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First Human Skin Sample 'Grown' In Lab, Could Artificial Epidermis End Animal Testing?

By Sykes24Tracey

A team of researchers from Kings College London and the San Francisco Veteran Medical Center announced on Thursday that they were able to grow an epidermis that had the same permeability as real human skin, by using pluripotent stem cells. Pluripotent stem cells are cultured from adult cells and can develop into any type of cell or tissue.

Researchers say the artificial human skin offers a cost-effective alternative technique for testing drugs and cosmetics.

Our new method can be used to grow much greater quantities of lab-grown human epidermal equivalents, and thus could be scaled up for commercial testing of drugs and cosmetics, Dusko Ilic, leader of the team at King's College London, said in a statement. We can use this model to study how the skin barrier develops normally, how the barrier is impaired in different diseases and how we can stimulate its repair and recovery.

The new study, published in the journalStem Cell Reports,details how researchers triggered pluripotent stem cells to generate an unlimited supply of pure keratinocytes -- the primary cell type of the epidermis. In a high-humidity environment, scientists grew three-dimensional epidermal samples.

The samples engineered in the lab showed no significant differences in structure or function compared with real human skin samples, according to researchers.

Since the 1920s, the U.S. and other industrialized nations have used animals to test the safety and effectiveness of various drugs and vaccines. In the cosmetic industry, nonhuman test subjects, including rabbits, monkeys, rats and dogs, undergo skin and eye irritation tests in which chemicals are rubbed onto sections of shaved skin or dripped into the eyes of restrained test subjects. Some are even forced to swallow large amounts of certain chemicals to determine what constitutes a lethal dose.

While the use of animal testing, particularly Draize Testing, in which test substances are administered to the eye or skin has declined in recent years in the U.S. and Europe, it is still legal in 80 percent of countries. According to the Humane Society, in China alone, an estimated 300,000 animal die each year in cosmetic tests.

Human epidermal equivalents representing different types of skin could also be grown, depending on the source of the stem cells used, Ilic said. [They can] be tailored to study a range of skin conditions and sensitivities in different populations.

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SkinStore.com Announces the Addition of Peter Thomas Roth Rose Stem Cell Bio-Repair Products

By JoanneRUSSELL25

Gold River, CA (PRWEB) April 27, 2014

SkinStore.com, the nations leading e-commerce specialty retailer with over 9000 products for healing and maintaining healthy skin, has added Peter Thomas Roth Rose Stem Cell Bio Repair to its assortment of premium products.

Using state-of-the-art breakthrough stem cell technology, Peter Thomas Roth blended five rose stem cells with four rose extracts to create luxurious, effective anti-aging products. The Peter Thomas Roth Rose Stem Cell Bio-Repair Gel Mask is a cooling, revitalizing gel designed to promote cell turnover. Strengthening and rejuvenating the skin, the soothing mask improves the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles as well as dullness and dehydration, leaving skin radiant. Cleansing is a vital part of any skin care regimen, but a cleanser can do more than just remove makeup and environmental impurities. Glycolic acid combined with rose water, rose hip seed and other extracts plus rose stem cells make Peter Thomas Roth Rose Stem Cell Bio-Repair Cleansing Gel highly effective at sweeping away dead skin surface cells to reveal fresh, young-looking skin.

Christina Bertolino, Senior Buying Manager at SkinStore.com, said, Peter Thomas Roth is known industry-wide for effective products that produce clinically-proven results. With their cutting-edge plant stem cell technology theyve created a breakthrough in anti-aging.

About SkinStore.com. Physician-founded in 1997, SkinStore carries over 300 premium brands of skin care, cosmetics, hair care, beauty tools and fragrances from around the world. With over 9,000 products to choose from, SkinStore is a leading online resource for clinical and dermatologist-recommended skin care products. Customers receive free shipping on all U.S. orders over $49, and an esthetician-staffed call center is available Monday through Friday to answer questions and offer product recommendations. The company is headquartered in Gold River (Sacramento), California with operations in Sydney, Australia and an affiliate in Hangzhou, China. For more information visit SkinStore.com, SkincareStore.com.au, or SkinStorechina.com

Contact Information Denise McDonald, Content & Production Manager SkinStore http://www.skinstore.com 916-475-1427

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SkinStore.com Announces the Addition of Peter Thomas Roth Rose Stem Cell Bio-Repair Products

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Skin layer grown from human stem cells could replace animals in drug, cosmetics testing

By raymumme

An international team led by King's College London and the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center (SFVAMC) has developed the first lab-grown epidermis -- the outermost skin layer -- with a functional permeability barrier akin to real skin. The new epidermis, grown from human pluripotent stem cells, offers a cost-effective alternative lab model for testing drugs and cosmetics, and could also help to develop new therapies for rare and common skin disorders.

