Page 21234..1020..»

US scientists build first robot made of living cells – The Nation

By daniellenierenberg

WASHINGTON - Scientists in the United States created the first living robots using stem cells, which can move toward a target and heal themselves after being cut. A study published on Monday in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences described the living, programmable organism, a completely new biological machine designed from ground up. Scientists at the University of Vermont ran an evolutionary algorithm on a supercomputer to screen out a design to be composed of single frog skin and heart cells.

Then, scientists at Tufts University transferred the in silico design into life with stem cells harvested from embryos of African frogs. They used tiny forceps and electrode to assemble the single cells into a close approximation of the computer designs.

They found that the skin cells formed a more passive architecture, while the once-random contractions of heart muscle cells were put to work creating ordered forward motion, allowing the robots to move on their own.

Those millimeter-wide reconfigurable organisms were shown to be able to move and explore their watery environment for days or weeks, according to the study.

They could move around in circles, collectively pushing pellets into a central location. Its a step toward using computer-designed organisms for intelligent drug delivery, said Joshua Bongard, a computer scientists at the University of Vermont.

We can imagine many useful applications of these living robots that other machines cant do, said Michael Levin at Tufts University, like searching out nasty compounds or radioactive contamination, gathering microplastic in the oceans, traveling in arteries to scrape out plaque.

In another test, the scientists cut the living robots and watched what happened. We sliced the robot almost in half and it stitches itself back up and keeps going, said Bongard.

Read more:
US scientists build first robot made of living cells - The Nation

To Read More: US scientists build first robot made of living cells – The Nation
categoriaSkin Stem Cells commentoComments Off on US scientists build first robot made of living cells – The Nation | dataJanuary 17th, 2020
Read All

Scientists Turn Frog Cells Into Tiny Living Robots That Can Swim Through Your Body! – Mashable India

By daniellenierenberg

Remember Black Mirrors Metalhead episode where a robot dog shoots the protagonist with trackers in the face? The thought of having unwanted foreign intruders attacking us from inside was absolutely nightmarish. We might have something similar now, as scientists strive to innovate to create new and novel micro-robots every day, but, with scientific and sane intentions.

Now, researchers at the University of Vermont and Tufts University have created living robots out of actual healthy frog cells that have the potential to navigate through one's bloodstream and scrape out plaque from arteries. These robots, called xenobots, are essentially a bioengineering product made by harvesting skin, pumping heart cells from frogs, and clumping them with stem cells from its embryo. Whats more? They are fully biodegradable and self-healing!

According to a press release, scientists first used a supercomputer to design the new life-form that can move in a direction. After having created a biological model of the supercomputers vision, they assembled the clusters with the beating cardiac cells on one end acting as a pump to propel the clump forward through the water.

Using this technique, the team created a number of the living robots and watched as they were able to successfully push other objects around. The researchers also experimented with creating a pouch inside the new life-forms, allowing them to carry a payload around. Despite of having a very low motility, these robots can perform task that other machines cant do, like searching out nasty compounds or radioactive contamination, gathering microplastic in the oceans and so on. And while they may not be as strong as metals, theyre regenerative.

The notion of having living organisms inside our body, that can possibly be programmed for malicious intent, is nerve-wracking. With xenobots, scientists wish to resolve this fear and work on tackling the unintended consequences. A paper detailing the research was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Cover Credit: Twitter

Read the original here:
Scientists Turn Frog Cells Into Tiny Living Robots That Can Swim Through Your Body! - Mashable India

To Read More: Scientists Turn Frog Cells Into Tiny Living Robots That Can Swim Through Your Body! – Mashable India
categoriaCardiac Stem Cells commentoComments Off on Scientists Turn Frog Cells Into Tiny Living Robots That Can Swim Through Your Body! – Mashable India | dataJanuary 17th, 2020
Read All

Team builds the 1st living robots – EarthSky

By daniellenierenberg

Scientists from the University of Vermont (UVM) and Tufts University in Massachusetts said on January 13, 2020, that theyve now assembled living cells into entirely new life-forms. They call them living robots, or xenobots for the frog species from whose cells the little robots sprang. The scientists describe them as tiny blobs, submillimeter in size (a millimeter is about 1/25th of an inch, so these little blobs are smaller than that). The blobs contain between 500 and 1,000 cells. They can heal themselves after being cut. The blobs have been able to scoot across a petri dish, self-organize, and even transport minute payloads. Maybe, eventually, theyll be able to carry a medicine to a specific place inside a human body, scrape plaque from arteries, search out radioactive contamination, or gather plastic pollution in Earths oceans.

And, yes, the scientists do acknowledge possible ethical issues. More about that below.

Joshua Bongard, a computer scientist and robotics expert at the University of Vermont who co-led the new research, said in a statement:

These are novel living machines. Theyre neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal. Its a new class of artifact: a living, programmable organism

You look at the cells weve been building our xenobots with, and, genomically, theyre frogs. Its 100% frog DNA but these are not frogs. Then you ask, well, what else are these cells capable of building?

The results of the new research were published January 13 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

EarthSky 2020 lunar calendars are available! Only a few left. Order now!

A manufactured quadruped (4-footed) organism, 650-750 microns in diameter (a micron is a millionth of a meter). The scientists described this creature (if we can call it a creature) as a bit smaller than a pinhead. Image via Douglas Blackiston/ Tufts University/ University of Vermont.

In their published paper, these scientists wrote:

Most technologies are made from steel, concrete, chemicals, and plastics, which degrade over time and can produce harmful ecological and health side effects. It would thus be useful to build technologies using self-renewing and biocompatible materials, of which the ideal candidates are living systems themselves. Thus, we here present a method that designs completely biological machines from the ground up: computers automatically design new machines in simulation, and the best designs are then built by combining together different biological tissues. This suggests others may use this approach to design a variety of living machines to safely deliver drugs inside the human body, help with environmental remediation, or further broaden our understanding of the diverse forms and functions life may adopt.

The new creatures were designed on a supercomputer at UVM, and then assembled and tested by biologists at Tufts University. The scientists statement described their process this way:

With months of processing time on the Deep Green supercomputer cluster at UVMs Vermont Advanced Computing Core, the team including lead author and doctoral student Sam Kriegman of UVM [@Kriegmerica on Twitter] used an evolutionary algorithm to create thousands of candidate designs for the new life-forms. Attempting to achieve a task assigned by the scientists like locomotion in one direction the computer would, over and over, reassemble a few hundred simulated cells into myriad forms and body shapes. As the programs ran driven by basic rules about the biophysics of what single frog skin and cardiac cells can do the more successful simulated organisms were kept and refined, while failed designs were tossed out. After a hundred independent runs of the algorithm, the most promising designs were selected for testing.

Then the team at Tufts, led by Michael Levin and with key work by microsurgeon Douglas Blackiston transferred the in-silico designs into life. First they gathered stem cells, harvested from embryos of African frogs, the species Xenopus laevis [African clawed frogs; hence the name xenobots.]

These were separated into single cells and left to incubate. Then, using tiny forceps and an even tinier electrode, the cells were cut and joined under a microscope into a close approximation of the designs specified by the computer.

Assembled into body forms never seen in nature, the cells began to work together. The skin cells formed a more passive architecture, while the once-random contractions of heart muscle cells were put to work creating ordered forward motion as guided by the computers design, and aided by spontaneous self-organizing patterns allowing the robots to move on their own.

These reconfigurable organisms were shown to be able move in a coherent fashion and explore their watery environment for days or weeks, powered by embryonic energy stores. Turned over, however, they failed, like beetles flipped on their backs.

Later tests showed that groups of xenobots would move around in circles, pushing pellets into a central location spontaneously and collectively. Others were built with a hole through the center to reduce drag. In simulated versions of these, the scientists were able to repurpose this hole as a pouch to successfully carry an object.

Wow yes?

The scientists said they see this work as part of a bigger picture. And they acknowledged that some may fear the implications of rapid technological change and complex biological manipulations. Levin commented:

That fear is not unreasonable. When we start to mess around with complex systems that we dont understand, were going to get unintended consequences.

However, he said:

If humanity is going to survive into the future, we need to better understand how complex properties, somehow, emerge from simple rules.

He said much of science is focused on:

controlling the low-level rules. We also need to understand the high-level rules.

I think its an absolute necessity for society going forward to get a better handle on systems where the outcome is very complex. A first step towards doing that is to explore: how do living systems decide what an overall behavior should be and how do we manipulate the pieces to get the behaviors we want?

In other words, he said:

this study is a direct contribution to getting a handle on what people are afraid of, which is unintended consequences.

Bongard added:

Theres all of this innate creativity in life. We want to understand that more deeply and how we can direct and push it toward new forms.

On the left, the anatomical blueprint for a computer-designed organism, discovered on a UVM supercomputer. On the right, the living organism, built entirely from frog skin (green) and heart muscle (red) cells. The background displays traces carved by a swarm of these new-to-nature organisms as they move through a field of particulate matter. Image via Sam Kriegman/ UVM.

Bottom line: Scientists said in early January 2020 that theyve created the first living robots, or xenobots, assembled from the cells of frogs. Their creators promise advances from drug delivery to toxic waste clean-up.

Source: A scalable pipeline for designing reconfigurable organisms

Via UVM

Read more:
Team builds the 1st living robots - EarthSky

To Read More: Team builds the 1st living robots – EarthSky
categoriaCardiac Stem Cells commentoComments Off on Team builds the 1st living robots – EarthSky | dataJanuary 17th, 2020
Read All

Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market Report Analysis, Share, Revenue, Growth Rate With Forecast Overview To 2024 – Fusion Science Academy

By daniellenierenberg

UpMarketResearch.com, has added the latest research on Dry Powder Inhaler Market, which offers a concise outline of the market valuation, industry size, SWOT analysis, revenue approximation, and the regional outlook of this business vertical. The report precisely features the key opportunities and challenges faced by contenders of this industry and presents the existing competitive setting and corporate strategies enforced by the Dry Powder Inhaler Market players.

As per the Dry Powder Inhaler Market report, this industry is predicted to grow substantial returns by the end of the forecast duration, recording a profitable yearly growth in the upcoming years. Shedding light on brief of this industry, the report offers considerable details concerning complete valuation of the market as well as detailed analysis of the Dry Powder Inhaler Market along with existing growth opportunities in the business vertical.

Request a sample Report of Dry Powder Inhaler Market at: https://www.upmarketresearch.com/home/requested_sample/81368

Concepts and ideas in the report:Analysis of the region- based segment in the Dry Powder Inhaler Market: As per the report, in terms of provincial scope, the Dry Powder Inhaler Market is divided into USA, Europe, Japan, China, India and South East Asia. It also includes particulars related to the products usage throughout the geographical landscape. Data related to the evaluations held by all the zones mentioned as well as the market share registered by each region is included in the report. Sum of all the product consumption growth rate across the applicable regions as well as consumption market share is described in the report. The report speaks about consumption rate of all regions, based on product types and applications.

Brief of the market segmentation: As per the product type, the Dry Powder Inhaler Market is categorized intoSingle Dose Dry Powder InhalerMulti Dose Dry Powder Inhaler

Furthermore, the market share of each product along with the project valuation is mentioned in the report. The report consists of facts related to every single products sale price, revenue, growth rate over the estimation time period.

