Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: Aging and tissue …

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Bone has well documented natural healing capacity that normally is sufficient to repair fractures and other common injuries. However, the properties of bone change throughout life, and aging is accompanied by increased incidence of bone diseases and compromised fracture healing capacity, which necessitate effective therapies capable of enhancing bone regeneration. The therapeutic potential of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone repair has been long proposed and examined. Actions of MSCs may include direct differentiation to become bone cells, attraction and recruitment of other cells, or creation of a regenerative environment via production of trophic growth factors. With systemic aging, MSCs also undergo functional decline, which has been well investigated in a number of recent studies. In this review, we first describe the changes in MSCs during aging and discuss how these alterations can affect bone regeneration. We next review current research findings on bone tissue engineering, which is considered a promising and viable therapeutic solution for structural and functional restoration of bone. In particular, the importance of MSCs and bioscaffolds is highlighted. Finally, potential approaches for the prevention of MSC aging and the rejuvenation of aged MSC are discussed.

MSC

Aging

Stem cell niche

Bone healing

Rejuvenation

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2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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