The epidermis, the outermost layer of human skin, forms a protective interface between the body and its external environment, preventing water from escaping and microbes and toxins from entering. Tissue engineers have been unable to grow epidermis with the functional barrier needed for drug testing, and have been further limited in producing an in vitro (lab) model for large-scale drug screening by the number of cells that can be grown from a single skin biopsy sample.

The new study, published in the journal Stem Cell Reports, describes the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) to produce an unlimited supply of pure keratinocytes -- the predominant cell type in the outermost layer of skin -- that closely match keratinocytes generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and primary keratinocytes from skin biopsies. These keratinocytes were then used to manufacture 3D epidermal equivalents in a high-to-low humidity environment to build a functional permeability barrier, which is essential in protecting the body from losing moisture, and preventing the entry of chemicals, toxins and microbes.

A comparison of epidermal equivalents generated from iPSC, hESC and primary human keratinocytes (skin cells) from skin biopsies showed no significant difference in their structural or functional properties compared with the outermost layer of normal human skin.

Dr Theodora Mauro, leader of the SFVAMC team, says: "The ability to obtain an unlimited number of genetically identical units can be used to study a range of conditions where the skin's barrier is defective due to mutations in genes involved in skin barrier formation, such as ichthyosis (dry, flaky skin) or atopic dermatitis. We can use this model to study how the skin barrier develops normally, how the barrier is impaired in different diseases and how we can stimulate its repair and recovery."

Dr Dusko Ilic, leader of the team at King's College London, says: "Our new method can be used to grow much greater quantities of lab-grown human epidermal equivalents, and thus could be scaled up for commercial testing of drugs and cosmetics. Human epidermal equivalents representing different types of skin could also be grown, depending on the source of the stem cells used, and could thus be tailored to study a range of skin conditions and sensitivities in different populations."

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by King's College London. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

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Artificial skin grown in laboratory for first time

By JoanneRUSSELL25

Scientists able to produce one centimetre-wide fragments of epidermis Outer layer of skin created in a laboratory using stem cells Experts say the lab-grown skin could be used for testing lotions or creams Team from King's College London worked with scientists from the US

By Lucy Crossley

Published: 14:31 EST, 24 April 2014 | Updated: 14:42 EST, 24 April 2014

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Breakthrough: Scientists in the UK and US have been able to grow artificial skin which could replace animals in drug and cosmetics testing in a laboratory (file photo)

Artificial skin which could replace animals in drug and cosmetics testing has been grown in a laboratory for the first time.

Scientists in the UK and US were able to produce one centimetre-wide fragments of epidermis - the outermost skin layer - from stem cells with the same properties as real skin.

The epidermis forms a protective barrier between the body and external environment, preventing water from escaping while keeping out microbes and toxins.

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Skin layer grown from human stem cells could replace animals in drug and cosmetics testing

By Dr. Matthew Watson

PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:

24-Apr-2014

Contact: Jenny Gimpel jenny.gimpel@kcl.ac.uk 44-020-784-84334 King's College London

An international team led by King's College London and the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center (SFVAMC) has developed the first lab-grown epidermis the outermost skin layer - with a functional permeability barrier akin to real skin. The new epidermis, grown from human pluripotent stem cells, offers a cost-effective alternative lab model for testing drugs and cosmetics, and could also help to develop new therapies for rare and common skin disorders.

The epidermis, the outermost layer of human skin, forms a protective interface between the body and its external environment, preventing water from escaping and microbes and toxins from entering. Tissue engineers have been unable to grow epidermis with the functional barrier needed for drug testing, and have been further limited in producing an in vitro (lab) model for large-scale drug screening by the number of cells that can be grown from a single skin biopsy sample.

The new study, published in the journal Stem Cell Reports, describes the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) to produce an unlimited supply of pure keratinocytes the predominant cell type in the outermost layer of skin - that closely match keratinocytes generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and primary keratinocytes from skin biopsies. These keratinocytes were then used to manufacture 3D epidermal equivalents in a high-to-low humidity environment to build a functional permeability barrier, which is essential in protecting the body from losing moisture, and preventing the entry of chemicals, toxins and microbes.