The Dry Powder Inhaler Market, according to the application spectrum, is categorized intoAsthmaChronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseasePulmonary Arterial HypertensionOthers

Data pertaining the market share of each product application as well as estimated revenue that each application registers for is slated in the report.

Propelling factors & challenges: The report provides data concerning the forces influencing the commercialization scale of the Dry Powder Inhaler Market and their effect on the revenue graph of this business vertical. Data pertaining to latest trends driving the Dry Powder Inhaler Market along with the challenges this industry is about to experience in the upcoming years is mentioned in the report.

Ask for Discount on Dry Powder Inhaler Market Report at: https://www.upmarketresearch.com/home/request_for_discount/81368

Implementing marketing tactics: Ideas about numerous marketing strategies implemented by the renowned shareholders with respect to product marketing is present in the report. Information related to the sales channels that companies select is also included in the report. Along with the dealers of these products, it also presents the summary of the top customers for the same.

Analysis of the major competitors in the market:An outline of the manufacturers active in the Dry Powder Inhaler Market, consisting ofAstrazeneca3MGlaxoSmithKlineNovartisCiplaTevaBoehringer IngelheimChiesi FarmaceuticiMannKindVecturaalong with the distribution limits and sales area is reported. Particulars of each competitor including company profile, overview, as well as their range of products is inculcated in the report. The report also gives importance to product sales, price models, gross margins, and revenue generations. The Dry Powder Inhaler Market report consists of details such as estimation of the geographical landscape, study related to the market concentration rate as well as concentration ratio over the estimated time period.

To Buy this report, Visit : https://www.upmarketresearch.com/buy/dry-powder-inhaler-market-2019

Some of the Major Highlights of TOC covers:Dry Powder Inhaler Regional Market Analysis Dry Powder Inhaler Production by Regions Global Dry Powder Inhaler Production by Regions Global Dry Powder Inhaler Revenue by Regions Dry Powder Inhaler Consumption by Regions

Dry Powder Inhaler Segment Market Analysis (by Type) Global Dry Powder Inhaler Production by Type Global Dry Powder Inhaler Revenue by Type Dry Powder Inhaler Price by Type

Dry Powder Inhaler Segment Market Analysis (by Application) Global Dry Powder Inhaler Consumption by Application Global Dry Powder Inhaler Consumption Market Share by Application (2014-2019)

Dry Powder Inhaler Major Manufacturers Analysis Dry Powder Inhaler Production Sites and Area Served Product Introduction, Application and Specification Dry Powder Inhaler Production, Revenue, Ex-factory Price and Gross Margin (2014-2019) Main Business and Markets Served

For More Information on this report, Request Inquiry At https://www.upmarketresearch.com/home/enquiry_before_buying/81368

About UpMarketResearch:Up Market Research (https://www.upmarketresearch.com) is a leading distributor of market research report with more than 800+ global clients. As a market research company, we take pride in equipping our clients with insights and data that holds the power to truly make a difference to their business. Our mission is singular and well-defined we want to help our clients envisage their business environment so that they are able to make informed, strategic and therefore successful decisions for themselves.

Contact Info UpMarketResearchName Alex MathewsEmail [emailprotected]Organization UpMarketResearchAddress 500 East E Street, Ontario, CA 91764, United States.

Original post:
Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market Report Analysis, Share, Revenue, Growth Rate With Forecast Overview To 2024 - Fusion Science Academy

To Read More: Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market Report Analysis, Share, Revenue, Growth Rate With Forecast Overview To 2024 – Fusion Science Academy
categoriaCardiac Stem Cells commentoComments Off on Autologous Stem Cell Based Therapies Market Report Analysis, Share, Revenue, Growth Rate With Forecast Overview To 2024 – Fusion Science Academy | dataJanuary 17th, 2020
Read All

– Team builds first living robots using frog cells – Design Products & Applications

By daniellenierenberg

14 January 2020

These millimetre-wide "xenobots" can move toward a target, perhaps pick up a payload (like a medicine that needs to be carried to a specific place inside a patient) and heal themselves after being cut.

"These are novel living machines," says Joshua Bongard, a computer scientist and robotics expert at the University of Vermont who co-led the new research. "They're neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal. It's a new class of artefact: a living, programmable organism."

The new creatures were designed on a supercomputer at UVM and then assembled and tested by biologists at Tufts University. "We can imagine many useful applications of these living robots that other machines can't do," says co-leader Michael Levin who directs the Centre for Regenerative and Developmental Biology at Tufts, "like searching out nasty compounds or radioactive contamination, gathering microplastic in the oceans, traveling in arteries to scrape out plaque."

The results of the new research were published January 13 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Bespoke living systems

People have been manipulating organisms for human benefit since at least the dawn of agriculture, genetic editing is becoming widespread, and a few artificial organisms have been manually assembled in the past few years copying the body forms of known animals.

But this research, for the first time ever, "designs completely biological machines from the ground up," the team writes in their new study.

With months of processing time on the Deep Green supercomputer cluster at UVM's Vermont Advanced Computing Core, the team including lead author and doctoral student Sam Kriegman used an evolutionary algorithm to create thousands of candidate designs for the new life-forms. Attempting to achieve a task assigned by the scientists like locomotion in one direction the computer would, over and over, reassemble a few hundred simulated cells into myriad forms and body shapes. As the programs ran driven by basic rules about the biophysics of what single frog skin and cardiac cells can do the more successful simulated organisms were kept and refined, while failed designs were tossed out. After a hundred independent runs of the algorithm, the most promising designs were selected for testing.

Then the team at Tufts, led by Levin and with key work by microsurgeon Douglas Blackiston, transferred the in-silico designs into life. First, they gathered stem cells, harvested from the embryos of African frogs, the species Xenopus laevis. (Hence the name "xenobots.") These were separated into single cells and left to incubate. Then, using tiny forceps and an even tinier electrode, the cells were cut and joined under a microscope into a close approximation of the designs specified by the computer.

Assembled into body forms never seen in nature, the cells began to work together. The skin cells formed a more passive architecture, while the once-random contractions of heart muscle cells were put to work creating ordered forward motion as guided by the computer's design and aided by spontaneous self-organising patterns allowing the robots to move on their own.

These reconfigurable organisms were shown to be able move in a coherent fashion and explore their watery environment for days or weeks, powered by embryonic energy stores. Turned over, however, they failed, like beetles flipped on their backs.

Later tests showed that groups of xenobots would move around in circles, pushing pellets into a central location spontaneously and collectively. Others were built with a hole through the centre to reduce drag. In simulated versions of these, the scientists were able to repurpose this hole as a pouch to successfully carry an object. "It's a step toward using computer-designed organisms for intelligent drug delivery," says Bongard, a professor in UVM's Department of Computer Science and Complex Systems Centre.

Living technologies

Many technologies are made of steel, concrete or plastic. That can make them strong or flexible. But they also can create ecological and human health problems, like the growing scourge of plastic pollution in the oceans and the toxicity of many synthetic materials and electronics. "The downside of living tissue is that it's weak and it degrades," says Bongard. "That's why we use steel. But organisms have 4.5 billion years of practice at regenerating themselves and going on for decades." And when they stop working death they usually fall apart harmlessly. "These xenobots are fully biodegradable," say Bongard, "when they're done with their job after seven days, they're just dead skin cells."

Your laptop is a powerful technology. But try cutting it in half. Doesn't work so well. In the new experiments, the scientists cut the xenobots and watched what happened. "We sliced the robot almost in half and it stitches itself back up and keeps going," says Bongard. "And this is something you can't do with typical machines."

Cracking the Code

Both Levin and Bongard say the potential of what they've been learning about how cells communicate and connect extends deep into both computational science and our understanding of life. "The big question in biology is to understand the algorithms that determine form and function," says Levin. "The genome encodes proteins, but transformative applications await our discovery of how that hardware enables cells to cooperate toward making functional anatomies under very different conditions."

To make an organism develop and function, there is a lot of information sharing and cooperation organic computation going on in and between cells all the time, not just within neurons. These emergent and geometric properties are shaped by bioelectric, biochemical, and biomechanical processes, "that run on DNA-specified hardware," Levin says, "and these processes are reconfigurable, enabling novel living forms."

The scientists see the work presented in their new PNAS study "A scalable pipeline for designing reconfigurable organisms," as one step in applying insights about this bioelectric code to both biology and computer science. "What actually determines the anatomy towards which cells cooperate?" Levin asks. "You look at the cells we've been building our xenobots with, and, genomically, they're frogs. It's 100% frog DNA but these are not frogs. Then you ask, well, what else are these cells capable of building?"

"As we've shown, these frog cells can be coaxed to make interesting living forms that are completely different from what their default anatomy would be," says Levin. He and the other scientists in the UVM and Tufts team with support from DARPA's Lifelong Learning Machines program and the National Science Foundation believe that building the xenobots is a small step toward cracking what he calls the "morphogenetic code," providing a deeper view of the overall way organisms are organised and how they compute and store information based on their histories and environment.

Many people worry about the implications of rapid technological change and complex biological manipulations. "That fear is not unreasonable," Levin says. "When we start to mess around with complex systems that we don't understand, we're going to get unintended consequences." A lot of complex systems, like an ant colony, begin with a simple unit an ant from which it would be impossible to predict the shape of their colony or how they can build bridges over water with their interlinked bodies.

"If humanity is going to survive into the future, we need to better understand how complex properties, somehow, emerge from simple rules," says Levin. Much of science is focused on "controlling the low-level rules. We also need to understand the high-level rules," he says. "If you wanted an anthill with two chimneys instead of one, how do you modify the ants? We'd have no idea."

"I think it's an absolute necessity for society going forward to get a better handle on systems where the outcome is very complex," Levin says. "A first step towards doing that is to explore: how do living systems decide what an overall behaviour should be and how do we manipulate the pieces to get the behaviours we want?"

In other words, "this study is a direct contribution to getting a handle on what people are afraid of, which is unintended consequences," Levin says whether in the rapid arrival of self-driving cars, changing gene drives to wipe out whole lineages of viruses, or the many other complex and autonomous systems that will increasingly shape the human experience.

"There's all of this innate creativity in life," says UVM's Josh Bongard. "We want to understand that more deeply and how we can direct and push it toward new forms."

Information courtesy of University of Vermont

Excerpt from:
- Team builds first living robots using frog cells - Design Products & Applications

To Read More: – Team builds first living robots using frog cells – Design Products & Applications
categoriaCardiac Stem Cells commentoComments Off on – Team builds first living robots using frog cells – Design Products & Applications | dataJanuary 17th, 2020
Read All

The first robots (xenobot) from living cells use cells of a frog – www.MICEtimes.asia

By daniellenierenberg

Under normal circumstances the stem cells of frog embryos would skin and heart tissue of living beings, however, the progress of scientific knowledge has turned them into the first ever living robots.

