal injuries. Such problems are common in some breeds, including dachshunds. The team first surgically removed cells from the dogs sinuses or the hollow spaces in the skull behind the nose. These are not stem cells. These particular cells instead encourage nerve cells in the nose to grow new axons. These cells help the pooches maintain their healthy sense of smell.

The scientists grew these sinus cells in the lab until they had reproduced to large numbers. Then the researchers injected the cells into the spinal cords of two out of every three doggy patients. Each treated dog received an injection of its own cells. The other dogs got an injection of only the liquid broth used to feed the growing cells.

Over several months, the dogs owners repeatedly brought their pets back to the lab for testing on a treadmill. This allowed the scientists to evaluate how well the animals coordinated their front and hind feet while walking. Dogs that had received the nasal cells steadily improved over time. Dogs that received only the liquid did not.

This treatment did not result in a perfect cure. Nerve cells did reconnect several portions of the spinal cord. But nerve cells that once linked to the brain remained disconnected. Still, these dog data indicate that nasal cells can aid in recovering from a spinal cord injury.

Such new developments in cellular research suggest that even more remarkable medical advancements may be just a few years away. Yamanaka, Cherry, Ahmad, Jeffery, Franklin and many other scientists are steadily unlocking secrets to cellular change. And while you cant teach an old dog new tricks, scientists are finding out that the same just isnt true of cells anymore.

cornea The clear covering over the front of the eye.

embryo A vertebrate, or animal with a backbone, in its early stages of development.

gene A section of DNA that carries the genetic instructions for making a protein. Proteins do most of the work in cells.

glaucoma An eye disease that damages nerve cells carrying signals to the brain.

immune cell White blood cell that helps protect the body against germs.

molecule A collection of atoms.

neuron (or nerve cell) The basic working unit of the nervous system. These cells relay nerve signals.

neuroscientist A researcher who studies neurons and the nervous system.

paralysis Loss of feeling in some part of the body and an inability to move that part.

retina The light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye. It converts light into electrical impulses that relay information to the brain.

sinus An opening in the bone of the skull connected to the nostrils.

spinal cord The ropelike collection of neurons that connect the brain with nerves throughout the body.

tissue A large collection of related, similar cells that together work as a unit to perform a particular function in living organisms. Different organs of the human body, for instance, often are made from many different types of tissues. And brain tissue will be very different from bone or heart tissue.

transfusion The process of transferring blood into one person that had been collected from another.

Word Find (click here to enlarge puzzle for printing)

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Stem cells: The secret to change | Science News for Students

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