A comparison of epidermal equivalents generated from iPSC, hESC and primary human keratinocytes (skin cells) from skin biopsies showed no significant difference in their structural or functional properties compared with the outermost layer of normal human skin.

Dr Theodora Mauro, leader of the SFVAMC team, says: "The ability to obtain an unlimited number of genetically identical units can be used to study a range of conditions where the skin's barrier is defective due to mutations in genes involved in skin barrier formation, such as ichthyosis (dry, flaky skin) or atopic dermatitis. We can use this model to study how the skin barrier develops normally, how the barrier is impaired in different diseases and how we can stimulate its repair and recovery."

Dr Dusko Ilic, leader of the team at King's College London, says: "Our new method can be used to grow much greater quantities of lab-grown human epidermal equivalents, and thus could be scaled up for commercial testing of drugs and cosmetics. Human epidermal equivalents representing different types of skin could also be grown, depending on the source of the stem cells used, and could thus be tailored to study a range of skin conditions and sensitivities in different populations."

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Improve Skin Dramatically with Stem Cell Serum, "Cell Renewal | Fibroblast Serum", from Sublime Beauty; Will Be …

By Dr. Matthew Watson

St. Petersburg, FL (PRWEB) April 23, 2014

Human Fibroblast Conditioned Media is a revolutionary ingredient that is taking the beauty and anti-aging industries by storm. These stem cells are in the Sublime Beauty "Cell Renewal | Fibroblast Serum."

These non-embryonic stem cells are rich in growth factors. When topically combined with our own skin, studies have shown that our cells are stimulated to create more collagen resulting in younger, firmer and healthier skin.

"The discovery of growth factors was a big deal in science," says Kathy Heshelow, founder of Sublime Beauty, "and plays a part in wound healing, medical applications and now skin care."

The company offers a product paper about the serum and background on its ingredients on its webstore.

The scientific anti-aging serum will be discussed on the Consumer NewsWatch TV program Thursday morning.

"Cell Renewal" is of high purity, produced under the strictest quality controls and use the latest extraction methods to capture the purest cells. This is a top of the line anti-aging treatment.

Use twice daily on cleansed skin before any other serum or cream is applied.

The company offers 25% off the serum at SublimeBeautyShop now with coupon code STEM25.

About Sublime Beauty: Sublime Beauty offers quality anti-aging skincare to "age younger". Products are available at its webstore and Amazon. The company also offers Skin Brushes and organic products.

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Improve Skin Dramatically with Stem Cell Serum, "Cell Renewal | Fibroblast Serum", from Sublime Beauty; Will Be ...

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Stem cells created (cloned) from adult cells for the first time

By LizaAVILA

A quality sword requires toughness on the inside and hardness on the outside. That way it can keep a sharp edge yet bend instead of shatter. Getting these properties requires blanking the metal back to a virgin state, adding the right molecular alloying ingredients, and then controlling the rate of the natural processes that occur as its final structure crystallizes out. Using that general method, researchers have just succeeded in returning adult somatic (body) cells to a virgin stem cell state which can then be made into nearly any tissue.

The key word here is adult. Last year, researchers from Oregon perfected a process to therapeutically clone human embryos. Basically that means producing cells that are genetically identical to a donor for the purpose of treating disease. We described the critical details of the technique, known as somatic-cell nuclear transfer, in an earlier post. In a nutshell, the nucleus from the cell to be cloned is fused with an egg that has its own nucleus removed. Caffeine is used to stall various autonomous developmental programs during a fusion process that has been initiated with an electric pulse. The new hybrid cell that results has full stem cell character which can be biased into different forms by adding various instructor molecules to the mix.

The new results, as we mentioned, were achieved with somatic cellsfrom two men [DOI:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015].This is important because it is generally adults who stand to benefit the most from a fresh supply of cells to revitalize their ailing organs. In smithing a sword, the desired crystal structure is achieved by controlling the amount of time spent in different phases of cooling. Often there is more than one heating stage as the metal is first slowly tempered through one regime, than recycled back for a second tortured phase with a quicker quench. As for swords, the key element for getting the adult cells to work was to extend a critical delay phase in this case that around the time the cells were electrically fused. This tempering period is a time for the cell to reorganize prior to committing itself to cell division. After many painstaking experiments, it was found that the 30-minute delay used for the embryonic cell fusions needed to be extended to two hours for the adult cells.