Scientists from the University of Vermont with the help of special algorithms modified stem cells of a frog and created of them the first xenobot clumps of cells, capable of self-organization and even to transport tiny cargo. These colonies of 500-1000 cells do not resemble any living organism, or a naturally functioning body. At the same time they are different from the traditional robot is alive, but programmed organisms.

The opportunity to design a live guided machine, able to perform various tasks, from drug delivery to environmental cleanup, is truly revolutionary.

To create xenobot required a supercomputer and an algorithm that assemble in the desired configuration, hundreds of heart cells and skin tissue and simulates the result of such a living designer. The least successful configuration of the scientists involved in the experiment, culled, best preserved and improved using manipulations of the cells of the African frog Xenopus laevis microscopic tweezers and the electrode.

In one of the configurations, the scientists there is a hole in the center of the clot to reduce the resistance when driving. The experiment revealed that it can be used to attach to the get of goods for transportation.

After completing the Assembly of the fabric of biorobots began to operate at the programmed scenario: the skin cells began to group together, and provided the cardiac motor function. In an aqueous medium in the Petri dish these living machines can move up to a week without nutrient requirements energy supply inherent nature in the form of lipids and proteins.

Scientists say that this experiment gives an invaluable experience of knowing how cells communicate and exchange information:

From the point of view of the genome, its a frog. 100% DNA xenobot corresponds to the frog, but not frog. The question arises what else can be built from these cells? says biologist Michael Levin. This experiment shows us that frog cells can form life-forms that have nothing to do with the fact that they were anatomically.

However, living these robots can be called only conditionally they are not able to develop, you do not have the reproductive function and cant reproduce without the will of man, and, having exhausted all the resources of nutrients, they turn into lumps of dead cells (100% Biodegradability is a clear advantage of biological robots before the metal or plastic robots).

So far, the level of development xenobot seems completely harmless, but in the future they can enrich and nerve cells or even to turn into a new form of biological weapons.

Under normal circumstances the stem cells of frog embryos would skin and heart tissue of living beings, however, the progress of scientific knowledge has turned them into the first ever living robots.

Scientists from the University of Vermont with the help of special algorithms modified stem cells of a frog and created of them the first xenobot clumps of cells, capable of self-organization and even to transport tiny cargo. These colonies of 500-1000 cells do not resemble any living organism, or a naturally functioning body. At the same time they are different from the traditional robot is alive, but programmed organisms.

The opportunity to design a live guided machine, able to perform various tasks, from drug delivery to environmental cleanup, is truly revolutionary.

To create xenobot required a supercomputer and an algorithm that assemble in the desired configuration, hundreds of heart cells and skin tissue and simulates the result of such a living designer. The least successful configuration of the scientists involved in the experiment, culled, best preserved and improved using manipulations of the cells of the African frog Xenopus laevis microscopic tweezers and the electrode.

In one of the configurations, the scientists there is a hole in the center of the clot to reduce the resistance when driving. The experiment revealed that it can be used to attach to the get of goods for transportation.

After completing the Assembly of the fabric of biorobots began to operate at the programmed scenario: the skin cells began to group together, and provided the cardiac motor function. In an aqueous medium in the Petri dish these living machines can move up to a week without nutrient requirements energy supply inherent nature in the form of lipids and proteins.

Scientists say that this experiment gives an invaluable experience of knowing how cells communicate and exchange information:

From the point of view of the genome, its a frog. 100% DNA xenobot corresponds to the frog, but not frog. The question arises what else can be built from these cells? says biologist Michael Levin. This experiment shows us that frog cells can form life-forms that have nothing to do with the fact that they were anatomically.

However, living these robots can be called only conditionally they are not able to develop, you do not have the reproductive function and cant reproduce without the will of man, and, having exhausted all the resources of nutrients, they turn into lumps of dead cells (100% Biodegradability is a clear advantage of biological robots before the metal or plastic robots).

So far, the level of development xenobot seems completely harmless, but in the future they can enrich and nerve cells or even to turn into a new form of biological weapons.

See original here:
The first robots (xenobot) from living cells use cells of a frog - http://www.MICEtimes.asia

To Read More: The first robots (xenobot) from living cells use cells of a frog – www.MICEtimes.asia
categoriaCardiac Stem Cells commentoComments Off on The first robots (xenobot) from living cells use cells of a frog – www.MICEtimes.asia | dataJanuary 17th, 2020
Read All

The ‘xenobot’ is the worlds newest robot and it’s made from living animal cells – The Loop

By daniellenierenberg

Forget gleaming metal droids -- the robots of the future may have more in common with the average amphibian than with R2D2.

A team of scientists have found a way to not just program a living organism, but to build brand new life-forms from scratch using cells, creating what researchers are calling xenobots.

Tiny in size, but vast in potential, these millimetre-sized bots could potentially be programmed to help in medical procedures, ocean cleanup and investigating dangerous compounds, among other things.

"They're neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal, said researcher Joshua Bongard in a news release. It's a new class of artifact: a living, programmable organism."

In the introduction for the research published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on Monday, researchers point out that the traditional building blocks weve used for robots and tech -- steel, plastic, chemicals, etc. -- all degrade over time and can produce harmful ecological and health side-effects.

After realizing that the best self-renewing and biocompatible materials would be living systems themselves, researchers decided to create a method that designs completely biological machines from the ground up.

The bots are made out of stem cells taken from frog embryos -- specifically, an African clawed frog called xenopus laevis, which supplied the inspiration for the name xenobot. To design the xenobots, the possible configurations of different cells were first modeled on a supercomputer at the University of Vermont.

The designs then went to Tufts University, where the embryonic cells were collected and separated to develop into more specialized cells. Then, like sculptors (if sculptors used microsurgery forceps and electrodes), biologists manually shaped the cells into clumps that matched the computer designs.

Different structures were sketched out by the computer in accordance with the scientists goal for each xenobot.

For example, one xenobot was designed to be able to move purposely in a specific direction. To achieve this, researchers put cardiac cells on the bottom of the xenobot. These cells naturally contract and expand on their own, meaning that they could serve as the xenobots engine, or legs, and help move the rest of the organism, which was built out of more static skin cells.

In order to test if the living robots were truly moving the way they were designed to, and not just randomly, researchers performed a test that has stumped many a living creature.

They flipped the robot on its back. And just like a capsized turtle, it could no longer move.

When researchers created further designs for the bots, they found that they could design them to push microscopic objects, and even carry objects through a pouch.

"It's a step toward using computer-designed organisms for intelligent drug delivery," says Bongard.

The possible uses for these tiny robots are numerous, researchers say.

In biomedical settings, one could envision such biobots (made from the patients own cells) removing plaque from artery walls, identifying cancer, or settling down to differentiate or control events in locations of disease, the research paper suggests.

A robot made out of metal or steel generally has to be repaired by human hands if it sustains damage. One major benefit that researchers found of creating these robots out of living cells was how they reacted to physical damage.

A video taken by the researchers showed that when one of their organisms was cut almost in half by metal tweezers, the two sides of the wound simply stitched itself back together.

These living robots, researchers realized, could repair themselves automatically, something you cant do with typical machines, Bongard said.

Because they are living cells, they are also naturally biodegradable, Bongard pointed out. Once theyve fulfilled their purpose, theyre just dead skin cells, making them even more optimal for usage in medical or environmental research.

Although scientists have been increasingly manipulating genetics and biology, this is the first time that a programmable organism has been created from scratch, researchers say.

This new research takes scientists a step closer to answering just how different cells work together to execute all of the complex processes that occur every day in animals and humans.

"The big question in biology is to understand the algorithms that determine form and function," said co-leader Michael Levin in the press release. He directs the Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology at Tufts.

"What actually determines the anatomy towards which cells co-operate? he asked. You look at the cells we've been building our xenobots with, and, genomically, they're frogs. It's 100 per cent frog DNA -- but these are not frogs. Then you ask, well, what else are these cells capable of building? As we've shown, these frog cells can be coaxed to make interesting living forms that are completely different from what their default anatomy would be.

Of course, a biological organism created and programmed by humans which is capable of healing itself might sound a little alarming. After all, one of the sponsors of the research is the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, which is affiliated with the U.S. military.

Researchers acknowledged in the press release that the implications around such technological and biological advancements can be worrying at times.

That fear is not unreasonable, Levin said. However, he believes that in order to move forward with science, we should not hold back from complex questions. This study is a direct contribution to getting a handle on what people are afraid of, which is unintended consequences.

"I think it's an absolute necessity for society going forward to get a better handle on systems where the outcome is very complex," Levin says. "A first step towards doing that is to explore: how do living systems decide what an overall behavior should be and how do we manipulate the pieces to get the behaviors we want?"

More on this story from CTVNews.ca

See original here:
The 'xenobot' is the worlds newest robot and it's made from living animal cells - The Loop

To Read More: The ‘xenobot’ is the worlds newest robot and it’s made from living animal cells – The Loop
categoriaCardiac Stem Cells commentoComments Off on The ‘xenobot’ is the worlds newest robot and it’s made from living animal cells – The Loop | dataJanuary 17th, 2020
Read All

Scientists Develop Live Robots With Frog Cells That Might Redefine Healthcare – Gizbot

By daniellenierenberg

Plus, these new robots can heal themselves after being cut, giving them a longer life span. "They're neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal. It's a new class of artifact: a living, programmable organism," notes Joshua Bongard, a computer scientist and robotics expert at the University of Vermont who co-led the new research.

The live robots were designed and developed on a supercomputer at UVM and then tested by biologists at Tufts University. The idea of manipulating living organisms and copying body forms for human benefit isn't something new. However, this is the first time scientists have developed biological machines from scratch.

The team led by lead author and doctoral student Sam Kriegman, used an evolutionary algorithm to develop thousands of candidate designs for the new life-forms on the Deep Green supercomputer and was published in PANS. The program was fed the basic rules about biophysics of what a single frog skin and cardiac cells were capable of.

Nearly a hundred independent algorithm runs were conducted to select the most promising designs. Next, the team at Tufts worked with microsurgeon to transfer the silicon designs into life. Stem cells from an African frog (Xenopus lavevis, giving the name Xenobots) were harvested in the embryos. Assembled into body forms, the cells began working together.

Many of our gadgets and other technologies are made of steel, plastic, silicon. While it makes it strong and flexible, it also creates an ecological imbalance and human health problems. Bongard notes that living tissues are weak and degrade quickly. "But organisms have 4.5 billion years of practice at regenerating themselves and going on for decades," he says.

Even when tissues die, they're harmless to the environment. What's more interesting is that the live robots were sliced into half and surprisingly, it stitched itself and kept going. "This is something you can't do with typical machines," Bongard says. This is organic computation, which the authors explain as the information is shared and cooperated between cells.

The reconfigured organisms were found moving coherently and could explore watery environments for days and weeks together. The immediate application the researchers are suggesting is healthcare, where the Xenobots can be sent to pick a payload like medicine and carry it to the specific place inside the patient.

What About Ill-Effects?

Of course, the concerns on rapid changes in technology and complex biological manipulations have been rising. "When we start to mess around with complex systems that we don't understand, we're going to get unintended consequences," the scientists agree. At the same time, researchers note that a better understanding of complex properties is essential for mankind to survive.

