What is Mantle Cell Lymphoma and How Is It Treated? – Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

By daniellenierenberg

Last Updated on January 10, 2020

Medically reviewed by Ann S. LaCasce, MD, MMSc

Mantle cell lymphoma is a rare, often aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), a cancer that involves white blood cells known as lymphocytes, which help protect the body from disease. It is named for its origins in the mantle zone a ring of cells within the lymph nodes where B cells (a type of lymphocyte) grow and take on specialized functions. It comprises about 6% of all cases of NHL, usually arises during an individuals early 60s, and is more common in men than women.

The most common symptoms of mantle cell lymphoma include:

At the time of diagnosis,nearly all patients have disease that has spread beyond its initial site.

For most patients, the cause of the disease is unknown, but rates are higher among farmers and people from rural areas.

Itoccurs when B lymphocytes acquire genetic mutations that alter their functionand growth. One such abnormality, found in 90% of cases, causes B lymphocytesto overproduce cyclin D1, a protein that spurs the cells growth. Othermutations can interfere with B cells ability to produce infection-fightingantibodies, leaving patients vulnerable to certain diseases.

A definitive diagnosis requires a biopsy of an affected lymph node or other involved tissue.

Doctors use a variety of scans to determine the diseases stage, or how far it has advanced. These include:

Treatment for mantle cell lymphoma varies depending on patients age and overall health and the stage of the disease. Patients who have yet to develop symptoms and who have a relatively small amount of slow-growing disease may be recommended for active surveillance close monitoring of their health through regular checkups and lab tests. When lymphoma-related symptoms appear or tests show a worsening of the disease, active treatment may begin.

The initial treatment for aggressive mantle cell lymphoma in younger patients often includes a combination of chemotherapy drugs in conjunction with an antibody-based treatment, often followed by a stem cell transplant using patients own stem cells. Older, less-fit patients may undergo less intensive chemotherapy sometimes followed by a prolonged course of antibody therapy.

Other treatments may include drugs known as BTK inhibitors such as acalbrutinib and ibrutinib, which interfere with lymphoma cells internal growth signals.

In patients who relapse after treatment or dont respond to initial treatment, a variety of options may be available, including:

Clinical trials are currently underway of CAR T-cell therapy for patients with mantle cell lymphoma. The therapy, which uses genetically modified immune system T cells to attack tumor cells, has been shown to be effective in patients with other forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Other trials are testing drugs known as bispecific antibodies, artificial proteins that can bind simultaneously to two surface proteins on cells, and targeted agents directed against specific cancer-related proteins.

See the article here:
What is Mantle Cell Lymphoma and How Is It Treated? - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

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