An alternative method for creating stem cells was recently presented which used acid and mechanical persuasion to beat normal cells back into the pluripotent form. This method has been difficult to replicate, and as a result of the controversy surrounding the affair the study has been retracted. Thats not to say that this shortcut is off the table though. Researchers continue to look for better ways to produce stem cells with more creative power, from cells that are ever further set in their ways. The new studies reported here were able to use dermal fibroblasts, essentially skin cells, from both a 35-year-old and 75-year-old man. Previously skin cells have been turned into other kinds of cells, particularly neurons. Now they can become any kind of cell. (Read:Regenerated human heart tissue beats on its own, leads towards replacement hearts and other organs.)

In a sense all cells are like playdough. The longer they have been held in any one sculpted form, the more dried-out and difficult to revert to a multipotent state they become. The same inflexibility still persists as a social mindset of fear in many countries that do not permit federal funding of this kind of research (this new work was funded in South Korea with some participation from US scientists). As researchers begin to learn new tricks to re-infuse cells with moisturizing chemical and mechanical regimens, we all have much to gain. If we are going to be benefactors of this technology, it seems that we should also be producers of it.

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Stem cells created (cloned) from adult cells for the first time

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Royal L’Opulent Rejuv – Video

By LizaAVILA


Royal L #39;Opulent Rejuv
Rejuvenate your skin through the activation of skin stem cells. Brightens your skin for a more even toned complexion, restores skins natural moisture to serv...

By: SariSariNZ

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Royal L'Opulent Rejuv - Video

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Cloning advance means human tissues could be regrown, even in old age

By daniellenierenberg

The advance could lead to tissue-transplant operations for a range of debilitating disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, heart disease and spinal cord injuries.

Last year, a team created stem cells from the skin cells of babies, but it was unclear whether it would work in adults.

However, a team of scientists from the Research Institute for Stem Cell Research at CHA Health Systems in Los Angeles and the University of Seoul said they had achieved the same result with two men, one aged 35, the other the 75-year-old. "The proportion of diseases you can treat with lab-made tissue increases with age. So if you can't do this with adult cells it is of limited value," said Robert Lanza, co-author of the research, which was published in the journal Cell Stem Cell.

The technique works by removing the nucleus from an unfertilised egg and replacing it with the nucleus of a skin cell. An electric shock causes the cells to divide until they form a "blastocyst", a small ball of a few hundred cells.

In IVF, a blastocyst is implanted into the womb, but with the new technique the cells would be harvested to create other organs or tissues.

The breakthrough is likely to reignite the debate about the ethics of creating human embryos for medical purposes and the possible use of the same technique to produce cloned babies - which is illegal in Britain.

Although the embryos created may not produce a human clone even if implanted in a womb, the prospect is now closer. However, scientists have tried for years to clone monkeys and have yet to succeed.

Dr Lanza admitted that without strong regulations, the early embryos produced in therapeutic cloning "could also be used for human reproductive cloning, although this would be unsafe and grossly unethical". However, he said it was important for the future of regenerative medicine that research into therapeutic cloning should continue.

Shoukhrat Mitalipov, a reproductive biologist from Oregon Health and Science University, who developed the technique last year, said: "The advance here is showing that [nuclear transfer] looks like it will work with people of all ages.

"I'm happy to hear that our experiment was verified and shown to be genuine."

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Cloning advance means human tissues could be regrown, even in old age

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Adult Human Cells Cloned for First Time

By NEVAGiles23

Ever since Dolly the Sheep was cloned in 1996, scientists have been trying to do the same thing with human cells. Using the same technique, scientists say they've finally accomplished the feat with adult cells.

"What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA to create tissue with cells of an exact match, said co-author of the study Robert Lanza.

The work was published in the journal Cell Stem Cell.

Last year, the technique was successfully used with infant cells, but in order to create tissue in a lab that could treat adult diseases, such as Alzheimer's, scientists needed to know if the technique would work with adult cells.

"I'm happy to hear that our experiment was verified and shown to be genuine," said Shoukhrat Mitalipov, a development biologist at Oregon Health and Science University, who led the 2013 study.