See original here:
Scientists Develop Live Robots With Frog Cells That Might Redefine Healthcare - Gizbot

To Read More: Scientists Develop Live Robots With Frog Cells That Might Redefine Healthcare – Gizbot
categoriaCardiac Stem Cells commentoComments Off on Scientists Develop Live Robots With Frog Cells That Might Redefine Healthcare – Gizbot | dataJanuary 17th, 2020
Read All

Allele and Astellas Enter into an Expanded License for the Development of iPSC Lines – BioSpace

By daniellenierenberg

SAN DIEGO--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Allele Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (President and CEO: Jiwu Wang, Ph.D., Allele), a San Diego-based private company, and Astellas Pharma Inc. (TSE: 4503, President and CEO: Kenji Yasukawa, Ph.D., Astellas), through its Massachusetts-based subsidiary Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine (AIRM), entered into a licensing agreement to expand Astellas access to Alleles induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technologies for various cell therapy programs.

Astellas, one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in Japan and already a leader in the development of cell-based therapeutics, has further dedicated to development of the field through its commitment to state-of-the-art iPS cell generation, modification, and manufacturing. iPSC lines can differentiate into all somatic tissue types, enabling a wide variety of therapeutic applications. The field of iPSC-derived cells has seen dramatic growth in clinical trials recently--the majority of the ~12 clinical trials around the world were initiated within the last 18 months and many more are upcoming.

Allele has been developing its core strength in reprogramming somatic cells into iPSCs with granted patents and the first commercial cGMP system it developed over the past 10 years. Allele also engages in more than a dozen different human tissue derivation activities through its own R&D efforts for internal programs and partnerships. To realize the unparalleled potential of iPSC, Alleles researchers and cGMP team are committed to setting up and validating cell assays for product quality control, genome analysis pipelines, closed-system automation for reprogramming, and machine learning in iPSC-related fields.

Under the terms of the new license agreement, Astellas will pay Allele upfront and milestones, product-based royalties, and potentially manufacture fees.

About Allele Allele Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals was founded in 1999. In 2015, the company completed an 18,000 square foot state-of-the-art facility in San Diego for the production of GMP-grade human iPSC lines. The facility also supports the production of tissue-specific cells differentiated from these iPSCs, including pancreatic beta cells, neural progenitor cells, and cardiomyocytes.

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200113005668/en/

View original post here:
Allele and Astellas Enter into an Expanded License for the Development of iPSC Lines - BioSpace

To Read More: Allele and Astellas Enter into an Expanded License for the Development of iPSC Lines – BioSpace
categoriaIPS Cell Therapy commentoComments Off on Allele and Astellas Enter into an Expanded License for the Development of iPSC Lines – BioSpace | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

Cell Therapy And Tissue Engineering Market Size 2020 by Top Leading Companies- BioCardia Betalin Therapeutics, MEDIPOST Co., MaxCyte BioReliance…

By daniellenierenberg

Otology sponges are cotton balls used after otology surgery. They are placed in the ear to hold the skin and eardrum in place after otology surgery. After otology surgery, the ear canal is packed with antibiotic ointment and otology sponges. Myringotomy with the insertion of tympanostomy tubes is the most common ontology surgical procedure in the U.S., and approximately 2 million procedures conducted each year. The field of otology has witnessed remarkable advancements in the management of complex ailments, such as hearing disorders, through the ongoing progress of sophisticated intricate and microscopic surgeries.

Download Brochure of This Market Report at https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=B&rep_id=3690

Most common causes of surgeries are the retraction of the tympanic membrane, chronic otitis media and collapsed eustachian tube. Otology sponges are sterile devices used post-surgery for 6 weeks or for a month. Otology surgeries are mostly performed in outpatient systems and they do not require overnight stay. Since patients can go outdoor immediately after surgery, the chances of wound infection increase.

To prevent infection, these sponges are placed in ear canal with the lubrication of antibiotics. Sometimes, an incision is made behind the year to operate the internal canal. In this situation, sterile dressings along with antibiotic lubricants are placed over the stiches to prevent microbial infection. Owing to the shape of the ear, there is very less pace to operate inside it, owing to which otology surgeries are performed with the help of microscopes for greater accuracy and success. Increase in the number of ENT specialists, coupled with the availability of technologically sound surgical methods, is boosting the number of otology surgeries.

Otology Sponges Market: Drivers and Restraints

An increase in the number of otology surgeries due to the availability of advanced surgical methods is expected to drive the market. Advanced methods of otology surgeries have spread significantly in the developing world, which is also contributing to the growth of the market. Ease of use due to flexibility and the compressed configuration of these sponges is also driving the market.

Otology sponges are sterile and available in different sizes, hence, they are effective in preventing ear canal infections. Increase in awareness about the availability of otology surgical treatment is contributing to market growth. The effectiveness of otology sponges in preventing ear canal infections and holding the shape of the eardrum is driving the market. However, low awareness among the general public about their usage is restraining market growth.

Otology Sponges Market: Segmentation

The global otology sponges market can be segmented on the basis of material, end user type and geography.

Based on material type, the otology sponges market is segmented as:

Based on end use, the otology sponges market is segmented as:

Request For TOC On this Market Report at https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=T&rep_id=3690

Otology Sponges Market: Overview

The global otology sponges market is expected to grow steadily owing to an increase in the number of otology surgeries. Advanced technological intervention for otology surgeries is also boosting the otology sponges market. By material type, the otology sponges market is expected to be dominated by latex-free otology sponges. By end users, the otology sponges market is expected to be dominated by ENT clinics owing to an increase in the number of outpatient surgeries. The widespread availability of otology sponges in different sizes makes them easy to use and one can wear them comfortably. Moreover, the number of otology surgical procedures has increased in developing countries as well, which is boosting the market in these countries.

Otology Sponges Market: Regional Outlook

The global otology sponges market is majorly dominated by North America owing to a significant number of otology surgical procedures in the region. Europe is the second most lucrative market owing to the availability of advanced otology surgical methods. Asia Pacific is expected to emerge as one of the most lucrative otology sponges markets owing to an increase in awareness about otology surgical treatments. Emerging economies, such as China and India, are potential markets for otology sponges because of their large population base. Latin America is also a lucrative market owing to the higher adoption of otology sponges. However, the Middle East and Africa is the least lucrative otology sponges market due to lack of awareness and the low availability of advanced otology surgical methods.

Otology Sponges Market: Key Players

Some of the global key players operating in otology sponges market areDeRoyal Industries, Inc.; Boston Medical Products, Inc.; Summit Medical, Inc.; American Surgical Company LLC; Medtronic and Olympus Corporation.

The report is a compilation of first-hand information, qualitative and quantitative assessment by industry analysts, inputs from industry experts and industry participants across the value chain. The report provides in-depth analysis of parent market trends, macro-economic indicators and governing factors along with market attractiveness as per segments. The report also maps the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies.

Get Special Discount on this Report @https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=D&rep_id=3690

About TMR Research:

TMR Research is a premier provider of customized market research and consulting services to business entities keen on succeeding in todays supercharged economic climate. Armed with an experienced, dedicated, and dynamic team of analysts, we are redefining the way our clients conduct business by providing them with authoritative and trusted research studies in tune with the latest methodologies and market trends.

Continue reading here:
Cell Therapy And Tissue Engineering Market Size 2020 by Top Leading Companies- BioCardia Betalin Therapeutics, MEDIPOST Co., MaxCyte BioReliance...

To Read More: Cell Therapy And Tissue Engineering Market Size 2020 by Top Leading Companies- BioCardia Betalin Therapeutics, MEDIPOST Co., MaxCyte BioReliance…
categoriaIPS Cell Therapy commentoComments Off on Cell Therapy And Tissue Engineering Market Size 2020 by Top Leading Companies- BioCardia Betalin Therapeutics, MEDIPOST Co., MaxCyte BioReliance… | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

Stem Cell Therapy for Dogs and Cats Is Innovative at Stafford Veterinary Hospital – By MARIA SCANDALE – The SandPaper

By daniellenierenberg

Stafford Township, NJ Stem cell therapy is an incredible process for healing damaged tissue, so it seems remarkable that it is availablefor petsright here in Manahawkin. Stafford Veterinary Hospital, at 211 North Main St., began offering the advanced treatment in 2019, under the direction of Michael Pride, medical director at the facility.

There, stem cell therapy is most commonly applied to osteoarthritis, but can also be used in dogs suffering from hip dysplasia and ligament and cartilage injuries, as well as mobility ailments and some chronic inflammatory issues such as inflammatory bowel disease and chronic kidney disease, which is common in cats.

Stem cell therapy is actually the only thing that can help to reverse the process of arthritis, Pride said. Everything else is a Band-Aid.

This process can actually help to rebuild cartilage and really reduce inflammation without the need of using aspirin-type medications, Pride said. Its a newer technology that we can use to avoid chronic use of medications, which might actually be detrimental in the long term for the liver or kidneys.

Stem cell therapy treats the source of the problem by offering the ability to replace damaged cells with new ones, instructs the website staffordvet.com.

Stem cells are powerful healing cells in the pets body that can become other types of cells. For example, in the case of arthritis, stem cells can become new cartilage cells and have natural anti-inflammatory properties, thus reducing pain and increasing mobility.

The stem cells are your primary structural cell for all other cells in the body; they can differentiate into almost any other cell, explained Pride. Were processing it down into that primordial stem cell; were activating it, and were injecting it into where it needs to be, and it just starts taking on the characteristics of the cells around it.

Table-top machines from MediVet Biologics are the first Adipose Stem Cell therapy kits for in-clinic use, a major advancement. Stem cell therapy for animals has been commercially available since 2004. MediVet pioneered in-clinic treatment options around 2010.

Pride believes Stafford Veterinary Hospital offers the only such treatment in the immediate area; another is in Egg Harbor Township, Atlantic County.

Were always trying to figure out different ways to help the patient without hurting them, he said while petting a kitten that had been a patient for another type of treatment.

As stem cell therapy is more in the news regarding humans, a pet owners first question might be where the stem cells come from that are used in the process. The answer: from fat tissue of the pet itself, extracted and processed the same day.

As the therapy has been refined in the last decade, it has actually started to become a lot easier, more cost-effective more recently, said Pride, since weve been able to process fat tissue instead of actually getting bone marrow.

Fat tissue actually has a much higher concentration of adult stem cells than bone marrow does, so its less painful for the patient, they heal a lot easier, and we dont have to process it in a different facility.

Everything comes from the animal, and we give it back to the animal. Nothing comes from another animal. We dont have to worry about them rejecting the sample; its their own tissue, and were giving it back to them.

The pet typically goes home the same day after about eight hours. First, X-rays and a consultation with the veterinarian can determine whether the pet is a candidate for the treatment.

A pet owner may not even know that their animal has arthritis.

Cats have a lot of inflammatory issues that they tend to be very good at hiding, said Pride. A lot of people dont realize that they have arthritis. They think, oh, my cats just getting older; hes not jumping as much; hes not as strong; hes just sleeping most of the day, but actually he has arthritis. Its very difficult to diagnose in cats. A lot of times you end up having to do X-rays to find where the arthritic joints happen to be.

An inch-and-a-half incision is the minor surgery that harvests the fat tissue from the belly while the pet is anesthetized. For a cat, about 20 gramsare extracted. For a large dog, about 40 gramsare needed. While the pet is recovering from the incision surgery, the veterinary hospital is processing the sample. When the sample is ready, the pet is sedated because we then have to give them the joint injections. Then we can reverse the sedation, and they go home.

We asked the doctor if the process always works. He gave the example that on average, a dog such as a boxer that was hobbled is now able to walk without seeming like its painful. In an extreme positive case, a dog that had been barely walking might be bouncing all over the place in two months.

It doesnt always work to the extent that we would love it to, but we usually notice that there is a positive effect from it, Pride remarked. Every patient will be different in what they experience.

For the same reason that everyones situation is going to be different, cost of treatment was not given for this story.

It generally takes about 30 to 60 days for relief to show, the veterinarian said, and the animals progress will be monitored.

On average, results last about 18 months to two years before more stem cells might have to be injected. The procedure takes about an hour.

The nice thing is once we collect those stem cells (from the first procedure), we can bank the leftovers they are cryogenically stored at MediVet corporate headquarters in Kentucky and we dont have to go through the initial anesthetic surgery, said Pride.

Stem cell therapy is one of several innovative modalities available at Stafford Veterinary Hospital. Laser therapy, acupuncture and holistic medicine are others. Care for exotic pets is available, as is emergency pet care.

Visit the website staffordvet.com or call 609-597-7571 for more information on general and specialized services, including: vaccinations, microchipping, spayingand neutering, dental care, wellness exams, dermatology, gastrology, oncology, opthalmology, cardiology, soft-tissue surgery, ultrasound, radiography, nutrition, parasite control, boarding, laborand delivery, end-of-life care, and cremation.

Stafford Veterinary Hospital has been in business since 1965, founded by Dr. John Hauge. Today, five highly skilled veterinarians are on staff, and a satellite, Tuckerton Veterinary Clinic, is at 500 North Green St. in Tuckerton.

Pride has been medical director at Stafford Veterinary Hospital since 2008. He attended Rutgers University, then earned his Veterinary of Medicine degree at Oklahoma State University.

The mild-mannered doctor feels a great rewardfrom treating animals that cant speak for themselves when they feel bad.

These guys, theyre always thankful; you can see what they think, he said of treated pets. The turnaround in their attitude, the turnaround in their ability to be more comfortable, you can see it in their faces; you can see it in their actions. You learn to read animals over time.

Its knowing that were helping those who cant help themselves, he added, and you can see it in them; thats the most gratifying.

mariascandale@thesandpaper.net

Read more:
Stem Cell Therapy for Dogs and Cats Is Innovative at Stafford Veterinary Hospital - By MARIA SCANDALE - The SandPaper

To Read More: Stem Cell Therapy for Dogs and Cats Is Innovative at Stafford Veterinary Hospital – By MARIA SCANDALE – The SandPaper
categoriaBone Marrow Stem Cells commentoComments Off on Stem Cell Therapy for Dogs and Cats Is Innovative at Stafford Veterinary Hospital – By MARIA SCANDALE – The SandPaper | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

Hemogenyx’s CAR-T Cells are Effective Against AML in vitro – Yahoo Finance

By daniellenierenberg

LONDON, UK / ACCESSWIRE / January 15, 2020 / Hemogenyx Pharmaceuticals plc (HEMO.L) ("Hemogenyx" or the "Company"), the biopharmaceutical group developing new therapies and treatments of blood diseases, is pleased to announce the following update on its activities.

As previously announced, Hemogenyx's CDX product has the potential to treat Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) directly as well as providing a benign conditioning regimen for blood stem cell replacement therapy. The Company has now carried out extensive work developing treatments for AML and has to date obtained encouraging results.

Hemogenyx has successfully constructed and in vitro tested Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) programmed T cells (HEMO-CAR-T) for potential treatment of AML. HEMO-CAR was constructed using Hemogenyx's proprietary humanized monoclonal antibody against a target on the surface of AML cells. The Company has demonstrated that HEMO-CAR was able to programme human T cells (converted them into HEMO-CAR-T) to identify and destroy human AML derived cells in vitro.

Following the successful completion of these tests, in vivo tests of the efficacy of HEMO-CAR-T against AML are being conducted utilising a model of AML using Advanced peripheral blood Hematopoietic Chimera (ApbHC) - humanized mice developed by Immugenyx, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hemogenyx.

Vladislav Sandler, Chief Executive Officer, commented, "We are encouraged by this new data which demonstrates our continuing progress in the development of novel treatments for blood cancers such as AML. The development of HEMO-CAR-T expands Hemogenyx's pipeline and advances it into a cutting-edge area of cell-based immune therapy. We are excited to have developed another product candidate that should, if successful, provide a new and potentially effective treatment for blood cancers for which survival rates are currently very poor."

About AML and CAR-T

AML, the most common type of acute leukemia in adults, has poor survival rates (a five-year survival rate of less than 25% in adults) and is currently treated using chemotherapy, rather than the potentially more benign and effective form of therapy being developed by Hemogenyx. The successful development of the new therapy for AML would have a major impact on treatment and survival rates for the disease.

CAR-T therapy is a treatment in which a patient's own T cells, a type of immune cell, are modified to recognize and kill the patient's cancer cells. The procedure involves: isolating T cells from the patient, modifying the isolated T cells in a laboratory using a CAR gene construct (which allows the cells to recognize the patient's cancer); amplifying (growing to large numbers) the newly modified cells; and re-introducing the cells back into the patient.

Market Abuse Regulation (MAR) Disclosure

Certain information contained in this announcement would have been deemed inside information for the purposes of Article 7 of Regulation (EU) No 596/2014 until the release of this announcement.

Enquiries:

Hemogenyx Pharmaceuticals plc

http://www.hemogenyx.com

Dr Vladislav Sandler, Chief Executive Officer & Co-Founder

headquarters@hemogenyx.com

Sir Marc Feldmann, Executive Chairman

SP Angel Corporate Finance LLP

Tel: +44 (0)20 3470 0470

Matthew Johnson, Vadim Alexandre, Soltan Tagiev

Peterhouse Corporate Finance Limited

Tel: +44 (0)20 7469 0930

Lucy Williams, Duncan Vasey

US Media enquiries

Tel: +1 (323) 646-3249

Lowell Goodman

lowell@corbomitecomms.com

About Hemogenyx Pharmaceuticals plc

Hemogenyx Pharmaceuticals plc ("Hemogenyx") is a publicly traded company (HEMO.L) headquartered in London, with its wholly-owned US operating subsidiaries, Hemogenyx LLC and Immugenyx LLC, located in New York City at its state-of-the-art research facility and a wholly-owned Belgian operating subsidiary, Hemogenyx-Cell SPRL, located in Lige.

Hemogenyx is a pre-clinical stage biopharmaceutical group developing new medicines and treatments to bring the curative power of bone marrow transplantation to a greater number of patients suffering from otherwise incurable life-threatening diseases. Hemogenyx is developing several distinct and complementary product candidates, as well as a platform technology that it uses as an engine for novel product development.

For more than 50 years, bone marrow transplantation has been used to save the lives of patients suffering from blood diseases. The risks of toxicity and death that are associated with bone marrow transplantation, however, have meant that the procedure is restricted to use only as a last resort. Hemogenyx's technology has the potential to enable many more patients suffering from devastating blood diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma, as well as severe autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, aplastic anemia and systemic lupus erythematosus (Lupus), to benefit from bone marrow transplantation.

Story continues

Read more from the original source:
Hemogenyx's CAR-T Cells are Effective Against AML in vitro - Yahoo Finance

To Read More: Hemogenyx’s CAR-T Cells are Effective Against AML in vitro – Yahoo Finance
categoriaBone Marrow Stem Cells commentoComments Off on Hemogenyx’s CAR-T Cells are Effective Against AML in vitro – Yahoo Finance | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

Criss Angel’s Son Has Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, But What Is It? – Moms

By daniellenierenberg

Cancer enters your body when cells begin to grow out of control. There are various types of cancer and cells in almost every part of the body can become cancer. Leukemia is a type of cancer which starts in the cells, then develops into different types of blood cells. It starts in early forms of white blood cells. There are different types of leukemia which can be divided into acute and chronic. Acute is fast growing and chronic is slow growing.

An Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is a type of leukemia which progresses quickly and if not treated, will be fatal in a couple of months. Acute means fast growing and lymphatic means it develops from the early forms of lymphocytes, which is a type of white blood cell. It all starts in the bone marrow and leukemia cells start to invade the body quickly. They can spread to other parts of the body. Some cancers also start in the organs and then spread to the bone marrow, but they are not leukemia.

There are other types of cancer which start in lymphocytes and are known as lymphomas. Leukemias affect blood and bone marrow and lymphomas affect lymph nodes and other organs. It can sometimes be difficult to tell if a cancer of lymphocytes is lymphoma or leukemia. If at least 20% of the bone marrow has cancerous lymphocytes, the disease is considered to be leukemia. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is the most common childhood cancer and children below the age of five are at the highest risk. It can also occur in adults.

RELATED:Kids Born To Obese Mothers Are More Likely To Develop Leukemia

ALL can increase the chances of bleeding and developing infections in the body. Its symptoms include:

In order to diagnose ALL, the doctor must complete a physical exam and also conduct bone marrow tests and blood tests. Doctors are likely to ask about bone pain, since it is the most common symptom of ALL. Here are a few tests doctors carry out.

The doctor might order a blood count, and people who have ALL may have a blood count which shows low platelet count and a low hemoglobin count. The WBC may or may not have increased. A blood smear might show immature cells circulating in the blood, which are usually found in bone marrow.

This process involves taking a sample of the bone marrow from your breastbone or the pelvis. It is an ideal way to test for increased growth in marrow tissue and reduced production of red blood cells.

An X-ray of the chest can allow the doctor to see if the mediastinum, that is the middle partition of the chest is widened. Further, a CT scan can help the doctor estimate whether the cancer has spread to the spinal cord, brain or to any other part of the body.

There are other tests like a spinal tap, which is used to check if cancer cells have spread around the spinal fluid. Tests on the serum urea and liver function might also be done.

The treatment will help bring the count back to normal. When this happens and the bone marrow looks normal, the cancer is in remission. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia can be treated through chemotherapy. You might be asked to stay at the hospital for a few weeks in the first treatment. Later, you can continue the treatment as an outpatient.

For those with a low WBC count, you will be asked to spend time in an isolation room. It ensures that you are protected from contagious diseases and other problems. If leukemia does not respond to chemotherapy, a bone marrow or stem cell transplant might be recommended. The transplanted marrow can be taken from a sibling who is a complete match.There are high chances of cancer remission in case of children.