The work confirmed that starting with a quality human egg is key to the process. The researchers replaced the original DNA in an unfertilized egg with the donor DNA, and then cultured the cells in a lab dish. The stem cells, which were an exact match to the donor's DNA, can then be turned into various tissue types.

Even though full human cloning is a long way off, the report may raise an equal amount of concern and excitement.

"Certainly this kind of technology could be abused by some kind of rogue scientist," Paul Knoepfler of the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, told NPR.

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Adult Human Cells Cloned for First Time

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Scientists create stem cells from adult skin cells

By Dr. Matthew Watson

A breakthrough in human stem cell research could lead to the treatment of countless diseases, invaluable scientific research and yes, human cloning.

According to a study in the journalCell Stem Cell, scientists have synthesized human embryonic stem cells from the cells of adults, creating two different lines from the skin of two donors.

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Using the nuclear transfermethod,scientists took DNA out of egg cells and replaced it with the donor DNA. The cells were basically reprogrammed, butof the 77 samplesonly two fully developed into cloned stem cells.

Lead researcher Robert Lanza says the 5 percent success rate isn't surprising."Reprogramming is more difficult for adult cells than for fetal [and] infant cells, presumably at least in part because their epigenetic landscape from the pluripotent state,"meaning the cells generally dont' have the right enzymes for change anymore.

The researchers reportedly tweaked a method made famous by the cloning of the sheep Dolly in 1996 and improved by scientists at Oregon Health & Science University just last year.

The nuclear transfermethod is the third discovered way to harvest or create stem cells. In the past, scientists have extracted cells from leftover embryos after in vitro fertilizations,a controversial practice. And in 2006 aJapanese researcher discovered a way to create themby injecting new genes. (ViaAsian Scientist)

Lanza's method could provide easy access to stem cells, opening up new research intodiseases like diabetes, Parkinsons and even leukemia. And according toNPR, the researcher wants to create a virtual library of cells using carefully selected DNA donors.

The implications of a real and viable approach for creating stem cells could be startling, andscientists have been wrestling with the ethical questions since the cloning of Dolly.

An official at Oregon Health & Science Universitythinks studying stemcells is necessary, tellingTime,They have become kind of like cursed cells. But we clearly need to understand more about them.

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Scientists create stem cells from adult skin cells

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Scientists use cloning to make stem cells matched to two adults

By daniellenierenberg

Scientists have replicated one of the most significant accomplishments in stem cell research by creating human embryos that were clones of two men.

The lab-engineered embryos were harvested within days and used to create lines of infinitely reproducing embryonic stem cells, which are capable of growing into any type of human tissue.

The work, reported Thursday in the journal Cell Stem Cell, comes 11 months after researchers in Oregon said they had produced the world's first human embryo clones and used them to make stem cells. Their study, published in Cell, aroused skepticism after critics pointed out multiple errors and duplicated images.

In addition, the entire effort to clone human embryos and then dismantle them in the name of science troubles some people on moral grounds.

MORE: Medicines and machines, inspired by nature

The scientists in Oregon and the authors of the new report acknowledged that the clones they created could develop into babies if implanted in surrogate wombs. But like others in the field, they have said reproductive cloning would be unethical and irresponsible.

The process used to create cloned embryos is called somatic cell nuclear transfer, or SCNT. It involves removing the nucleus from an egg cell and replacing it with a nucleus from a cell of the person to be cloned. The same method was used to create Dolly the sheep in 1996, along with numerous animals from other species.

Human cloning was a particular challenge, in part because scientists had trouble getting enough donor eggs to carry out their experiments. Some scientists said SCNT in humans would be impossible.

Dr. Robert Lanza, the chief scientific officer for Advanced Cell Technology Inc. in Marlborough, Mass., has been working on SCNT off and on for about 15 years. He and his colleagues finally achieved success with a modified version of the recipe used by the Oregon team and skin cells donated by two men who were 35 and 75.

After swapping out the nucleus in the egg cell, both groups used caffeine to delay the onset of cell division a technique that has been called "the Starbucks effect." But instead of waiting 30 minutes to prompt cell division, as was done in the Oregon experiment, Lanza and his team waited two hours.

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Scientists use cloning to make stem cells matched to two adults

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Stem Cells Created From Adult Cells

By NEVAGiles23

April 18, 2014

Brett Smith for redOrbit.com Your Universe Online

In a significant breakthrough a team of scientists from California and Seoul, South Korea have been able to create viable stem cells from an adult donor that perfectly match the donors DNA, according to a new report in the journal Cell Stem Cell.