READ NEXT:14-Year-Old Battling Stage 4 Cancer Is Finally Coming Home For Christmas

Jonathan Van Ness Is Releasing A Children's Book About Celebrating Difference

Tags:cancer,childhood cancer

Link:
Criss Angel's Son Has Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, But What Is It? - Moms

To Read More: Criss Angel’s Son Has Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, But What Is It? – Moms
categoriaBone Marrow Stem Cells commentoComments Off on Criss Angel’s Son Has Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, But What Is It? – Moms | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

World’s first living robots created using frog stem cells – The Hill

By daniellenierenberg

Scientists have created the worlds first living robots out of frog stem cells, according to new research. These tiny new lifeforms can be programmed to move around or carry and deliver miniature payloads that could one day be medicines inside a patients body, the Guardian reports.

The scientists knit skin and heart cells scraped from the embryos of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) into 3D shapes designed by artificial intelligence to accomplish certain tasks.

These are entirely new lifeforms. They have never before existed on Earth, study co-author Michael Levin told the Guardian. They are living, programmable organisms.

The living robots, called xenobots after the clawed frogs Latin name, measure 0.04 inches and have enough energy inside them to keep moving for seven to 10 days before calling it quits.

The squishy robots dont have the strength and durability of plastic or metal machines, but biology affords them some unique advantages. They can heal themselves if wounded, and when their biological engines run out of fuel the xenobots simply fall apart and decay. This last part is crucial when it comes to potential medical or environmental applications in which leaving behind shards of plastic or metal presents obvious problems.

The researchers said we cant know for sure what applications await the soft-bodied bots, but imagined uses including cleaning up microplastics in the ocean, digesting toxic materials at polluted sites or scooping plaque from inside human arteries. Apart from scooting around in petri dishes, the researchers also say tinkering with these living machines could help scientists better understand the software of life.

The first generation of xenobots are tiny, but the scientists say the plan is to scale up perhaps even to living robots with blood vessels and nervous systems that can live on dry land.

If the voice of Jeff Goldblums character from Jurassic Park is beginning to echo in the back of your mind, youre not alone: When youre creating life, you dont have a good sense of what direction its going to take, Nita Farahany, who studies the ethics of new technologies and was not involved in the study, told Smithsonian. Any time we try to harness life [we should] recognize its potential to go really poorly.

For their part, the creators of the xenobots acknowledged the potential ethical implications, but say its up to society and policymakers to decide what those might be.

I think theyd acquire moral significance only if they included neural tissue that enabled some kind of mental life, such as the ability to experience pain, ethicist Thomas Douglas told the Guardian. But some are more liberal about moral status. They think that all living creatures have interests that should be given some moral consideration. For these people, difficult questions could arise about whether these xenobots should be classified as living creatures or machines.

More:
World's first living robots created using frog stem cells - The Hill

To Read More: World’s first living robots created using frog stem cells – The Hill
categoriaSkin Stem Cells commentoComments Off on World’s first living robots created using frog stem cells – The Hill | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

World’s First ‘Living Machine’ Created Using Frog Cells and Artificial Intelligence – Livescience.com

By daniellenierenberg

What happens when you take cells from frog embryos and grow them into new organisms that were "evolved" by algorithms? You get something that researchers are calling the world's first "living machine."

Though the original stem cells came from frogs the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis these so-called xenobots don't resemble any known amphibians. The tiny blobs measure only 0.04 inches (1 millimeter) wide and are made of living tissue that biologists assembled into bodies designed by computer models, according to a new study.

These mobile organisms can move independently and collectively, can self-heal wounds and survive for weeks at a time, and could potentially be used to transport medicines inside a patient's body, scientists recently reported.

Related: The 6 Strangest Robots Ever Created

"They're neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal," study co-author Joshua Bongard, a computer scientist and robotics expert at the University of Vermont, said in a statement. "It's a new class of artifact: a living, programmable organism."

Algorithms shaped the evolution of the xenobots. They grew from skin and heart stem cells into tissue clumps of several hundred cells that moved in pulses generated by heart muscle tissue, said lead study author Sam Kriegman, a doctoral candidate studying evolutionary robotics in the University of Vermont's Department of Computer Science, in Burlington.

"There's no external control from a remote control or bioelectricity. This is an autonomous agent it's almost like a wind-up toy," Kriegman told Live Science.

Biologists fed a computer constraints for the autonomous xenobots, such as the maximum muscle power of their tissues, and how they might move through a watery environment. Then, the algorithm produced generations of the tiny organisms. The best-performing bots would "reproduce" inside the algorithm. And just as evolution works in the natural world, the least successful forms would be deleted by the computer program.

"Eventually, it was able to give us designs that actually were transferable to real cells. That was a breakthrough," Kriegman said.

The study authors then brought these designs to life, piecing stem cells together to form self-powered 3D shapes designed by the evolution algorithm. Skin cells held the xenobots together, and the beating of heart tissue in specific parts of their "bodies" propelled the 'bots through water in a petri dish for days, and even weeks at a stretch, without needing additional nutrients, according to the study. The 'bots were even able to repair significant damage, said Kriegman.

"We cut the living robot almost in half, and its cells automatically zippered its body back up," he said.

"We can imagine many useful applications of these living robots that other machines can't do," said study co-author Michael Levin, director of theCenter for Regenerative and Developmental Biologyat Tufts University in Massachusetts. These might include targeting toxic spills or radioactive contamination, collecting marine microplastics or even excavating plaque from human arteries, Levin said in a statement.

Creations that blur the line between robots and living organisms are popular subjects in science fiction; think of the killer machines in the "Terminator" movies or the replicants from the world of "Blade Runner." The prospect of so-called living robots and using technology to create living organisms understandably raises concerns for some, said Levin.

"That fear is not unreasonable," Levin said. "When we start to mess around with complex systems that we don't understand, we're going to get unintended consequences."

Nevertheless, building on simple organic forms like the xenobots could also lead to beneficial discoveries, he added.

"If humanity is going to survive into the future, we need to better understand how complex properties, somehow, emerge from simple rules," Levin said.

The findings were published online Jan. 13 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Originally published on Live Science.

Read more:
World's First 'Living Machine' Created Using Frog Cells and Artificial Intelligence - Livescience.com

To Read More: World’s First ‘Living Machine’ Created Using Frog Cells and Artificial Intelligence – Livescience.com
categoriaSkin Stem Cells commentoComments Off on World’s First ‘Living Machine’ Created Using Frog Cells and Artificial Intelligence – Livescience.com | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

What Does Cancer Metastasis Have to Do with Wound Healing? More than You Might Think – On Cancer – Memorial Sloan Kettering

By daniellenierenberg

Summary

Scientists at the Sloan Kettering Institute have discovered that the ability of cancers to metastasize to other organs is dependent upon their ability to coopt natural wound-healing pathways. The findings provide a new way of looking at metastasis and its possible treatment.

Metastasis the spreading of cancer to other regions in the body is responsible for 90% of cancer deaths. Yet not much is known about what makes cancer cells capable of metastasizing. Now a major study from investigators at the Sloan Kettering Institute concludes that metastasis-initiating cells employ a devilish trick to spread: They co-opt the bodys natural wound-healing abilities.

The new findings, published January 13 in the inaugural issue of the journal Nature Cancer, provide a novel framework for thinking about metastasis and how to treat it.

We now understand metastasis as the regeneration of the wrong tissue the tumor in the wrong place distant vital organs, says Joan Massagu, Director of the Sloan Kettering Institute and the corresponding author on the paper. This is not just a metaphor. It is literally true in molecular and physiological terms.

There were previously clues that cancers might make use of wound-healing pathways to support their growth. Back in the 1980s, researcher Harold Dvorak dubbed tumors wounds that do not heal. But the new findings present the first detailed picture of how this process works on the level of cells and molecules and there are plenty of surprises.

This is not just a metaphor. It is literally true in molecular and physiological terms.

Though metastasis is deadly, its not something that cancer cells can do easily. To spread, cancer cells must successfully detach from their neighbors, break through tissue layers separating them from the circulation, swim or crawl to a new location in the body through blood or lymph fluid, exit these vessels, then take root and start growing in the new location.

At each step in this process, the majority of loose cancer cells die off. Fewer than 1% of all cancer cells shed from a tumor will ultimately form measurable metastases. But those that do will have proven themselves to be unusually hearty.

Once cancer cells learn how to survive the stress of living in a foreign environment, theyre very difficult to get rid of, says Karuna Ganesh, a physician-scientist in the Molecular Pharmacology Program at SKI and the papers first author. They are a completely different entity from the tumor that they started off in. But not, it seems, because they have different mutations.

Dr. Ganesh and her colleagues wanted to understand what enables some cells to survive this stressful journey. They homed in on a molecule called L1CAM, which previous studies from the Massagu lab had shown is necessary for numerous types of cancer cells to successfully metastasize to organs. Normal healthy tissues do not typically make L1CAM, but advanced cancers often do. Exactly what triggers the expression of L1CAM has so far been a mystery.

From looking at human tumor tissues under a microscope, it was clear to the researchers that dividing cells with L1CAM were more common in areas where an epithelial layer was disrupted that is, wounded. This led the scientists to wonder whether L1CAM is required for normal wound repair, such as occurs in the intestine following colitis. Using a mouse model of colitis, they found that indeed this was the case.

Next, they wanted to know exactly what it is about the wounding process that causes cells to switch on L1CAM. To find out, they turned to a recently developed technology called tissue organoids. These three-dimensional structures are grown from human cells and in many ways resemble human organs. Working with MSK colorectal cancer surgeon Julio Garcia-Aguilar, Dr. Ganesh was able to obtain fresh samples of metastatic colorectal tumors, which she then grew in jelly until they formed three-dimensional tumor organoids.

Using these tumor organoids, she and her colleagues were able to show that simply separating cells from their neighbors was enough to trigger L1CAM production. Whats more, the organoids enabled the researchers to work out in detail the molecular signals that switch on L1CAM.

Why would metastasis-initiating cells share a marker of wound healing? Fundamentally, wounds are a breach in the integrity of the epithelial layer of our skin: Cells that are normally linked tightly to each other to form a protective barrier are suddenly separated from their neighbors. Similarly, in metastasis, cells detach from their neighbors and adopt a migratory behavior to reach new locations. The researchers suspect that the wound repair program equips both types of cells to survive this anchorless state. In the first case, it allows cells to move into the breach and make new tissues, which is a good thing; in the second, it enables metastatic cells to detach and colonize new destinations, which is very bad.

Metastasis is wound healing gone wrong, Dr. Ganesh says.

What Is Metastatic Cancer? Answers to Six Common Questions

Learn about MSKs approach to treating cancer that has spread from the original tumor to other parts of the body.

Since previous researchers had linked cancer growth to wound healing, the SKI scientists asked whether cells that produce L1CAM are necessary to initiate the growth of a primary tumor. Using a mouse model, they found somewhat surprisingly that they were not; tumors formed fine without it. However, these L1CAM-making cells were necessary for tumors to metastasize. This led the researchers to conclude that the stem cells that form primary tumors are different from the ones that form metastases.

Scientists are increasingly interested in cancer stem cells the subset of cells within a tumor than can regrow a tumor. A crucial lesson from these findings is that cancer models that rely on the growth of primary tumors are not adequate for understanding metastasis or for testing medicines that might treat it. Thats because the stem cells that generate primary tumors are fundamentally different from those that generate metastases.

The SKI scientists think that this newly identified connection between metastasis-initiating cells and wound healing will open up promising avenues of research. They are currently looking for drugs that might block L1CAM and thereby rob cancer cells of their ability to metastasize. They plan to continue collaborating with MSK colleagues to bring these insights to the patients in the clinic.

There is such astrong translational environment at MSK, Dr. Ganesh adds. Everybody is eager to collaborate on work that might improve outcomes for patients with metastatic cancer.

View post:
What Does Cancer Metastasis Have to Do with Wound Healing? More than You Might Think - On Cancer - Memorial Sloan Kettering

To Read More: What Does Cancer Metastasis Have to Do with Wound Healing? More than You Might Think – On Cancer – Memorial Sloan Kettering
categoriaSkin Stem Cells commentoComments Off on What Does Cancer Metastasis Have to Do with Wound Healing? More than You Might Think – On Cancer – Memorial Sloan Kettering | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

Team Builds the First Living Robots – Newswise

By daniellenierenberg

MEDIA CONTACT

Available for logged-in reporters only

Research Results

SCIENCE

Newswise A book is made of wood. But it is not a tree. The dead cells have been repurposed to serve another need.

Now a team of scientists has repurposed living cells--scraped from frog embryos--and assembled them into entirely new life-forms. These millimeter-wide "xenobots" can move toward a target, perhaps pick up a payload (like a medicine that needs to be carried to a specific place inside a patient)--and heal themselves after being cut.

"These are novel living machines," saysJoshua Bongard, a computer scientist and robotics expert at the University of Vermont who co-led the new research. "They're neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal. It's a new class of artifact: a living, programmable organism."

The new creatures were designed on a supercomputer at UVM--and then assembled and tested by biologists at Tufts University. "We can imagine many useful applications of these living robots that other machines can't do," says co-leader Michael Levin who directs theCenter for Regenerative and Developmental Biologyat Tufts, "like searching out nasty compounds or radioactive contamination, gathering microplastic in the oceans, traveling in arteries to scrape out plaque."

The results of the new research were published January 13 in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

BESPOKE LIVING SYSTEMS

People have been manipulating organisms for human benefit since at least the dawn of agriculture, genetic editing is becoming widespread, and a few artificial organisms have been manually assembled in the past few years--copying the body forms of known animals.

But this research, for the first time ever, "designs completely biological machines from the ground up," the team writes in their new study.

With months of processing time on the Deep Green supercomputer cluster at UVM'sVermont Advanced Computing Core, the team--including lead author and doctoral student Sam Kriegman--used an evolutionary algorithm to create thousands of candidate designs for the new life-forms. Attempting to achieve a task assigned by the scientists--like locomotion in one direction--the computer would, over and over, reassemble a few hundred simulated cells into myriad forms and body shapes. As the programs ran--driven by basic rules about the biophysics of what single frog skin and cardiac cells can do--the more successful simulated organisms were kept and refined, while failed designs were tossed out. After a hundred independent runs of the algorithm, the most promising designs were selected for testing.

Then the team at Tufts, led by Levin and with key work by microsurgeon Douglas Blackiston--transferred the in silico designs into life. First they gathered stem cells, harvested from the embryos of African frogs, the speciesXenopus laevis. (Hence the name "xenobots.") These were separated into single cells and left to incubate. Then, using tiny forceps and an even tinier electrode, the cells were cut and joined under a microscope into a close approximation of the designs specified by the computer.

Assembled into body forms never seen in nature, the cells began to work together. The skin cells formed a more passive architecture, while the once-random contractions of heart muscle cells were put to work creating ordered forward motion as guided by the computer's design, and aided by spontaneous self-organizing patterns--allowing the robots to move on their own.

These reconfigurable organisms were shown to be able move in a coherent fashion--and explore their watery environment for days or weeks, powered by embryonic energy stores. Turned over, however, they failed, like beetles flipped on their backs.

Later tests showed that groups of xenobots would move around in circles, pushing pellets into a central location--spontaneously and collectively. Others were built with a hole through the center to reduce drag. In simulated versions of these, the scientists were able to repurpose this hole as a pouch to successfully carry an object. "It's a step toward using computer-designed organisms for intelligent drug delivery," says Bongard, a professor in UVM'sDepartment of Computer ScienceandComplex Systems Center.

LIVING TECHNOLOGIES

Many technologies are made of steel, concrete or plastic. That can make them strong or flexible. But they also can create ecological and human health problems, like the growing scourge of plastic pollution in the oceans and the toxicity of many synthetic materials and electronics. "The downside of living tissue is that it's weak and it degrades," say Bongard. "That's why we use steel. But organisms have 4.5 billion years of practice at regenerating themselves and going on for decades." And when they stop working--death--they usually fall apart harmlessly. "These xenobots are fully biodegradable," say Bongard, "when they're done with their job after seven days, they're just dead skin cells."

Your laptop is a powerful technology. But try cutting it in half. Doesn't work so well. In the new experiments, the scientists cut the xenobots and watched what happened. "We sliced the robot almost in half and it stitches itself back up and keeps going," says Bongard. "And this is something you can't do with typical machines."

CRACKING THE CODE

Both Levin and Bongard say the potential of what they've been learning about how cells communicate and connect extends deep into both computational science and our understanding of life. "The big question in biology is to understand the algorithms that determine form and function," says Levin. "The genome encodes proteins, but transformative applications await our discovery of how that hardware enables cells to cooperate toward making functional anatomies under very different conditions."

To make an organism develop and function, there is a lot of information sharing and cooperation--organic computation--going on in and between cells all the time, not just within neurons. These emergent and geometric properties are shaped by bioelectric, biochemical, and biomechanical processes, "that run on DNA-specified hardware," Levin says, "and these processes are reconfigurable, enabling novel living forms."

The scientists see the work presented in their newPNASstudy--"A scalable pipeline for designing reconfigurable organisms,"--as one step in applying insights about this bioelectric code to both biology and computer science. "What actually determines the anatomy towards which cells cooperate?" Levin asks. "You look at the cells we've been building our xenobots with, and, genomically, they're frogs. It's 100% frog DNA--but these are not frogs. Then you ask, well, what else are these cells capable of building?"

"As we've shown, these frog cells can be coaxed to make interesting living forms that are completely different from what their default anatomy would be," says Levin. He and the other scientists in the UVM and Tufts team--with support from DARPA's Lifelong Learning Machines program and the National Science Foundation-- believe that building the xenobots is a small step toward cracking what he calls the "morphogenetic code," providing a deeper view of the overall way organisms are organized--and how they compute and store information based on their histories and environment.

FUTURE SHOCKS

Many people worry about the implications of rapid technological change and complex biological manipulations. "That fear is not unreasonable," Levin says. "When we start to mess around with complex systems that we don't understand, we're going to get unintended consequences." A lot of complex systems, like an ant colony, begin with a simple unit--an ant--from which it would be impossible to predict the shape of their colony or how they can build bridges over water with their interlinked bodies.

"If humanity is going to survive into the future, we need to better understand how complex properties, somehow, emerge from simple rules," says Levin. Much of science is focused on "controlling the low-level rules. We also need to understand the high-level rules," he says. "If you wanted an anthill with two chimneys instead of one, how do you modify the ants? We'd have no idea."

"I think it's an absolute necessity for society going forward to get a better handle on systems where the outcome is very complex," Levin says. "A first step towards doing that is to explore: how do living systems decide what an overall behavior should be and how do we manipulate the pieces to get the behaviors we want?"

In other words, "this study is a direct contribution to getting a handle on what people are afraid of, which is unintended consequences," Levin says--whether in the rapid arrival of self-driving cars, changing gene drives to wipe out whole lineages of viruses, or the many other complex and autonomous systems that will increasingly shape the human experience.

"There's all of this innate creativity in life," says UVM's Josh Bongard. "We want to understand that more deeply--and how we can direct and push it toward new forms."

###

SEE ORIGINAL STUDY

Link:
Team Builds the First Living Robots - Newswise

To Read More: Team Builds the First Living Robots – Newswise
categoriaSkin Stem Cells commentoComments Off on Team Builds the First Living Robots – Newswise | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

Celgene exec jumps to head bluebird bio ops in Europe, where its $1.8M gene therapy Zynteglo is now available – Endpoints News

By daniellenierenberg

Days after shaking hands with German regulators over the launch and coverage of its beta-thalassemia gene therapy, bluebird bio has wooed a Celgene exec to lead its European operations.

Nicola Heffron, a biopharma vet with stints across Eli Lilly, GSK and Shire, jumps from a brief tenure overseeing marketing for Celgenes myeloid portfolio in Summit, NJ. She will now be based in Zug, Switzerland.

Shes replacing Andrew Obenshain as he joins CEO Nick Leschly and the leadership team in Boston, according to Bloomberg, which first reported the news. Obenshains new title is chief of wings.

On Monday bluebird announced that Germany will be the first country to commercially offer Zynteglo, their procedure encoding A-T87Q-globin gene in CD34+ cells extracted from patients. Under their value-based payment scheme, the $1.8 million price is divided into five installments. After an initial payment is made at the time of infusion, the payers wait and see and only pay if the patients continue to be transfusion-free.

Multiple statutory health insurances have signed onto the plan, bluebird said, and University Hospital of Heidelberg will host the first qualified treatment center.

The biotech has been busy sorting out manufacturing specs and talking to individual countries since the EU issued an historic OK last June. Its sanctioned for a specific group of beta-thalassemia patients those who are 12 years and older, transfusion dependent, do not have a 0/0 genotype and for whom hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is appropriate but a donor is not available.

For patients with TDT, lifelong chronic blood transfusions are required in order to survive, bluebird chief commercial officer Alison Finger emphasized in a statement. Their one-time infusion promises to do away with the transfusions for good.

A rolling BLA submission to the FDA has begun, bluebird added.

Here is the original post:
Celgene exec jumps to head bluebird bio ops in Europe, where its $1.8M gene therapy Zynteglo is now available - Endpoints News

To Read More: Celgene exec jumps to head bluebird bio ops in Europe, where its $1.8M gene therapy Zynteglo is now available – Endpoints News
categoriaSkin Stem Cells commentoComments Off on Celgene exec jumps to head bluebird bio ops in Europe, where its $1.8M gene therapy Zynteglo is now available – Endpoints News | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

What Are Poblano Peppers? Nutrition, Benefits, and Uses – Healthline

By daniellenierenberg

Poblano peppers (Capsicum annuum) are a type of chili pepper native to Mexico that can add zing to your meals.

Theyre green and resemble other varieties of peppers, but they tend to be larger than jalapeos and smaller than bell peppers.

Fresh poblanos have a mild, slightly sweet flavor, although if they are left to ripen until theyre red, they taste much hotter.

Dried poblano peppers that are fully ripe and deep red are known as ancho chiles, a popular ingredient in mole sauces and other Mexican dishes.

This article provides a complete overview of poblano peppers, including their possible benefits and uses.

Poblanos are low in calories and rich in fiber and several micronutrients.

In fact, 1 cup (118 grams) of chopped raw poblano peppers provides (1):

Poblanos are particularly rich in vitamins A and C. These two nutrients act as antioxidants in your body and help fight underlying damage from free radicals, which may lead to disease (2).