The development, referred to as therapeutic cloning, involves the production of embryonic cells for scientific purposes and many object to this type of research based on moral or religious grounds. Debate over this type of work was stoked in 1997 with the announcement that it was used to create the clone of a sheep, called Dolly. In 2005, the United Nations called for a ban on cloning and the United States government currently prohibits the use of federal dollars for cloning research.

The scientists behind the latest development, which was partially funded by the government of South Korea, acknowledged that if the embryos in their study were implanted in a uterus they could have developed into a fetus.

Without regulations in place, such embryos could also be used for human reproductive cloning, although this would be unsafe and grossly unethical, study author Dr. Robert Lanza, chief scientist of Massachusetts-based biotech Advanced Cell Technology, told Reuters reporter Sharon Begley.

To produce viable stem cells from an adult donor, the researchers first inserted DNA from an adult skin cell into a donated ovum. The scientists then delivered an electric shock to fuse the genetic material to the ovum. Eventually, the ovum divides and multiplies becoming a viable embryo in five or six days. Pluripotent stem cells, which can become any type of cell in the body, are located on the interior of this embryo.

Last year, a team of Oregon scientists reported on their success in combining genetic material from fetal and infant cells with DNA-extracted eggs. The team was able to develop their eggs into approximately 150-cell embryos.

The Oregon team said a major aspect of their success was allowing the engineered eggs to sit for 30 minutes before hitting them with the charge of electricity that like Dr. Frankensteins monster set the eggs on the path to becoming alive.

In the new study, the researchers waited two hours before triggering the egg, which Lanza said allowed them to succeed.

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Scientists create stem cells from adults

By Sykes24Tracey

Scientists have moved a step closer to the goal of creating stem cells perfectly matched to a patient's DNA in order to treat diseases, they announced on Thursday, creating patient-specific cell lines out of the skin cells of two adult men.

The advance, described online in the journal Cell Stem Cell, is the first time researchers have achieved "therapeutic cloning" of adults. Technically called somatic-cell nuclear transfer, therapeutic cloning means producing embryonic cells genetically identical to a donor, usually for the purpose of using those cells to treat disease.

But nuclear transfer is also the first step in reproductive cloning, or producing a genetic duplicate of someone - a technique that has sparked controversy since the 1997 announcement that it was used to create Dolly, the clone of a ewe. In 2005, the United Nations called on countries to ban it, and the United States prohibits the use of federal funds for either reproductive or therapeutic cloning.

The new study was funded by a foundation and the South Korean government.

If confirmed by other labs, it could prove significant because many illnesses that might one day be treated with stem cells, such as heart failure and vision loss, primarily affect adults. Patient-specific stem cells would have to be created from older cells, not infant or fetal ones. That now looks possible, though far from easy: Out of 39 tries, the scientists created stem cells only once for each donor.

Outside experts had different views of the study, which was led by Young Gie Chung of the Research Institute for Stem Cell Research at CHA Health Systems in Los Angeles.

Stem cell biologist George Daley of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute called it "an incremental advance" and "not earth-shattering."

Reproductive biologist Shoukhrat Mitalipov of Oregon Health and Science University, who developed the technique the CHA team adapted, was more positive. "The advance here is showing that (nuclear transfer) looks like it will work with people of all ages," he said in an interview.

A year ago, Mitalipov led the team that used nuclear transfer of fetal and infant DNA to produce stem cells, the first time that had been accomplished in humans of any age.

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Group Makes Stem Cells Using Clone Technique

By raymumme

Researchers say they have made powerful stem cells from both young and old adults using cloning techniques, and also found clues about why it is so difficult to do this with human beings.

The team, at Massachusetts-based Advanced Cell Technology and the Institute for Stem Cell Research in Los Angeles, say they used the cloning methods to create the stem cells to match a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man.

They used a bit of skin from each man, took the DNA from the skin cells and inserted it into the egg cell of a female donor, and grew very early embryos called blastocysts, the team reports in the journal Cell Stem Cell. Cells from these embryos closely match the men and could, in theory, be used to make near-identical tissue, blood or organ transplants for the men.

If verified, it would be only the second confirmed time someones been able to use cloning methods to make human embryonic stem cells, considered the bodys master cells.

Therapeutic cloning has long been envisioned as a means for generating patient-specific stem cells that could be used to treat a range of age-related diseases, said Dr. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer for Advanced Cell Technology.

However, despite cloning success in animals, the derivation of stem cells from cloned human embryos has proven elusive. Only one group has ever succeeded, and their lines were generated using fetal and infant cells.

That was last year, at Oregon Health & Science University.

When human embryonic stem cells were first discovered in 1998, scientists immediately dreamed of using cloning technology to help people grow their own organ and tissue transplants, and to use them to study disease. Theyd be perfect genetic matches for each patient, meaning an end to a lifetime of taking dangerous immune-suppressing drugs after an organ transplant.

But in the many years since, no labs been able to do the work easily. It seems it is much harder to clone a human being than it is to clone a sheep, a frog or a mouse.

And using the cloning technique is controversial, because it involves creating, then destroying, a human embryo.

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Group Makes Stem Cells Using Clone Technique

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First Embryonic Stem Cells Cloned From A Man's Skin

By JoanneRUSSELL25

hide captionThis mouse egg (top) is being injected with genetic material from an adult cell to ultimately create an embryo and, eventually, embryonic stem cells. The process has been difficult to do with human cells.

Eighteen years ago, scientists in Scotland took the nuclear DNA from the cell of an adult sheep and put it into another sheep's egg cell that had been emptied of its own nucleus. The resulting egg was implanted in the womb of a third sheep, and the result was Dolly, the first clone of a mammal.

Dolly's birth set off a huge outpouring of ethical concern along with hope that the same techniques, applied to human cells, could be used to treat myriad diseases.

But Dolly's birth also triggered years of frustration. It's proved very difficult to do that same sort of DNA transfer into a human egg.

Last year, scientists in Oregon said they'd finally done it, using DNA taken from infants. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology, says that was an important step, but not ideal for medical purposes.

"There are many diseases, whether it's diabetes, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, that usually increase with age," Lanza says. So ideally scientists would like to be able to extract DNA from the cells of older people not just cells from infants to create therapies for adult diseases.

Lanza's colleagues, including Young Gie Chung at the CHA Stem Cell Institute in Seoul, Korea (with labs in Los Angeles as well), now report success.

Writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell, they say they started with nuclear DNA extracted from the skin cells of a middle-age man and injected it into human eggs donated by four women. As with Dolly, the women's nuclear DNA had been removed from these eggs before the man's DNA was injected. They repeated the process this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man.

hide captionDolly, the first mammal to be genetically cloned from adult cells, poses for the camera in 1997 at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Dolly, the first mammal to be genetically cloned from adult cells, poses for the camera in 1997 at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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First Embryonic Stem Cells Cloned From A Man's Skin

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Results are a leap for embryonic stem cells

By NEVAGiles23

Scientists have replicated one of the most significant accomplishments in stem cell research by creating human embryos that were clones of two men.

The lab-engineered embryos were harvested within days and used to create lines of infinitely reproducing embryonic stem cells, which are capable of growing into any type of human tissue.

The work, reported Thursday in the journal Cell Stem Cell, comes 11 months after researchers in Oregon said they had produced the world's first human embryo clones and used them to make stem cells. Their study, published in Cell, aroused skepticism after critics pointed out multiple errors and duplicated images.

In addition, the entire effort to clone human embryos and then dismantle them in the name of science troubles some people on moral grounds.

The scientists in Oregon and the authors of the new report acknowledged that the clones they created could develop into babies if implanted in surrogate wombs. But like others in the field, they have said reproductive cloning would be unethical and irresponsible.

The process used to create cloned embryos is called somatic cell nuclear transfer, or SCNT. It involves removing the nucleus from an egg cell and replacing it with a nucleus from a cell of the person to be cloned. The same method was used to create Dolly the sheep in 1996, along with numerous animals from other species.

Human cloning was a particular challenge, in part because scientists had trouble getting enough donor eggs to carry out their experiments. Some scientists said SCNT in humans would be impossible.

Dr. Robert Lanza, the chief scientific officer for Advanced Cell Technology Inc. in Marlborough, Mass., has been working on SCNT off and on for about 15 years. He and his colleagues finally achieved success with a modified version of the recipe used by the Oregon team and skin cells donated by two men who were 35 and 75.