Dried poblano peppers, or ancho chiles, have higher amounts of vitamins A and B2 and other nutrients, compared with fresh poblanos (3).

Poblano peppers are rich in fiber, vitamins A and C, and several other nutrients.

Due to their high amounts of nutrients and beneficial plant compounds, poblano peppers may provide health benefits.

However, there is no substantial research on the health effects of eating poblanos in particular.

Poblanos and other peppers in the Capsicum annuum family are rich in antioxidants, such as vitamin C, capsaicin, and carotenoids, some of which turn into vitamin A in your body (4).

Antioxidants help fight oxidative stress caused by excess free radicals.

Free radicals are reactive molecules that lead to underlying cell damage, which in turn may increase your risk of heart disease, cancer, dementia, and other chronic conditions (5).

Therefore, eating antioxidant-rich poblanos may help prevent illness related to oxidative stress (6, 7).

Capsaicin, a compound in poblanos and other peppers that imparts a spicy taste, may exert anticancer effects.

Specifically, capsaicin may influence genes involved in the spread of cancer and promote cancer cell death, though its role in this process is not fully understood (8).

Test-tube studies suggest that capsaicin may exert anticancer activity against human lung and colorectal cancer cells (9, 10).

However, a review of 10 observational studies in humans found that low capsaicin intake was associated with protection against stomach cancer, while medium-high intake may increase the risk of this disease (11).

More research is needed to fully understand whether eating poblano peppers and other foods with capsaicin has anticancer effects.

Capsaicin may also fight inflammation and help alleviate pain.

Some studies suggest that it binds to nerve cell receptors and, in turn, decreases inflammation and pain (12, 13).

There is limited research on the effects of dietary capsaicin, especially from poblano peppers, on pain. Still, studies in humans and rats suggest that capsaicin supplements may fight inflammation (14, 15).

One study in 376 adults with inflammatory bowel diseases and other gastrointestinal issues found that capsaicin supplements prevented stomach damage (14).

Still, be sure to consult your healthcare provider before taking capsaicin supplements to treat a medical condition.

Poblano peppers are loaded with vitamin C, a water-soluble nutrient thats vital to immune function. Not getting enough vitamin C can lead to an increased risk of developing an infection (16).

Whats more, the capsaicin in poblano peppers has been linked to optimal immune function.

Several animal studies have shown that capsaicin may influence genes involved in the immune response and help protect against autoimmune conditions (17, 18).

While theres no substantial research on the health effects of eating poblanos specifically, studies on the compounds in these peppers suggest that they may have anticancer effects, help fight inflammation, and even boost immunity.

Poblano peppers can be used in a variety of ways.

They can be enjoyed raw in salsas and other dips, as well as added to chilis, taco meat, or sauces.

To prepare a poblano pepper for these dishes, halve the pepper lengthwise, remove the stem and seeds, and then dice it into pieces.

You can also roast poblano peppers whole and then remove the skin, stem, and seeds.

One of the most popular ways to enjoy poblanos is stuffed with ground meat, beans, rice, spices, corn, and tomatoes.

To make stuffed poblanos, halve the peppers, remove the seeds, and roast them in the oven at 350F (177C) for 1015 minutes.

Stuff each pepper half with filling and sprinkle cheese on top, then put them back in the oven for a few more minutes.

You can enjoy poblano peppers in salsas and tacos, or make stuffed poblanos by filling them with meat, beans, tomatoes, corn, and cheese and baking them in the oven.

Poblano peppers are a mild variety of chili peppers that are highly nutritious and equally delicious.

Theyre rich in vitamins A and C, carotenoids, capsaicin, and other compounds that may act as antioxidants, have anticancer activity, and fight inflammation.

Poblano peppers can be added to soups, tacos, or salsas, or stuffed with meat, beans, rice, and cheese.

Read more here:
What Are Poblano Peppers? Nutrition, Benefits, and Uses - Healthline

To Read More: What Are Poblano Peppers? Nutrition, Benefits, and Uses – Healthline
categoriaSkin Stem Cells commentoComments Off on What Are Poblano Peppers? Nutrition, Benefits, and Uses – Healthline | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

Mutations in donors’ stem cells may cause problems for cancer patients – Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

By daniellenierenberg

Visit the News Hub

Heart problems, graft-versus-host disease are concerns

A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis suggests that bone marrow or blood stem cells from healthy donors can harbor extremely rare mutations that can cause health problems for the cancer patients who receive them. Such stem cell transplants are important for treating blood cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia. In the healthy bone marrow pictured, mature red blood cells are shown as small brownish-pink discs; red blood cells that are still developing are in deep blue; and developing white blood cells are in lighter blue.

A stem cell transplant also called a bone marrow transplant is a common treatment for blood cancers, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Such treatment can cure blood cancers but also can lead to life-threatening complications, including heart problems and graft-versus-host disease, in which new immune cells from the donor attack a patients healthy tissues.

A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis suggests that extremely rare, harmful genetic mutations present in healthy donors stem cells though not causing health problems in the donors may be passed on to cancer patients receiving stem cell transplants. The intense chemo- and radiation therapy prior to transplant and the immunosuppression given after allow cells with these rare mutations the opportunity to quickly replicate, potentially creating health problems for the patients who receive them, suggests the research, published Jan. 15 in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

Among the concerns are heart damage, graft-versus-host disease and possible new leukemias.

The study, involving samples from patients with AML and their stem cell donors, suggests such rare, harmful mutations are present in surprisingly young donors and can cause problems for recipients even if the mutations are so rare as to be undetectable in the donor by typical genome sequencing techniques. The research opens the door to a larger study that will investigate these rare mutations in many more healthy donors, potentially leading to ways to prevent or mitigate the health effects of such genetic errors in patients receiving stem cell transplants.

There have been suspicions that genetic errors in donor stem cells may be causing problems in cancer patients, but until now we didnt have a way to identify them because they are so rare, said senior author Todd E. Druley, MD, PhD, an associate professor of pediatrics. This study raises concerns that even young, healthy donors blood stem cells may have harmful mutations and provides strong evidence that we need to explore the potential effects of these mutations further.

Added co-author Sima T. Bhatt, MD, an assistant professor of pediatrics who treats pediatric patients with blood cancers at Siteman Kids at St. Louis Childrens Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine: Transplant physicians tend to seek younger donors because we assume this will lead to fewer complications. But we now see evidence that even young and healthy donors can have mutations that will have consequences for our patients. We need to understand what those consequences are if we are to find ways to modify them.

The study analyzed bone marrow from 25 adult patients with AML whose samples had been stored in a repository at Washington University. Samples from their healthy matched donors, who were unrelated to the patients, also were sequenced. The donors samples were provided by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research in Milwaukee.

The 25 AML patients were chosen because they each had had samples banked at four separate times: before the transplant, at 30 days post-transplant, at 100 days post-transplant, and one year post-transplant.

Druley co-invented a technique called error-corrected sequencing, to identify extremely rare DNA mutations that would be missed by conventional genome sequencing. Typical next-generation sequencing techniques can correctly identify a mutation that is present in one in 100 cells. The new method, which can distinguish between true mutations and mistakes introduced by the sequencing machine, allows the researchers to find true mutations that are extremely rare those present in as few as one in 10,000 cells.

The healthy donors ranged in age from 20 to 58, with an average age of 26. The researchers sequenced 80 genes known to be associated with AML, and they identified at least one harmful genetic mutation in 11 of the 25 donors, or 44%. They further showed that 84% of all the various mutations identified in the donors samples were potentially harmful, and that 100% of the harmful mutations present in the donors later were found in the recipients. These harmful mutations also persisted over time, and many increased in frequency. Such data suggest the harmful mutations from the donor confer a survival advantage to the cells that harbor them.

We didnt expect this many young, healthy donors to have these types of mutations, Druley said. We also didnt expect 100% of the harmful mutations to be engrafted into the recipients. That was striking.

According to the researchers, the study raises questions about the origins of some of the well-known side effects of stem cell transplantation.

We see a trend between mutations from the donor that persist over time and the development of chronic graft-versus-host disease, said first author Wing Hing Wong, a doctoral student in Druleys lab. We plan to examine this more closely in a larger study.

Though the study was not large enough to establish a causal link, the researchers found that 75% of the patients who received at least one harmful mutation in the 80 genes that persisted over time developed chronic graft-versus-host disease. Among patients who did not receive mutations in the 80 genes, about 50% developed the condition. Because the study was small, this difference was not statistically significant, but it is evidence that the association should be studied more closely. In general, about half of all patients who receive a stem cell transplant go on to develop some form of graft-versus-host disease.

The most common mutation seen in the donors and the cancer patients studied is in a gene associated with heart disease. Healthy people with mutations in this gene are at higher risk of heart attack due to plaque buildup in the arteries.

We know that cardiac dysfunction is a major complication after a bone marrow transplant, but its always been attributed to toxicity from radiation or chemotherapy, Druley said. Its never been linked to mutations in the blood-forming cells. We cant make this claim definitively, but we have data to suggest we should study that in much more detail.

Added Bhatt: Now that weve also linked these mutations to graft-versus-host disease and cardiovascular problems, we have a larger study planned that we hope will answer some of the questions posed by this one.

This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant number R01CA211711; the Hyundai Quantum Award; the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society Scholar Award; the Eli Seth Matthews Leukemia Foundation; and the Kellsies Hope Foundation. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research is supported by a Public Health Service Grant/Cooperative Agreement from the NCI, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), grant number 5U24CA076518; a Grant/Cooperative Agreement from NHLBI and NCI, grant number 1U24HL138660; a contract with Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA/DHHS), number HHSH250201700006C; and the Office of Naval Research, grant numbers N00014-17-1-2388, N00014-17-1-2850 and N00014-18-1-2045. Support also was provided by a UKRI future leaders fellowship and by a CRUK Cambridge Centre Early Detection Programme group leader grant.

The Washington University Office of Technology Management has filed a patent application for Ultra-rare Variant Detection from Next-generation Sequencing, which has been licensed by Canopy Biosciences as RareSeq. Druley is a coinventor on this patent. Canopy Biosciences was not involved in the generation of the data presented.

Wong WH, Bhatt S, Trinkaus K, Pusic I, Elliott K, Mahajan N, Wan F, Switzer GE, Confer DL, DiPersio J, Pulsipher MA, Shah NN, Sees J, Bystry A, Blundell JR, Shaw BE, Druley TE. Engraftment of rare, pathogenic donor hematopoietic mutations in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Science Translational Medicine. Jan. 15, 2020.

Washington University School of Medicines 1,500 faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Childrens hospitals. The School of Medicine is a leader in medical research, teaching and patient care, ranking among the top 10 medical schools in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Childrens hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.

Read the rest here:
Mutations in donors' stem cells may cause problems for cancer patients - Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

To Read More: Mutations in donors’ stem cells may cause problems for cancer patients – Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
categoriaCardiac Stem Cells commentoComments Off on Mutations in donors’ stem cells may cause problems for cancer patients – Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis | dataJanuary 16th, 2020
Read All

Page 21234..1020..»