After swapping out the nucleus in the egg cell, both groups used caffeine to delay the onset of cell division a technique that has been called "the Starbucks effect." But instead of waiting 30 minutes to prompt cell division, as was done in the Oregon experiment, Lanza and his team waited two hours.

It remains unclear exactly how the egg causes the cells in previously mature tissues in this case, skin to transform into a more versatile, pluripotent state.

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Results are a leap for embryonic stem cells

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Breakthrough in human cloning offers new transplant hope

By JoanneRUSSELL25

However a team at the Research Institute for Stem Cell Research at CHA Health Systems in Los Angeles and the University of Seoul said they had achieved the same result with two men, one aged 35 and one 75.

"The proportion of diseases you can treat with lab-made tissue increases with age. So if you cant do this with adult cells it is of limited value, said Robert Lanza, co-author of the research which published in the journal Cell Stem Cell

The technique works by removing the nucleus from an unfertilised egg and replacing it with the nucleus of a skin cell. An electric shock causes the cells to begin dividing until they form a blastocyst a small ball of a few hundred cells.

In IVF it is a blastocyst which is implanted into the womb, but with this technique the cells would be harvested to be used to create other organs or tissues.

However, the breakthrough is likely to reignite the debate about the ethics of creating human embryos for medical purposes and the possible use of the same technique to produce cloned babies which is illegal in Britain.

Although the embryos created may not give rise to a human clone even if implanted in a womb, the prospect is now scientifically closer.

However scientists have been trying for years to clone monkeys and have yet to succeed.

Dr Lanza admitted that without strong regulations, the early embryos produced in therapeutic cloning could also be used for human reproductive cloning, although this would be unsafe and grossly unethical.

However, he said it was important for the future of regenerative medicine that research into therapeutic cloning should continue.

Reproductive biologist Shoukhrat Mitalipov of Oregon Health and Science University, who developed the technique last year said: "The advance here is showing that (nuclear transfer) looks like it will work with people of all ages.

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Breakthrough in human cloning offers new transplant hope

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Scientists Clone Stem Cells From Adults For The First Time

By JoanneRUSSELL25

For the first time, scientists have created early-stage embryos using cloned cells from adults.

A study from Advanced Cell Technology published Thursday in the journal Cell Stem Cell highlights how researchers were able to create embryos from the skin cells of two men, ages 35 and 75. Tissue from the embryos featured exact DNA matches with the donors.

Last year, scientists at Oregon Health and Science University made a major breakthrough with the first early-stage human clones derived from infant and fetal cells. However, the experiment drew criticism because early-stage human embryos are destroyed when cells are extracted from them.

This more recent experiment involving adult cells, funded by the South Korean government and performed in California, has large implications for advances in medical treatment. However, the success ratio was low: Scientists attempted 39 times to create stem cells but succeeded only once with each donor.

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Scientists Clone Stem Cells From Adults For The First Time

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Scientists give stem cells a performance boost … by putting them on steroids

By Sykes24Tracey

Scientists have used steroids to enhance the performance of stem cells (Photo: Shutterstock)

Stem cells are highly promising for the treatment of everything from HIV to leukemia to baldness. In many cases, however, a great number of them must be used in order have a noticeable effect, which makes treatments impractical or expensive. Now, scientists at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital have found that a smaller number of stem cells can still get the job done, if they're first hopped up on steroids.

The research was conducted by Doctors Jeffrey Karp and James Ankrum, the former of whom has also helped bring us painless medical tape for newborns, worm-inspired skin grafts, porcupine quill-inspired surgical patches, and superglue for holes in the heart.

The scientists started with ordinary mesenchymal stem cells, and treated them with glucocorticoid steroids. This caused the cells to produce an increased amount of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is an anti-inflammatory agent. Since it was noted that the cells' IDO expression was highest when they were actually being exposed to the steroids, the scientists added steroid-containing microparticles to the cells, so that they could have access to the drugs at all times.

When the 'roided-up stem cells were then introduced to inflamed immune cells, they were found to reduce inflammation twice as effectively as unmodified mesenchymal stem cells.

"Our approach enables fine tuning of cell potency and control following transplantation, which could lead to more successful cell-based therapies," said Ankrum.

A paper on the research was recently published in the journal Scientific Reports.

Source: Brigham and Women's Hospital

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Scientists give stem cells a performance boost ... by putting them on steroids

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